Mathematics Descriptions

Unit outlines will be available through Find a unit outline two weeks before the first day of teaching for 1000-level and 5000-level units, or one week before the first day of teaching for all other units.
 

MATHEMATICS

Mathematics major

A major in Mathematics requires 48 credit points from this table including:
(i) 12 credit points of 1000-level units as follows:
(a) 6 credit points of calculus units; 3 credit points of linear algebra units; and 3 credit points of statistics* or discrete mathematics units or
(b) 6 credit points of calculus units; 3 credit points of linear algebra units; and 3 credit points of statistics^ for students in the Mathematical Sciences program
(ii) 12 credit points of 2000-level core units
(iii) 6 credit points of 2000-level selective units
(iv) 6 credit points of 3000-level interdisciplinary project units
(v) 12 credit points of 3000-level selective units
*BSc students may substitute DATA1001 or ENVX1002 and students not enrolled in the BSc may substitute DATA1001, ECMT1010 or BUSS1020
^If elective space allows, students may substitute DATA1001/1901 for the statistics unit

Mathematics minor

A minor in Mathematics requires 36 credit points from this table including:
(i) 12 credit points of 1000-level units as follows: 6 credit points of calculus units; 3 credit points of linear algebra units; and 3 credit points of statistics or discrete mathematics units
(ii) 12 credit points of 2000-level core units
(iii) 6 credit points of 2000-level selective units
(iv) 6 credit points of 3000-level selective units

Units of study

The units of study are listed below.

1000-level units of study

Calculus
MATH1021 Calculus Of One Variable

Credit points: 3 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Intensive February,Semester 1,Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prohibitions: MATH1011 or MATH1901 or MATH1906 or ENVX1001 or MATH1001 or MATH1921 or MATH1931 Assumed knowledge: HSC Mathematics Extension 1 or equivalent. Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
Calculus is a discipline of mathematics that finds profound applications in science, engineering, and economics. This unit investigates differential calculus and integral calculus of one variable and the diverse applications of this theory. Emphasis is given both to the theoretical and foundational aspects of the subject, as well as developing the valuable skill of applying the mathematical theory to solve practical problems. Topics covered in this unit of study include complex numbers, functions of a single variable, limits and continuity, differentiation, optimisation, Taylor polynomials, Taylor's Theorem, Taylor series, Riemann sums, and Riemann integrals.
Students are strongly recommended to complete MATH1021 of MATH1921 before commencing MATH1023 or MATH1923.
Textbooks
Calculus of One Variable (Course Notes for MATH1021)
MATH1921 Calculus Of One Variable (Advanced)

Credit points: 3 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prohibitions: MATH1001 or MATH1011 or MATH1906 or ENVX1001 or MATH1901 or MATH1021 or MATH1931 Assumed knowledge: (HSC Mathematics Extension 2) OR (Band E4 in HSC Mathematics Extension 1) or equivalent. Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
Note: Department permission required for enrolment
Calculus is a discipline of mathematics that finds profound applications in science, engineering, and economics. This unit investigates differential calculus and integral calculus of one variable and the diverse applications of this theory. Emphasis is given both to the theoretical and foundational aspects of the subject, as well as developing the valuable skill of applying the mathematical theory to solve practical problems. Topics covered in this unit of study include complex numbers, functions of a single variable, limits and continuity, differentiation, optimisation, Taylor polynomials, Taylor's Theorem, Taylor series, Riemann sums, and Riemann integrals. Additional theoretical topics included in this advanced unit include the Intermediate Value Theorem, Rolle's Theorem, and the Mean Value Theorem. Students are strongly recommended to complete MATH1021 of MATH1921 before commencing MATH1023 or MATH1923.
Textbooks
As set out in the Junior Mathematics Handbook
MATH1931 Calculus Of One Variable (SSP)

Credit points: 3 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prohibitions: MATH1001 or MATH1011 or MATH1901 or ENVX1001 or MATH1906 or MATH1021 or MATH1921 Assumed knowledge: (HSC Mathematics Extension 2) OR (Band E4 in HSC Mathematics Extension 1) or equivalent. Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
Note: Department permission required for enrolment
Note: Enrolment is by invitation only
The Mathematics Special Studies Program is for students with exceptional mathematical aptitude, and requires outstanding performance in past mathematical studies. Students will cover the material of MATH1921 Calculus of One Variable (Adv), and attend a weekly seminar covering special topics on available elsewhere in the Mathematics and Statistics program.
MATH1023 Multivariable Calculus and Modelling

