# Aeronautical Engineering

## Aeronautical Engineering Stream Combined Degrees

To qualify for the Bachelor of Engineering Honours component in the combined degree, students must complete the following:

(a) 42 credit points from the Engineering Core Table, consisting of:

(i) 18 credit points of Engineering Foundation units

(ii) 24 credit points of Project units

(iii) The requirements of the Professional Engagement Program

(b) 102 credit points from the Aeronautical Engineering Stream table, consisting of:

(i) 96 credit points of Stream Core units

(ii) 6 credit points of Stream Core Extension units

##### Stream Core

**AERO2703 Aircraft Performance and Operations**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: (MATH1001 or MATH1021 or MATH1901 or MATH1921 or MATH1906 or MATH1931) and (MATH1002 or MATH1902) and (MATH1003 or MATH1023 or MATH1903 or MATH1923) and (ENGG1801 or ENGG1810) Assumed knowledge: AERO1560 or ENGG1800, Familiarity with fundamental Aerospace concepts Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

This unit aims to develop in students an understanding of the fundamental concepts involved in the operation and performance of aircraft. The students will acquire an ability to make accurate and meaningful measurements of take-off, climb, cruise, turn, descent and landing performance; to perform weight and balance calculations; to understand the use of aerodynamic derivatives and their impact on aircraft performance. Students will be shown methods to optimise performance for specific missions. It will also cover modern issues such as airport congestion, noise restrictions, aviation certification requirements for the use of different aircraft categories and novel methods solving these problems.

**AERO3260 Aerodynamics 1**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: (AMME2200 or AMME2261) Assumed knowledge: General conservation equations applied to fluid flow; Fundamental elements of potential flow; Vorticity and its effect on ideal flow; Basic mathematical skills required for plotting and graphing data; Linear algebra for solution of simultaneous linear equations; Fourier series; Complex numbers and complex functions Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

This unit of study should prepare students to be able to undertake aerodynamic performance calculations for industry design situations.

The unit aims to develop a knowledge and appreciation of the complex behaviour of airflow in the case of two dimensional aerofoil sections and three dimensional wings; To encourage hands-on experimentation with wind-tunnel tests to allow an understanding of these concepts and their range of applicability. To understand the limitations of linearised theory and the effects of unsteady flow.

The unit aims to develop a knowledge and appreciation of the complex behaviour of airflow in the case of two dimensional aerofoil sections and three dimensional wings; To encourage hands-on experimentation with wind-tunnel tests to allow an understanding of these concepts and their range of applicability. To understand the limitations of linearised theory and the effects of unsteady flow.

**AERO3261 Propulsion**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: AMME2200 or (AMME2261 and AMME2262) Assumed knowledge: Good knowledge of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

This unit of study teaches the students the techniques used to propel aircraft. The students will learn to analyse various propulsion systems in use- propellers, gas turbines, etc.

The topics covered include: Propulsion unit requirements for subsonic and supersonic flight; thrust components, efficiencies, additive drag of intakes; piston engine components and operation; propeller theory; operation, components and cycle analysis of gas turbine engines; turbojets; turbofans; turboprops; ramjets. Components: compressor, fan, burner, turbine, nozzle. Efficiency of components: Off-design considerations. Future directions: minimisation of noise and pollution; scram-jets; hybrid engines.

The topics covered include: Propulsion unit requirements for subsonic and supersonic flight; thrust components, efficiencies, additive drag of intakes; piston engine components and operation; propeller theory; operation, components and cycle analysis of gas turbine engines; turbojets; turbofans; turboprops; ramjets. Components: compressor, fan, burner, turbine, nozzle. Efficiency of components: Off-design considerations. Future directions: minimisation of noise and pollution; scram-jets; hybrid engines.

**AERO3360 Aerospace Structures 1**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: AMME2301 Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

This unit aims to develop a student's understanding of the theoretical basis of advanced aerospace structural analysis; and introduce students to the solution of real-world aircraft structural problems. This unit of study will develop the following attributes: An understanding of the derivation of the fundamental equations of elasticity and their application in certain analytical problems; An understanding of plate theory and the ability to use this to obtain analytical solutions for plate bending and buckling problems; An understanding of energy-method to develop a deeper appreciation for the complexities of designing solution techniques for structural problems; An understanding of the basic principals behind stressed-skin aircraft construction and the practical analysis of typical aircraft components, including the limitations of such techniques.