Credit points: 3 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Intensive February,Semester 1,Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prohibitions: MATH1013 or MATH1903 or MATH1907 or MATH1003 or MATH1923 or MATH1933 Assumed knowledge: Knowledge of complex numbers and methods of differential and integral calculus including integration by partial fractions and integration by parts as for example in MATH1021 or MATH1921 or MATH1931 or HSC Mathematics Extension 2 Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Block mode
Calculus is a discipline of mathematics that finds profound applications in science, engineering, and economics. This unit investigates multivariable differential calculus and modelling. Emphasis is given both to the theoretical and foundational aspects of the subject, as well as developing the valuable skill of applying the mathematical theory to solve practical problems. Topics covered in this unit of study include mathematical modelling, first order differential equations, second order differential equations, systems of linear equations, visualisation in 2 and 3 dimensions, partial derivatives, directional derivatives, the gradient vector, and optimisation for functions of more than one variable.
Students are strongly recommended to complete MATH1021 of MATH1921 before commencing MATH1023 or MATH1923.
Textbooks
Multivariable Calculus and Modelling (Course Notes for MATH1023)
MATH1923 Multivariable Calculus and Modelling (Adv)

Credit points: 3 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prohibitions: MATH1003 or MATH1013 or MATH1907 or MATH1903 or MATH1023 or MATH1933 Assumed knowledge: (HSC Mathematics Extension 2) OR (Band E4 in HSC Mathematics Extension 1) or equivalent. Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
Note: Department permission required for enrolment
Calculus is a discipline of mathematics that finds profound applications in science, engineering, and economics. This unit investigates multivariable differential calculus and modelling. Emphasis is given both to the theoretical and foundational aspects of the subject, as well as developing the valuable skill of applying the mathematical theory to solve practical problems. Topics covered in this unit of study include mathematical modelling, first order differential equations, second order differential equations, systems of linear equations, visualisation in 2 and 3 dimensions, partial derivatives, directional derivatives, the gradient vector, and optimisation for functions of more than one variable. Additional topics covered in this advanced unit of study include the use of diagonalisation of matrices to study systems of linear equation and optimisation problems, limits of functions of two or more variables, and the derivative of a function of two or more variables. Students are strongly recommended to complete MATH1021 of MATH1921 before commencing MATH1023 or MATH1923.
Textbooks
As set out in the Junior Mathematics Handbook
MATH1933 Multivariable Calculus and Modelling (SSP)

Credit points: 3 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prohibitions: MATH1003 or MATH1903 or MATH1013 or MATH1907 or MATH1023 or MATH1923 Assumed knowledge: (HSC Mathematics Extension 2) OR (Band E4 in HSC Mathematics Extension 1) or equivalent. Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
Note: Department permission required for enrolment
Note: Enrolment is by invitation only.
The Mathematics Special Studies Program is for students with exceptional mathematical aptitude, and requires outstanding performance in past mathematical studies. Students will cover the material of MATH1923 Multivariable Calculus and Modelling (Adv), and attend a weekly seminar covering special topics on available elsewhere in the Mathematics and Statistics program.
Linear algebra
MATH1002 Linear Algebra

Credit points: 3 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prohibitions: MATH1012 or MATH1014 or MATH1902 Assumed knowledge: HSC Mathematics or MATH1111. Students who have not completed HSC Mathematics (or equivalent) are strongly advised to take the Mathematics Bridging Course (offered in February). Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
MATH1002 is designed to provide a thorough preparation for further study in mathematics and statistics. It is a core unit of study providing three of the twelve credit points required by the Faculty of Science as well as a Junior level requirement in the Faculty of Engineering.
This unit of study introduces vectors and vector algebra, linear algebra including solutions of linear systems, matrices, determinants, eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
Textbooks
Linear Algebra: A Modern Introduction, (4th edition), David Poole
MATH1014 Introduction to Linear Algebra

Credit points: 3 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Intensive February,Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prohibitions: MATH1002 or MATH1902 Assumed knowledge: Coordinate geometry, basic integral and differential calculus, polynomial equations and algebraic manipulations, equivalent to HSC Mathematics Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Block mode
This unit is an introduction to Linear Algebra. Topics covered include vectors, systems of linear equations, matrices, eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Applications in life and technological sciences are emphasised.
Textbooks
A First Course in Linear Algebra (3rd edition), David Easdown, Pearson Education (2010)
MATH1902 Linear Algebra (Advanced)

Credit points: 3 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prohibitions: MATH1002 or MATH1014 Assumed knowledge: (HSC Mathematics Extension 2) OR (90 or above in HSC Mathematics Extension 1) or equivalent Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
Note: Department permission required for enrolment
This unit is designed to provide a thorough preparation for further study in mathematics and statistics. It is a core unit of study providing three of the twelve credit points required by the Faculty of Science as well as a Junior level requirement in the Faculty of Engineering. It parallels the normal unit MATH1002 but goes more deeply into the subject matter and requires more mathematical sophistication.
Textbooks
As set out in the Junior Mathematics Handbook
Discrete mathematics
MATH1004 Discrete Mathematics

Credit points: 3 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prohibitions: MATH1904 or MATH1064 Assumed knowledge: HSC Mathematics or MATH1111. Students who have not completed HSC Mathematics (or equivalent) are strongly advised to take the Mathematics Bridging Course (offered in February). Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
This unit provides an introduction to fundamental aspects of discrete mathematics, which deals with 'things that come in chunks that can be counted'. It focuses on the enumeration of a set of numbers, viz. Catalan numbers. Topics include sets and functions, counting principles, discrete probability, Boolean expressions, mathematical induction, linear recurrence relations, graphs and trees.
Textbooks
Introduction to Discrete Mathematics, K G Choo and D E Taylor, Addison Wesley Long-man Australia, (1998)
MATH1904 Discrete Mathematics (Advanced)

Credit points: 3 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prohibitions: MATH1004 or MATH1064 Assumed knowledge: Strong skills in mathematical problem solving and theory, including coordinate geometry, integral and differential calculus, and solution of polynomial equations equivalent to HSC Mathematics Extension 2 or a Band E4 in HSC Mathematics Extension 1 Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
Note: Department permission required for enrolment
This unit is designed to provide a thorough preparation for further study in mathematics. It parallels the normal unit MATH1004 but goes more deeply into the subject matter and requires more mathematical sophistication.
Textbooks
As set out in the Junior Mathematics Handbook
Statistics
MATH1005 Statistical Thinking with Data

Credit points: 3 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Intensive February,Semester 1,Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prohibitions: MATH1015 or MATH1905 or STAT1021 or ECMT1010 or ENVX1001 or ENVX1002 or BUSS1020 or DATA1001 or DATA1901 Assumed knowledge: HSC Mathematics Advanced or equivalent. Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
In a data-rich world, global citizens need to problem solve with data and evidence based decision-making is essential in every field of research and work. This unit equips you with the foundational statistical thinking to become a critical consumer of data. You will learn to think analytically about data and to evaluate the validity and accuracy of any conclusions drawn. Focusing on statistical literacy, the unit covers foundational statistical concepts, including the design of experiments, exploratory data analysis, sampling and tests of significance.
Textbooks
Statistics, (4th Edition), Freedman Pisani Purves (2007)
MATH1905 Statistical Thinking with Data (Advanced)

Credit points: 3 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prohibitions: MATH1005 or MATH1015 or STAT1021 or ECMT1010 or ENVX1001 or ENVX1002 or BUSS1020 or DATA1001 or DATA1901 Assumed knowledge: HSC Mathematics Extension 2 or 90 or above in HSC Mathematics Extension 1 or equivalent Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
This unit is designed to provide a thorough preparation for further study in mathematics and statistics. It is a core unit of study providing three of the twelve credit points required by the Faculty of Science as well as a Junior level requirement in the Faculty of Engineering. This Advanced level unit of study parallels the normal unit MATH1005 but goes more deeply into the subject matter and requires more mathematical sophistication.
Textbooks
Statistics (4th Edition) ¿ Freedman, Pisani, and Purves (2007)

2000-level units of study

Core
MATH2021 Vector Calculus and Differential Equations

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: (MATH1X21 or MATH1931 or MATH1X01 or MATH1906) and (MATH1XX2) and (MATH1X23 or MATH1933 or MATH1X03 or MATH1907) Prohibitions: MATH2921 or MATH2065 or MATH2965 or (MATH2061 and MATH2022) or (MATH2061 and MATH2922) or (MATH2961 and MATH2022) or (MATH2961 and MATH2922) or MATH2067 Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
This unit opens with topics from vector calculus, including vector-valued functions (parametrised curves and surfaces; vector fields; div, grad and curl; gradient fields and potential functions), line integrals (arc length; work; path-independent integrals and conservative fields; flux across a curve), iterated integrals (double and triple integrals, polar, cylindrical and spherical coordinates; areas, volumes and mass; Green's Theorem), flux integrals (flow through a surface; flux integrals through a surface defined by a function of two variables, through cylinders, spheres and other parametrised surfaces), Gauss' and Stokes' theorems. The unit then moves to topics in solution techniques for ordinary and partial differential equations (ODEs and PDEs) with applications. It provides a basic grounding in these techniques to enable students to build on the concepts in their subsequent courses. The main topics are: second order ODEs (including inhomogeneous equations), higher order ODEs and systems of first order equations, solution methods (variation of parameters, undetermined coefficients) the Laplace and Fourier Transform, an introduction to PDEs, and first methods of solutions (including separation of variables, and Fourier Series).
Textbooks
As set out in the Intermediate Mathematics Handbook
MATH2921 Vector Calculus and Differential Eqs (Adv)