At the end of this unit students will have an understanding of: 2-D and 3-D elasticity- general equations and solution techniques; Energy methods in structural analysis, including the principles of virtual work and total potential and complimentary energies; Fundamental theory of plates, including in-plane and bending loads as well as buckling and shear instabilities; Solution techniques for plate problems, including Navier solutions for rectangular plates; Combined bending and in-plane loading problems; Energy methods for plate-bending; and Plate buckling for compression and shear loadings; Bending of beams with unsymmetrical cross-sections; Basic principles and theory of stressed-skin structural analysis; Determination of direct stresses and shear flows in arbitrary thin-walled beams under arbitrary loading conditions including: Unsymmetrical sections, Open and closed sections, Single and multi-cell closed sections, Tapered sections, Continuous and idealized sections; The analysis of common aircraft components including fuselages, wings, skin-panels, stringers, ribs, frames and cut-outs; The effects of end constraints and shear-lag on the solutions developed as well as an overall appreciation of the limitations of the solution methods presented.

At the end of this unit students will have an understanding of: 2-D and 3-D elasticity- general equations and solution techniques; Energy methods in structural analysis, including the principles of virtual work and total potential and complimentary energies; Fundamental theory of plates, including in-plane and bending loads as well as buckling and shear instabilities; Solution techniques for plate problems, including Navier solutions for rectangular plates; Combined bending and in-plane loading problems; Energy methods for plate-bending; and Plate buckling for compression and shear loadings; Bending of beams with unsymmetrical cross-sections; Basic principles and theory of stressed-skin structural analysis; Determination of direct stresses and shear flows in arbitrary thin-walled beams under arbitrary loading conditions including: Unsymmetrical sections, Open and closed sections, Single and multi-cell closed sections, Tapered sections, Continuous and idealized sections; The analysis of common aircraft components including fuselages, wings, skin-panels, stringers, ribs, frames and cut-outs; The effects of end constraints and shear-lag on the solutions developed as well as an overall appreciation of the limitations of the solution methods presented.

**AERO3460 Aerospace Design 1**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: AMME2301 and MECH2400 Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

This unit aims to introduce students to the theory and practice of aircraft component design. In doing so it will emphasize all the considerations, trade-offs and decisions inherent in this process and thus enable students to gain an understanding of why aircraft structures are designed in the way they are with respect to aircraft operational, certification, manufacturing and cost considerations. At the end of this unit students will be able to understand the design process, especially as it applies to aircraft individual component design; Have a familiarity with some of the standard industry practices for component design; An increasing familiarity with typical aerospace analysis techniques along with the primary failure modes that need to be considered; An understanding of the importance of different failure modes for different components and how these relate to load-conditions; a familarity with the operating environment that must be considered when designing components; and understanding of some of the legal and ethical requirements of aircraft design engineers to give a basic understanding of the regulatory framework in which aircraft design is conducted.

**AERO3465 Aerospace Design 2**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: AMME2301 and MECH2400 Assumed knowledge: AERO1400 and AMME2302 and AMME1362 Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

This unit aims to develop an understanding of the aerospace industry procedures for design, analysis, and testing of aircraft and aerospace vehicle components. It provides a Design-Build-Test experience by putting into practice, learning outcomes from this and other previously completed UoS, through working on a small structure which is representative of a typical light metal aircraft. Students will be introduced to typical metallic and composite materials and structures for aerospace vehicles. The unit also provides an introduction to fatigue and damaged tolerance analysis of metallic aircraft structures. Experiential learning opportunities are provided to acquire skills and knowledge in structural design, analyses, testing methods, procedures, techniques, and equipment.

On satisfactory completion of this unit students will have gained practical skills relevant to working on typical modern aircraft and aerospace vehicle components. They will learn from methods, techniques, and experiences from the modern aerospace industry. Experiential learning is enhanced through verifying analyses with actual testing of fabricated component, and the experience of a full design-build-test cycle of a typical aerospace structural component. Subject areas covered will include design methods, internal loads calculations, stress analysis, design for manufacture, joints and fasteners, test procedures, fatigue and damage tolerance, composites, and the art of design.