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: [(MATH1921 or MATH1931 or MATH1901 or MATH1906) or (a mark of 65 or above in MATH1021 or MATH1001)] and [MATH1902 or (a mark of 65 or above in MATH1002)] and [(MATH1923 or MATH1933 or MATH1903 or MATH1907) or (a mark of 65 or above in MATH1023 or MATH1003)] Prohibitions: MATH2021 or MATH2065 or MATH2965 or (MATH2061 and MATH2022) or (MATH2061 and MATH2922) or (MATH2961 and MATH2022) or (MATH2961 and MATH2922) or MATH2067 Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
This is the advanced version of MATH2021, with more emphasis on the underlying concepts and mathematical rigour. The vector calculus component of the course will include: parametrised curves and surfaces, vector fields, div, grad and curl, gradient fields and potential functions, lagrange multipliers line integrals, arc length, work, path-independent integrals, and conservative fields, flux across a curve, double and triple integrals, change of variable formulas, polar, cylindrical and spherical coordinates, areas, volumes and mass, flux integrals, and Green's Gauss' and Stokes' theorems. The Differential Equations half of the course will focus on ordinary and partial differential equations (ODEs and PDEs) with applications with more complexity and depth. The main topics are: second order ODEs (including inhomogeneous equations), series solutions near a regular point, higher order ODEs and systems of first order equations, matrix equations and solutions, solution methods (variation of parameters, undetermined coefficients) the Laplace and Fourier Transform, elementary Sturm-Liouville theory, an introduction to PDEs, and first methods of solutions (including separation of variables, and Fourier Series). The unit then moves to topics in solution techniques for ordinary and partial differential equations (ODEs and PDEs) with applications. It provides a more thorough grounding in these techniques to enable students to build on the concepts in their subsequent courses. The main topics are: second order ODEs (including inhomogeneous equations), higher order ODEs and systems of first order equations, solution methods (variation of parameters, undetermined coefficients) the Laplace and Fourier Transform, an introduction to PDEs, and first methods of solutions (including separation of variables, and Fourier Series).
Textbooks
As set out in the Intermediate Mathematics Handbook
MATH2022 Linear and Abstract Algebra

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: MATH1XX2 or (a mark of 65 or above in MATH1014) Prohibitions: MATH2922 or MATH2968 or (MATH2061 and MATH2021) or (MATH2061 and MATH2921) or (MATH2961 and MATH2021) or (MATH2961 and MATH2921) Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
Linear and abstract algebra is one of the cornerstones of mathematics and it is at the heart of many applications of mathematics and statistics in the sciences and engineering. This unit investigates and explores properties of linear functions, developing general principles relating to the solution sets of homogeneous and inhomogeneous linear equations, including differential equations. Linear independence is introduced as a way of understanding and solving linear systems of arbitrary dimension. Linear operators on real spaces are investigated, paying particular attention to the geometrical significance of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, extending ideas from first year linear algebra. To better understand symmetry, matrix and permutation groups are introduced and used to motivate the study of abstract group theory.
Textbooks
Linear Algebra: A Modern Introduction, (4th edition), David Poole
MATH2922 Linear and Abstract Algebra (Advanced)

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: MATH1902 or (a mark of 65 or above in MATH1002) Prohibitions: MATH2022 or MATH2968 or (MATH2061 and MATH2021) or (MATH2061 and MATH2921) or (MATH2961 and MATH2021) or (MATH2961 and MATH2921) Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
Linear and abstract algebra is one of the cornerstones of mathematics and it is at the heart of many applications of mathematics and statistics in the sciences and engineering. This unit is an advanced version of MATH2022, with more emphasis on the underlying concepts and on mathematical rigour. This unit investigates and explores properties of vector spaces, matrices and linear transformations, developing general principles relating to the solution sets of homogeneous and inhomogeneous linear equations, including differential equations. Linear independence is introduced as a way of understanding and solving linear systems of arbitrary dimension. Linear operators on real spaces are investigated, paying particular attention to the geometrical significance of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, extending ideas from first year linear algebra. To better understand symmetry, matrix and permutation groups are introduced and used to motivate the study of abstract groups theory. The unit culminates in studying inner spaces, quadratic forms and normal forms of matrices together with their applications to problems both in mathematics and in the sciences and engineering.
Textbooks
As set out in the Intermediate Mathematics Handbook
Selective
MATH2023 Analysis

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: (MATH1X21 or MATH1931 or MATH1X01 or MATH1906) and (MATH1X23 or MATH1933 or MATH1X03 or MATH1907) and (MATH1XX2 or a mark of 65 or above in MATH1014) Prohibitions: MATH2923 or MATH3068 or MATH2962 Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
Analysis grew out of calculus, which leads to the study of limits of functions, sequences and series. It is one of the fundamental topics underlying much of mathematics including differential equations, dynamical systems, differential geometry, topology and Fourier analysis. This unit introduces the field of mathematical analysis both with a careful theoretical framework as well as selected applications. It shows the utility of abstract concepts and teaches an understanding and construction of proofs in mathematics. This unit will be useful to students of mathematics, science and engineering and in particular to future school mathematics teachers, because we shall explain why common practices in the use of calculus are correct, and understanding this is important for correct applications and explanations. The unit starts with the foundations of calculus and the real numbers system. It goes on to study the limiting behaviour of sequences and series of real and complex numbers. This leads naturally to the study of functions defined as limits and to the notion of uniform convergence. Returning to the beginnings of calculus and power series expansions leads to complex variable theory: elementary functions of complex variable, the Cauchy integral theorem, Cauchy integral formula, residues and related topics with applications to real integrals.
Textbooks
As set out in the Intermediate Mathematics Handbook
MATH2923 Analysis (Advanced)

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: [(MATH1921 or MATH1931 or MATH1901 or MATH1906) or (a mark of 65 or above in MATH1021 or MATH1001)] and [MATH1902 or (a mark of 65 or above in MATH1002)] and [(MATH1923 or MATH1933 or MATH1903 or MATH1907) or (a mark of 65 or above in MATH1023 or MATH1003)] Prohibitions: MATH2023 or MATH2962 or MATH3068 Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
Analysis grew out of calculus, which leads to the study of limits of functions, sequences and series. It is one of the fundamental topics underlying much of mathematics including differential equations, dynamical systems, differential geometry, topology and Fourier analysis. This advanced unit introduces the field of mathematical analysis both with a careful theoretical frame- work as well as selected applications.This unit will be useful to students with more mathematical maturity who study mathematics, science, or engineering. Starting off with an axiomatic description of the real numbers system, this unit concentrates on the limiting behaviour of sequences and series of real and complex numbers. This leads naturally to the study of functions defined as limits and to the notion of uniform con-vergence. Special attention is given to power series, leading into the theory of analytic functions and complex analysis. Besides a rigorous treatment of many concepts from calculus, you will learn the basic results of complex analysis such as the Cauchy integral theorem, Cauchy integral formula, the residues theorems, leading to useful techniques for evaluating real integrals. By doing this unit, you will develop solid foundations in the more formal aspects of analysis, including knowledge of abstract concepts, how to apply them and the ability to construct proofs in mathematics.
Textbooks
As set out in the Intermediate Mathematics Handbook
MATH2088 Number Theory and Cryptography

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: MATH1002 or MATH1902 or MATH1004 or MATH1904 or MATH1064 or (a mark of 65 or above in MATH1014) Prohibitions: MATH2068 or MATH2988 Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
Cryptography is the branch of mathematics that provides the techniques for confidential exchange of information sent via possibly insecure channels. This unit introduces the tools from elementary number theory that are needed to understand the mathematics underlying the most commonly used modern public key cryptosystems. Topics include the Euclidean Algorithm, Fermat's Little Theorem, the Chinese Remainder Theorem, Mobius Inversion, the RSA Cryptosystem, the Elgamal Cryptosystem and the Diffie-Hellman Protocol. Issues of computational complexity are also discussed.
MATH2988 Number Theory and Cryptography Adv

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: MATH1902 or MATH1904 or (a mark of 65 or above in MATH1002 or MATH1004 or MATH1064) Prohibitions: MATH2068 or MATH2088 Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
This unit of study is an advanced version of MATH2068, sharing the same lectures but with more advanced topics introduced in the tutorials and computer laboratory sessions.
Textbooks
Number Theory and Cryptography, R. Howlett, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sydney, 2018.

3000-level units of study

Interdisciplinary project units
MATH3888 Projects in Mathematics

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: (MATH2921 or MATH2021 or MATH2065 or MATH2965 or MATH2061 or MATH2961 or MATH2923 or MATH2023) and (MATH2922 or MATH2022 or MATH2061 or MATH2961 or MATH2088 or MATH2988) Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
Mathematics is ubiquitous in the modern world. Mathematical ideas contribute to philosophy, art, music, economics, business, science, history, medicine and engineering. To really see the power and beauty of mathematics at work, students need to identify and explore interdisciplinary links. Engagement with other disciplines also provides essential foundational skills for using mathematics in the world beyond the lecture room. In this unit you will commence by working on a group project in an area of mathematics that interests you. From this you will acquire skills of teamwork, research, writing and project management as well as disciplinary knowledge. You will then have the opportunity to apply your disciplinary knowledge in an interdisciplinary team to identify and solve problems and communicate your findings to a diverse audience.
SCPU3001 Science Interdisciplinary Project

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Intensive February,Intensive July,Semester 1,Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: 96 credit points Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
This interdisciplinary unit provides students with the opportunity to address complex problems identified by industry, community, and government organisations, and gain valuable experience in working across disciplinary boundaries. In collaboration with a major industry partner and an academic lead, students integrate their academic skills and knowledge by working in teams with students from a range of disciplinary backgrounds. This experience allows students to research, analyse and present solutions to a real¿world problem, and to build on their interpersonal and transferable skills by engaging with and learning from industry experts and presenting their ideas and solutions to the industry partner.
Selective
MATH3061 Geometry and Topology