On satisfactory completion of this unit students will have gained practical skills relevant to working on typical modern aircraft and aerospace vehicle components. They will learn from methods, techniques, and experiences from the modern aerospace industry. Experiential learning is enhanced through verifying analyses with actual testing of fabricated component, and the experience of a full design-build-test cycle of a typical aerospace structural component. Subject areas covered will include design methods, internal loads calculations, stress analysis, design for manufacture, joints and fasteners, test procedures, fatigue and damage tolerance, composites, and the art of design.

**AERO3560 Flight Mechanics 1**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: AMME2500 Corequisites: AMME3500 Assumed knowledge: This Unit of Study builds on basic mechanics and aerodynamics material covered in previous Units and focuses it towards the analysis and understanding of aircraft flight mechanics. It is expected that students have satisfactorily completed the following material: (ENGG1802 or AMME1802): Engineering Mechanics: Forces, moments, equilibrium, momentum, energy, linear and angular motion. AMME2500 Engineering Dynamics 1: Mechanisms, kinematics, frames of reference, mass and inertia, dynamics. If you struggled to pass AMME2500 and/or (AMME1802 or ENGG1802), you should spend some time revising the material of those Units of Study early in the semester Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

This unit aims to develop an understanding of aircraft longitudinal equilibrium, static stability, dynamic stability and response. Students will develop an understanding of the importance and significance of flight stability, will gain skills in dynamic system analysis and will learn mathematical tools used for prediction of aircraft flight behaviour. Students will gain skills in problem solving in the area of flight vehicle motion, and learn the fundamentals of flight simulation.

At the end of this unit students will be able to understand: aircraft flight conditions and equilibrium; the effects of aerodynamic and propulsive controls on equilibrium conditions; the significance of flight stability and its impact of aircraft operations and pilot workload; the meaning of aerodynamic stability derivatives and their sources; the effects of aerodynamic derivatives on flight stability; the impact of flight stability and trim on all atmospheric flight vehicles. Students will also be able to model aircraft flight characteristics using computational techniques and analyse the aircraft equations of rigid-body motion and to extract stability characteristics.

Unit content will include static longitudinal aircraft stability: origin of symmetric forces and moments; static and manoeuvring longitudinal stability, equilibrium and control of rigid aircraft; aerodynamic load effects of wings, stabilisers, fuselages and power plants; trailing edge aerodynamic controls; trimmed equilibrium condition; static margin; effect on static stability of free and reversible controls.

At the end of this unit students will be able to understand: aircraft flight conditions and equilibrium; the effects of aerodynamic and propulsive controls on equilibrium conditions; the significance of flight stability and its impact of aircraft operations and pilot workload; the meaning of aerodynamic stability derivatives and their sources; the effects of aerodynamic derivatives on flight stability; the impact of flight stability and trim on all atmospheric flight vehicles. Students will also be able to model aircraft flight characteristics using computational techniques and analyse the aircraft equations of rigid-body motion and to extract stability characteristics.

Unit content will include static longitudinal aircraft stability: origin of symmetric forces and moments; static and manoeuvring longitudinal stability, equilibrium and control of rigid aircraft; aerodynamic load effects of wings, stabilisers, fuselages and power plants; trailing edge aerodynamic controls; trimmed equilibrium condition; static margin; effect on static stability of free and reversible controls.

**AERO4460 Aerospace Design 3**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: AERO3260 and AERO3261 and AERO3360 and AERO3460 and AERO3560 Assumed knowledge: AERO1400 and AERO2703 and AERO3465 Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

This unit aims to develop an understanding of the application of design to the modern aerospace industry. Students will gain an overview of how to manage a design team and will also gain skills in carrying out detailed design problems. Course content will include: Design requirements; Sources of information for aircraft design; Configuration design: performance, weight and balance, propulsion; Aerodynamic design: lift, drag and control; Structural design: loads, materials; Philosophies of design and analysis; System design: requirements and specification; System design procedures; systems integration.

**AMME1362 Materials 1**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prohibitions: CIVL2110 or CIVL1110 or AMME2302 Assumed knowledge: HSC Mathematics Extension 1 Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

AMME1362 is an introductory course in engineering materials. The unit aims to develop students' understanding of the structures, mechanical properties and manufacture of a range of engineering materials as well as how the mechanical properties relate to microstructure and forming and treatment methods. The unit has no prerequisite subject and is therefore intended for those with little or no previous background in engineering materials. However the unit does require students to take a significant degree of independent responsibility for developing their own background knowledge of materials and their properties. The electrical, magnetic, thermal and optical properties of materials are a critical need-to-know area where students are expected to do most of their learning by independent study.

**AMME1802 Engineering Mechanics**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prohibitions: CIVL1802 or ENGG1802 Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

The unit aims to provide students with an understanding of and competence in solving statics and introductory dynamics problems in engineering. Tutorial sessions will help students to improve their group work and problem solving skills, and gain competency in extracting a simplified version of a problem from a complex situation. Emphasis is placed on the ability to work in 3D as well as 2D, including the 2D and 3D visualisation of structures and structural components, and the vectorial 2D and 3D representations of spatial points, forces and moments. Introduction to kinematics and dynamics topics includes position, velocity and acceleration of a point; relative motion, force and acceleration, momentum, collisions and energy methods.

**AMME2000 Engineering Analysis**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: (MATH1001 or MATH1021 or MATH1901 or MATH1921 or MATH1906 or MATH1931) and (MATH1002 or MATH1902) and (MATH1003 or MATH1023 or MATH1903 or MATH1923 or MATH1907 or MATH1933) and (ENGG1801 or ENGG1810 or INFO1103 or INFO1903 or INFO1110 or INFO1910 or DATA1002 or DATA1902) Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

This course is designed to provide students with the necessary tools for mathematically modelling and solving problems in engineering. Engineering methods will be considered for a range of canonical problems including; Conduction heat transfer in one and two dimensions, vibration, stress and deflection analysis, convection and stability problems. The focus will be on real problems, deriving analytical solutions via separation of variables; Fourier series and Fourier transforms; Laplace transforms; scaling and solving numerically using finite differences, finite element and finite volume approaches.

**AMME2200 Introductory Thermofluids**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prohibitions: AMME2261 or AMME2262 Assumed knowledge: (MATH1001 or MATH1021 or MATH1901 or MATH1921 or MATH1906 or MATH1931) and (MATH1002 or MATH1902) and (MATH1003 or MATH1023 or MATH1903 or MATH1923 or MATH1907 or MATH1933). Students are expected to be familiar with basic, first year, integral calculus, differential calculus and linear algebra Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

Thermofluids is made up of the components Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer and Thermodynamics and it reaches into all areas of Engineering including issues of human comfort, power generation and environment. A broad range of essential topics is covered in this unit, suitable for students who have not already completed similar component units. The emphasis is on analysis and problem solving (detailed calculations) by application of the relevant basic principles to typical engineering problems.

Fluid Mechanics

Properties: viscosity, surface tension, cavitation, capillarity. Hydrostatics: manometers, forces and moments on submerged surfaces, centre of pressure, buoyancy, vessel stability. Flow: Streamlines, turbulence, continuity, Bernoulli, venturi meter, pitot tube, head, loss coefficients, pumps, turbines, power, efficiency. Fluid momentum, drag, thrust, propulsive efficiency, wind turbines, turbomachinery, torque, power, head, Francis, Pelton, Kaplan turbines. Dimensional analysis, similarity, scale modelling, Reynolds No., pipe flow, pressure drop, Moody chart.

Heat Transfer

Conduction: thermal circuits, plane, cylindrical, conduction equation, fins. Heat Exchangers: LMTD and NTU methods. Unsteady Conduction: lumped capacity, Bi, Fo, Heissler charts. Convection (forced), analytical Nu, Pr correlations. Convection (natural) Ra, Gr. Radiation spectrum, blackbody, emissivity, absorptivity, transmissivity, Stefan-Boltzmann, Kirchhoff Laws, selective surfaces, environmental radiation.