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: 12 credit points of MATH2XXX Prohibitions: MATH3001 or MATH3006 Assumed knowledge: Theory and methods of linear transformations and vector spaces, for example MATH2061, MATH2961 or MATH2022 Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
The aim of the unit is to expand visual/geometric ways of thinking. The Geometry section is concerned mainly with transformations of the Euclidean plane (that is, bijections from the plane to itself), with a focus on the study of isometries (proving the classification theorem for transformations which preserve distances between points), symmetries (including the classification of frieze groups) and affine transformations (transformations which map lines to lines). The basic approach is via vectors and matrices, emphasising the interplay between geometry and linear algebra. The study of affine transformations is then extended to the study of collineations in the real projective plane, including collineations which map conics to conics. The Topology section considers graphs, surfaces and knots from a combinatorial point of view. Key ideas such as homeomorphism, subdivision, cutting and pasting and the Euler invariant are introduced first for graphs (1-dimensional objects) and then for triangulated surfaces (2-dimensional objects). Topics include the classification of surfaces, map colouring, decomposition of knots and knot invariants.
MATH3961 Metric Spaces (Advanced)

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: A mark of 65 or greater in 12 credit points of 2000-level Mathematics units Prohibitions: MATH4061 Assumed knowledge: Real analysis and vector spaces. For example (MATH2922 or MATH2961) and (MATH2923 or MATH2962) Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
Topology, developed at the end of the 19th Century to investigate the subtle interaction of analysis and geometry, is now one of the basic disciplines of mathematics. A working knowledge of the language and concepts of topology is essential in fields as diverse as algebraic number theory and non-linear analysis. This unit develops the basic ideas of topology using the example of metric spaces to illustrate and motivate the general theory. Topics covered include: Metric spaces, convergence, completeness and the Contraction Mapping Theorem; Metric topology, open and closed subsets; Topological spaces, subspaces, product spaces; Continuous mappings and homeomorphisms; Compactness Connectedness Hausdorff spaces and normal spaces. You will learn methods and techniques of proving basic theorems in point-set topology and apply them to other areas of mathematics including basic Hilbert space theory and abstract Fourier series. By doing this unit you will develop solid foundations in the more formal aspects of topology, including knowledge of abstract concepts and how to apply them. Applications include the use of the Contraction Mapping Theorem to solve integral and differential equations.
MATH3962 Rings, Fields and Galois Theory (Adv)

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: MATH2961 or MATH2922 or a mark of 65 or greater in (MATH2061 or MATH2022) Prohibitions: MATH3062 or MATH4062 Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
This unit of study investigates the modern mathematical theory that was originally developed for the purpose of studying polynomial equations. The philosophy is that it should be possible to factorize any polynomial into a product of linear factors by working over a "large enough" field (such as the field of all complex numbers). Viewed like this, the problem of solving polynomial equations leads naturally to the problem of understanding extensions of fields. This in turn leads into the area of mathematics known as Galois theory.
The basic theoretical tool needed for this program is the concept of a ring, which generalizes the concept of a field. The course begins with examples of rings, and associated concepts such as subrings, ring homomorphisms, ideals and quotient rings. These tools are then applied to study quotient rings of polynomial rings. The final part of the course deals with the basics of Galois theory, which gives a way of understanding field extensions.
MATH3063 Nonlinear ODEs with Applications

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: 12 credit points of MATH2XXX units of study Prohibitions: MATH3963 or MATH4063 Assumed knowledge: MATH2061 or MATH2961 or [MATH2X21 and MATH2X22] Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
This unit of study is an introduction to the theory of systems of ordinary differential equations. Such systems model many types of phenomena in engineering, biology and the physical sciences. The emphasis will not be on finding explicit solutions, but instead on the qualitative features of these systems, such as stability, instability and oscillatory behaviour. The aim is to develop a good geometrical intuition into the behaviour of solutions to such systems. Some background in linear algebra, and familiarity with concepts such as limits and continuity, will be assumed. The applications in this unit will be drawn from predator-prey systems, transmission of diseases, chemical reactions and other equations and systems from mathematical biology.
MATH3963 Nonlinear ODEs with Applications (Adv)