Thermodynamics:

1st Law of Thermodynamics, Properties, State postulate. Ideal gases, 2-phase properties, steam quality. Turbines, compressors. thermal efficiency and COP for refrigerators. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics, Kelvin-Planck, Clausius statements. Carnot engine. Entropy; increase of entropy principle, entropy and irreversibility. Isentropic processes, T-s diagrams, isentropic efficiency. Some power and refrigeration cycle analysis, characteristics of main power cycles. Psychrometry, air-conditioning, thermal comfort basics.

Fluid Mechanics

Properties: viscosity, surface tension, cavitation, capillarity. Hydrostatics: manometers, forces and moments on submerged surfaces, centre of pressure, buoyancy, vessel stability. Flow: Streamlines, turbulence, continuity, Bernoulli, venturi meter, pitot tube, head, loss coefficients, pumps, turbines, power, efficiency. Fluid momentum, drag, thrust, propulsive efficiency, wind turbines, turbomachinery, torque, power, head, Francis, Pelton, Kaplan turbines. Dimensional analysis, similarity, scale modelling, Reynolds No., pipe flow, pressure drop, Moody chart.

Heat Transfer

Conduction: thermal circuits, plane, cylindrical, conduction equation, fins. Heat Exchangers: LMTD and NTU methods. Unsteady Conduction: lumped capacity, Bi, Fo, Heissler charts. Convection (forced), analytical Nu, Pr correlations. Convection (natural) Ra, Gr. Radiation spectrum, blackbody, emissivity, absorptivity, transmissivity, Stefan-Boltzmann, Kirchhoff Laws, selective surfaces, environmental radiation.

Thermodynamics:

1st Law of Thermodynamics, Properties, State postulate. Ideal gases, 2-phase properties, steam quality. Turbines, compressors. thermal efficiency and COP for refrigerators. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics, Kelvin-Planck, Clausius statements. Carnot engine. Entropy; increase of entropy principle, entropy and irreversibility. Isentropic processes, T-s diagrams, isentropic efficiency. Some power and refrigeration cycle analysis, characteristics of main power cycles. Psychrometry, air-conditioning, thermal comfort basics.

**AMME2301 Mechanics of Solids**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: (AMME1802 or ENGG1802) and (MATH1001 or MATH1021 or MATH1901 or MATH1921 or MATH1906 or MATH1931) and (MATH1002 or MATH1902) and (MATH1003 or MATH1023 or MATH1903 or MATH1923 or MATH1907 or MATH1933) Prohibitions: CIVL2201 Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

Equilibrium of deformable structures; basic concept of deformation compatibility; stress and strain in bars, beams and their structures subjected to tension, compression, bending, torsion and combined loading; statically determinate and indeterminate structures; energy methods for bar and beam structures; simple buckling; simple vibration; deformation of simple frames and cell box beams; simple two-dimensional stress and Morh's circle; problem-based applications in aerospace, mechanical and biomedical engineering.

**AMME2500 Engineering Dynamics**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: (MATH1001 or MATH1021 or MATH1901 or MATH1921 or MATH1906 or MATH1931) and (MATH1002 or MATH1902) and (MATH1003 or MATH1023 or MATH1903 or MATH1923 or MATH1907 or MATH1933) and (AMME1802 or ENGG1802) Assumed knowledge: Familiarity with the MATLAB programming environment Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

This unit of study will focus on the principles governing the state of motion or rest of bodies under the influence of applied force and torque, according to classical mechanics. The course aims to teach students the fundamental principles of the kinematics and kinetics of systems of particles, rigid bodies, planar mechanisms and three-dimensional mechanisms, covering topics including kinematics in various coordinate systems, Newton's laws of motion, work and energy principles, impulse and momentum (linear and angular), gyroscopic motion and vibration. Students will develop skills in analysing and modelling dynamical systems, using both analytical methods and computer-based solutions using MATLAB. Students will develop skills in approximating the dynamic behaviour of real systems in engineering applications and an appreciation and understanding of the effect of approximations in the development and design of systems in real-world engineering tasks.