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: A mark of 65 or greater in 12 credit points of MATH2XXX units of study Prohibitions: MATH3063 or MATH4063 Assumed knowledge: Linear ODEs (for example, MATH2921), eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix, determinant and inverse of a matrix and linear coordinate transformations (for example, MATH2922), Cauchy sequence, completeness and uniform convergence (for example, MATH2923) Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
The theory of ordinary differential equations is a classical topic going back to Newton and Leibniz. It comprises a vast number of ideas and methods of different nature. The theory has many applications and stimulates new developments in almost all areas of mathematics. The emphasis is on qualitative analysis including phase-plane methods, bifurcation theory and the study of limit cycles. The more theoretical part includes existence and uniqueness theorems, linearisation, and analysis of asymptotic behaviour. The applications in this unit will be drawn from predator-prey systems, population models, chemical reactions, and other equations and systems from mathematical biology.
Textbooks
Differential Dynamical Systems, J D Meiss (online)
MATH3066 Algebra and Logic

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: 6 credit points of MATH2XXX Prohibitions: MATH3062 or MATH3065 Assumed knowledge: Introductory knowledge of group theory. For example as in MATH2X22 Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
This unit of study unifies and extends mathematical ideas and techniques that most participants will have met in their first and second years, and will be of general interest to all students of pure and applied mathematics. It combines algebra and logic to present and answer a number of related questions of fundamental importance in the development of mathematics, from ancient to modern times.
The Propositional and Predicate Calculi are studied as model axiomatic systems in their own right, including proofs of consistency and completeness. The final part of the course introduces precise notions of computability and decidability, through abstract Turing machines, culminating in the unsolvability of the Halting Problem the undecidability of First Order Logic, and a discussion of Godel's Incompleteness Theorem.
Classical and novel arithmetics are introduced, unified and described abstractly using field and ring axioms and the language of field extensions. Quotient rings are introduced, which are used to construct different finite and infinite fields. A construction of the real numbers, by factoring out rings of Cauchy sequences of rationals by the ideal of sequences, is presented. Axiomatics are placed in the context of reasoning within first order logic and set theory.
MATH3076 Mathematical Computing

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: 12cp of MATH2XXX or [6cp of MATH2XXX and (6cp of STAT2XXX or DATA2X02)] Prohibitions: MATH3976 or MATH4076 Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
This unit of study provides an introduction to programming and numerical methods. Topics covered include computer arithmetic and computational errors, systems of linear equations, interpolation and approximation, solution of nonlinear equations, quadrature, initial value problems for ordinary differential equations and boundary value problems, and optimisation.
MATH3976 Mathematical Computing (Advanced)

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: A mark of 65 or above in [(12cp of MATH2XXX) or (6cp of MATH2XXX and 6cp of STAT2XXX or DATA2X02)] Prohibitions: MATH3076 or MATH4076 Assumed knowledge: Strong skills in linear algebra and the theory and methods of ordinary and partial differential equations for example (MATH2961 and MATH2965) or (MATH2921 and MATH2922) Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
This unit of study provides an introduction to programming and numerical methods. Topics covered include computer arithmetic and computational errors, systems of linear equations, interpolation and approximation, solution of nonlinear equations, quadrature, initial value problems for ordinary differential equations and boundary value problems, and optimisation.
MATH3078 PDEs and Waves

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: 6cp from (MATH2X21 or MATH2X65 or MATH2067) and 6cp from (MATH2X22 or MATH2X61) Prohibitions: MATH3978 or MATH4078 Assumed knowledge: [MATH2X61 and MATH2X65] or [MATH2X21 and MATH2X22] Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
The aim of this unit is to introduce some fundamental concepts of the theory of partial differential equations (PDEs) arising in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematical Finance. The focus is mainly on linear equations but some important examples of nonlinear equations and related phenomena re introduced as well. After an introductory lecture, we proceed with first-order PDEs and the method of characteristics. Here, we also nonlinear transport equations and shock waves are discussed. Then the theory of the elliptic equations is presented with an emphasis on eigenvalue problems and their application to solve parabolic and hyperbolic initial boundary-value problems. The Maximum principle and Harnack's inequality will be discussed and the theory of Green's functions.
MATH3978 PDEs and Waves (Advanced)

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: A mark of 65 or greater in 6cp from (MATH2X21 or MATH2X65 or MATH2067) and a mark of 65 or greater 6cp from (MATH2X22 or MATH2X61) Prohibitions: MATH3078 or MATH4078 Assumed knowledge: [MATH2X61 and MATH2X65] or [MATH2X21 and MATH2X22] Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
The aim of this unit is to introduce some fundamental concepts of the theory of partial differential equations (PDEs) arising in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematical Finance. The focus is mainly on linear equations but some important examples of nonlinear equations and related phenomena re introduced as well. After an introductory lecture, we proceed with first-order PDEs and the method of characteristics. Here, we also nonlinear transport equations and shock waves are discussed. Then the theory of the elliptic equations is presented with an emphasis on eigenvalue problems and their application to solve parabolic and hyperbolic initial boundary-value problems. The Maximum principle and Harnack's inequality will be discussed and the theory of Green's functions.
MATH3968 Differential Geometry (Advanced)