**AMME2700 Instrumentation**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: AERO1560 or MECH1560 or MTRX1701 or ENGG1800 Assumed knowledge: Programming skills, 1st year maths skills, familiarity with fundamental Engineering concepts Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

This unit aims to develop in students an understanding of the engineering measurements and instrumentation systems. The students will acquire an ability to make accurate and meaningful measurements. It will cover the general areas of electrical circuits and mechanical/electronic instrumentation for strain, force, pressure, moment, torque, displacement, velocity, acceleration, temperature and so on.

**AMME3500 System Dynamics and Control**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: AMME2500 Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

This unit of study aims to allow students to develop an understanding of methods for modeling and controlling linear, time-invariant systems. Techniques examined will include the use of differential equations and frequency domain approaches to modeling of systems. This will allow students to examine the response of a system to changing inputs and to examine the influence of external stimuli such as disturbances on system behaviour. Students will also gain an understanding of how the responses of these mechanical systems can be altered to meet desired specifications and why this is important in many engineering problem domains.

The study of control systems engineering is of fundamental importance to most engineering disciplines, including Mechanical, Mechatronic, Biomedical, and Aerospace Engineering. Control systems are found in a broad range of applications within these disciplines, from aircraft and spacecraft to robots, automobiles, manufacturing processes, and medical diagnostic systems. The concepts taught in this course introduce students to the mathematical foundations behind the modelling and control of linear, time-invariant dynamic systems. In particular, topics addressed in this course will include:

1. Techniques for modelling mechanical systems and understanding their response to control inputs and disturbances. This will include the derivation of differential equations and use of frequency domain (Laplace transform) methods for their solution and analysis.

2. Representation of systems in a feedback control system as well as techniques for determining what desired system performance specifications are achievable, practical and important when the system is under control

3. Techniques including Root Locus, Bode Plots, and State Space for analysis and design of feedback control systems.

4. Case studies inspired by real-world problems in control engineering.

The study of control systems engineering is of fundamental importance to most engineering disciplines, including Mechanical, Mechatronic, Biomedical, and Aerospace Engineering. Control systems are found in a broad range of applications within these disciplines, from aircraft and spacecraft to robots, automobiles, manufacturing processes, and medical diagnostic systems. The concepts taught in this course introduce students to the mathematical foundations behind the modelling and control of linear, time-invariant dynamic systems. In particular, topics addressed in this course will include:

1. Techniques for modelling mechanical systems and understanding their response to control inputs and disturbances. This will include the derivation of differential equations and use of frequency domain (Laplace transform) methods for their solution and analysis.

2. Representation of systems in a feedback control system as well as techniques for determining what desired system performance specifications are achievable, practical and important when the system is under control

3. Techniques including Root Locus, Bode Plots, and State Space for analysis and design of feedback control systems.

4. Case studies inspired by real-world problems in control engineering.

##### Stream Core Extension units

**AERO4260 Aerodynamics 2**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: AMME2200 or AMME2261 Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

This unit aims to introduce students to: elementary and advanced topics in Gasdynamics (High Speed Flows). Course content will include review of Equations of Gasdynamics, One-Dimensional Gas Flow, Isentropic Flows, Normal Shock, Flow in a Converging and Converging-Diverging Nozzle, Steady Two-dimensional Supersonic Flow, Shock waves (Normal and Oblique), Method of Characteristics, Two-dimensional Supersonic Aerofoils, Introduction to Three Dimensional Effects, Unsteady Flows, Moving Shocks, Shock Tube Flow and Transonic Flow and Compressible Boundary Layers, introduction to turbulent flows.

At the end of this unit the student will be able to calculate a high speed flow about an aerofoil and compressible flow through a duct of varying cross-section and will have a good appreciation of Transonic and Hypersonic Flows.

At the end of this unit the student will be able to calculate a high speed flow about an aerofoil and compressible flow through a duct of varying cross-section and will have a good appreciation of Transonic and Hypersonic Flows.

**AERO4360 Aerospace Structures 2**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: AERO3360 Assumed knowledge: AERO3465 Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

This unit aims to teach fundamentals of modern numerical and analytical techniques for evaluating stresses, strains, deformations and strengths of representative aerospace structures. In particular the focus is on developing an understanding of: Fundamental concepts and formulations of the finite element methods for basic structural analysis; Elements for typical aerospace structures, such as beams/frames, plates/shells, and their applications and limitations; Finite element techniques for various types of problems pertinent to aerospace structures; and, developing hands-on experience of using selected commercial finite element analysis program.

At the end of this unit of study the following will have been covered: Introduction to Finite Element Method for modern structural and stress analysis; One-dimensional rod elements; Generalization of FEM for elasticity; Two- and three-dimensional trusses; FEA for beams and frames in 2D and 3D; Two-dimensional problems using constant strain triangular elements; The two-dimensional isoparametric elements; Plates and shells elements and their applications; FEA for axisymmetric shells and pressure vessels, shells of revolution; FEA for axisymmetric solids subjected to axi-symmetric loading; FEA for structural dynamics, eigenvalue analysis, modal response, transient response; Finite element analysis for stress stiffening and buckling of beams, plates and shells; Three-dimensional problems in stress analysis; Extensions to the element library, higher order elements, special elements; Constraints; FEA modeling strategy; FEA for heat conduction; FEA for non-linear material and geometric analysis.

At the end of this unit of study the following will have been covered: Introduction to Finite Element Method for modern structural and stress analysis; One-dimensional rod elements; Generalization of FEM for elasticity; Two- and three-dimensional trusses; FEA for beams and frames in 2D and 3D; Two-dimensional problems using constant strain triangular elements; The two-dimensional isoparametric elements; Plates and shells elements and their applications; FEA for axisymmetric shells and pressure vessels, shells of revolution; FEA for axisymmetric solids subjected to axi-symmetric loading; FEA for structural dynamics, eigenvalue analysis, modal response, transient response; Finite element analysis for stress stiffening and buckling of beams, plates and shells; Three-dimensional problems in stress analysis; Extensions to the element library, higher order elements, special elements; Constraints; FEA modeling strategy; FEA for heat conduction; FEA for non-linear material and geometric analysis.

**AERO4560 Flight Mechanics 2**

Credit points: 6 Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: AERO3560 and AMME3500 Assumed knowledge: AMME2500 develops the basic principles of engineering mechanics and system dynamics that underpin this course. AERO3560 Flight Mechanics 1 develops the specifics of aircraft flight dynamics and stability. AMME3500 Systems control covers basic system theory and control system synthesis techniques Assessment: Refer to the assessment table in the unit outline. Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day

This unit aims to develop an understanding of the application of flight mechanics principles to modern aircraft systems. Students will gain skills in problem solving in the areas of dynamic aircraft behaviour, aircraft sensitivity to wind gusts, control systems development and aircraft handling analysis.

At the end of this unit students will be able to: understand the nature of an aircraft's response to control inputs and atmospheric disturbances, including the roles of the various modes of motion; analyse an aircraft's response to control inputs in the frequency domain using Laplace Transforms and Transfer Function representations; represent and model wind gust distributions using stochastic methods (Power Spectral Density); analyse an aircraft's response to disturbances (wind gust inputs) by combining Transfer Function representations with gust PSD's; understand the principles of stability augmentation systems and autopilot control systems in aircraft operation, their functions and purposes; understand basic feedback control systems and classical frequency domain loop analysis; understand the characteristics of closed loop system responses; understand the characteristics of PID, Lead, Lag and Lead-Lag compensators, and to be competent in designing suitable compensators using Bode and Root-locus design techniques; design multi-loop control and guidance systems and understand the reasons for their structures.

At the end of this unit students will be able to: understand the nature of an aircraft's response to control inputs and atmospheric disturbances, including the roles of the various modes of motion; analyse an aircraft's response to control inputs in the frequency domain using Laplace Transforms and Transfer Function representations; represent and model wind gust distributions using stochastic methods (Power Spectral Density); analyse an aircraft's response to disturbances (wind gust inputs) by combining Transfer Function representations with gust PSD's; understand the principles of stability augmentation systems and autopilot control systems in aircraft operation, their functions and purposes; understand basic feedback control systems and classical frequency domain loop analysis; understand the characteristics of closed loop system responses; understand the characteristics of PID, Lead, Lag and Lead-Lag compensators, and to be competent in designing suitable compensators using Bode and Root-locus design techniques; design multi-loop control and guidance systems and understand the reasons for their structures.