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: A mark of 65 or greater in 12 credit points of MATH2XXX units of study Prohibitions: MATH4068 Assumed knowledge: (MATH2921 and MATH2922) or MATH2961 Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
This unit is an introduction to Differential Geometry, one of the core pillars of modern mathematics. Using ideas from calculus of several variables, we develop the mathematical theory of geometrical objects such as curves, surfaces and their higher-dimensional analogues. Differential geometry also plays an important part in both classical and modern theoretical physics. The unit aims to develop geometrical ideas such as curvature in the context of curves and surfaces in space, leading to the famous Gauss-Bonnet formula relating the curvature and topology of a surface.
MATH3969 Measure Theory and Fourier Analysis (Adv)

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: A mark of 65 or greater in 12 credit points of MATH2XXX units of study Prohibitions: MATH4069 Assumed knowledge: Real analysis and vector spaces. For example MATH2X21 and MATH2X23 Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
Measure theory is the study of such fundamental ideas as length, area, volume, arc length and surface area. It is the basis for the integration theory used in advanced mathematics since it was developed by Henri Lebesgue in about 1900. Moreover, it is the basis for modern probability theory. The course starts by setting up measure theory and integration, establishing important results such as Fubini's Theorem and the Dominated Convergence Theorem which allow us to manipulate integrals. This is then applied to Fourier Analysis, and results such as the Inversion Formula and Plancherel's Theorem are derived. The Radon-Nikodyn Theorem provides a representation of measures in terms of a density. Probability theory is then discussed with topics including distributions and conditional expectation.
MATH3974 Fluid Dynamics (Advanced)

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: An average mark of 65 or more in (12 credit points of MATH2XXX) Prohibitions: MATH4074 Assumed knowledge: [MATH2961 and MATH2965] or [MATH2921 and MATH2922] Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
This unit of study provides an introduction to fluid dynamics, starting with a description of the governing equations and the simplifications gained by using stream functions or potentials. It develops elementary theorems and tools, including Bernoulli's equation, the role of vorticity, the vorticity equation, Kelvin's circulation theorem, Helmholtz's theorem, and an introduction to the use of tensors. Topics covered include viscous flows, lubrication theory, boundary layers, potential theory, and complex variable methods for 2-D airfoils. The unit concludes with an introduction to hydrodynamic stability theory and the transition to turbulent flow.
MATH3977 Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Dynamics (Adv)

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 2 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: A mark of 65 or greater in 12 credit points of MATH2XXX units of study Prohibitions: MATH4077 Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
This unit provides a comprehensive treatment of dynamical systems using the mathematically sophisticated framework of Lagrange and Hamilton. This formulation of classical mechanics generalizes elegantly to modern theories of relativity and quantum mechanics. The unit develops dynamical theory from the Principle of Least Action using the calculus of variations. Emphasis is placed on the relation between the symmetry and invariance properties of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions and conservation laws. Coordinate and canonical transformations are introduced to make apparently complicated dynamical problems appear very simple. The unit will also explore connections between geometry and different physical theories beyond classical mechanics.
Students will be expected to solve fully dynamical systems of some complexity including planetary motion and to investigate stability using perturbation analysis. Hamilton-Jacobi theory will be used to elegantly solve problems ranging from geodesics (shortest path between two points) on curved surfaces to relativistic motion in the vicinity of black holes.
This unit is a useful preparation for units in dynamical systems and chaos, and complements units in differential equations, quantum theory and general relativity.
MATH3979 Complex Analysis (Advanced)

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Session: Semester 1 Classes: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Prerequisites: A mark of 65 or above in 12cp of MATH2XXX Prohibitions: MATH4079 or MATH3964 Assumed knowledge: Good knowledge of analysis of functions of one real variable, working knowledge of complex numbers, including their topology, for example MATH2X23 or MATH2962 or MATH3068 Assessment: Refer to the unit of study outline https://www.sydney.edu.au/units Mode of delivery: Normal (lecture/lab/tutorial) day
This unit continues the study of functions of a complex variable introduced in the second year unit Analysis (MATH2023/2923). It is aimed at highlighting certain topics from analytic function theory that have wide applications and intrinsic beauty. By learning about the analysis of functions of a complex variable, you will acquire a very important background for mathematical areas such as dynamics, algebraic and differential geometry, and number theory; and advanced theoretical physics such as quantum mechanics, string theory, and quantum field theory. The unit will begin with a revision of properties of complex numbers and complex functions. This will be followed by material on conformal mappings, Riemann surfaces, complex integration, entire and analytic functions, the Riemann mapping theorem, analytic continuation, and Gamma and Zeta functions. Finally, special topics chosen by the lecturer will be presented, which may include elliptic functions, normal families, Julia sets, functions of several complex variables, or complex manifolds. At the end of this unit you will have received a broad introduction and gained a variety of tools to apply them within your further mathematical studies and/or in other disciplines.