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Unit outline_

# AERO9560: Flight Mechanics 1

## Overview

This unit aims to develop an understanding of aircraft longitudinal equilibrium, static stability, dynamic stability and response. Students will develop an understanding of the importance and significance of flight stability, will gain skills in dynamic system analysis and will learn mathematical tools used for prediction of aircraft flight behaviour. Students will gain skills in problem solving in the area of flight vehicle motion, and learn the fundamentals of flight simulation. At the end of this unit students will be able to understand: aircraft flight conditions and equilibrium; the effects of aerodynamic and propulsive controls on equilibrium conditions; the significance of flight stability and its impact of aircraft operations and pilot workload; the meaning of aerodynamic stability derivatives and their sources; the effects of aerodynamic derivatives on flight stability; the impact of flight stability and trim on all atmospheric flight vehicles. Students will also be able to model aircraft flight characteristics using computational techniques and analyse the aircraft equations of rigid-body motion and to extract stability characteristics. Course content will include static longitudinal aircraft stability: origin of symmetric forces and moments; static and manoeuvring longitudinal stability, equilibrium and control of rigid aircraft; aerodynamic load effects of wings, stabilisers, fuselages and power plants; trailing edge aerodynamic controls; trimmed equilibrium condition; static margin; effect on static stability of free and reversible controls.

### Unit details and rules

Academic unit Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic 6 AMME9500 or AMME5500 None AERO8560 Mathematics, Physics and Dynamics assumed knowledge at the level of Bachelor of Science or equivalent. No

### Teaching staff

Coordinator Michael Groom, michael.groom@sydney.edu.au Michael Groom Anne Bettens Jeremy Cox

## Assessment

Type Description Weight Due Length
Final exam (Open book) Final Exam
Open book Canvas quiz (multiple choice, short & long answer questions)
30% Formal exam period 2 hours
Outcomes assessed:
Tutorial quiz Weekly Question
Weekly Canvas quiz (multiple attempts). Students have 5 days to complete.
10% Multiple weeks One question per week.
Outcomes assessed:
Assignment Assignment 1: Coordinate systems and transformations
Technical report. This assignment should take the average student 10 hours.
10% Week 05
Due date: 12 Sep 2021 at 23:59
Maximum of six pages.
Outcomes assessed:
Assignment Assignment 2: Longitudinal flight stability and control
Technical report. This assignment should take the average student 20 hours.
20% Week 07
Due date: 26 Sep 2021 at 23:59
Maximum of 15 pages.
Outcomes assessed:
Assignment Assignment 3: Flight simulation and stability analysis major project
Technical report. This assignment should take the average student 30 hours.
30% Week 12
Due date: 07 Nov 2021 at 23:59
Maximum of 30 pages.
Outcomes assessed:
= hurdle task
= group assignment
= Type C final exam

### Assessment summary

• Assignment 1: Application of coordinate systems and reference frame transformations to aircraft orientation and attitude.
• Assignment 2: Application of longitudinal stability analysis to a full aircraft configuration.
• Assignment 3: Major project on flight simulation and handling qualities. Peer assessment will be used to determine each student’s final mark.
• Weekly Question: Online question to complete each week based on the content of that week’s lectures and tutorial.
• Final Exam: Open-book exam on content from lectures and tutorials.

Detailed information for each assessment can be found on Canvas.

### Assessment criteria

The University awards common result grades, set out in the Coursework Policy 2014 (Schedule 1).

As a general guide, a high distinction indicates work of an exceptional standard, a distinction a very high standard, a credit a good standard, and a pass an acceptable standard.

Result name

Mark range

Description

High distinction

85 - 100

Awarded when you demonstrate the learning outcomes for the unit at an exceptional standard.

Distinction

75 - 84

Awarded when you demonstrate the learning outcomes for the unit at a very high standard.

Credit

65 - 74

Awarded when you demonstrate the learning outcomes for the unit at a good standard.

Pass

50 - 64

Awarded when you demonstrate the learning outcomes for the unit at an acceptable standard.

Fail

0 - 49

When you don’t meet the learning outcomes of the unit to a satisfactory standard.

For more information see guide to grades.

### Late submission

In accordance with University policy, these penalties apply when written work is submitted after 11:59pm on the due date:

• Deduction of 5% of the maximum mark for each calendar day after the due date.
• After ten calendar days late, a mark of zero will be awarded.

This unit has an exception to the standard University policy or supplementary information has been provided by the unit coordinator. This information is displayed below:

The penalty for lateness is 5% per day. The penalty would apply from the next calendar day after the deadline. The penalty is a percentage of the available mark and is applied to the mark gained after the submitted work is marked (e.g., an assignment worth 100 marks is 1 day late. The content is given a mark of 75. With the 5% penalty, the final mark is 70).

### Academic integrity

The Current Student website  provides information on academic integrity and the resources available to all students. The University expects students and staff to act ethically and honestly and will treat all allegations of academic integrity breaches seriously.

We use similarity detection software to detect potential instances of plagiarism or other forms of academic integrity breach. If such matches indicate evidence of plagiarism or other forms of academic integrity breaches, your teacher is required to report your work for further investigation.

You may only use artificial intelligence and writing assistance tools in assessment tasks if you are permitted to by your unit coordinator, and if you do use them, you must also acknowledge this in your work, either in a footnote or an acknowledgement section.

Studiosity is permitted for postgraduate units unless otherwise indicated by the unit coordinator. The use of this service must be acknowledged in your submission.

## Learning support

### Simple extensions

If you encounter a problem submitting your work on time, you may be able to apply for an extension of five calendar days through a simple extension.  The application process will be different depending on the type of assessment and extensions cannot be granted for some assessment types like exams.

### Special consideration

If exceptional circumstances mean you can’t complete an assessment, you need consideration for a longer period of time, or if you have essential commitments which impact your performance in an assessment, you may be eligible for special consideration or special arrangements.

Special consideration applications will not be affected by a simple extension application.

### Using AI responsibly

Co-created with students, AI in Education includes lots of helpful examples of how students use generative AI tools to support their learning. It explains how generative AI works, the different tools available and how to use them responsibly and productively.

## Weekly schedule

WK Topic Learning activity Learning outcomes
Multiple weeks Independent study throughout semester to prepare for classes and work on assignments. Independent study (90 hr)
Week 01 1. Basic aerodynamic relationships 2. Axis systems and state variable definitions 3. Aircraft component and control identification 4. Aircraft axis and state definitions Lecture (3 hr)
Week 02 1. Introduction to stability concepts 2. Mean aerodynamic chord and aerodynamic centre 3. Wing contribution to longitudinal stability 4. Equilibrium and phase plane concepts 5. Aerodynamic forces and moments Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 03 1. Control effects on equilibrium 2. Neutral point and static margin 3. Total longitudinal stability 4. Contribution of the tail 5. Longitudinal aircraft stability Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 04 1. Stick forces and trim 2. Stick-fixed and stick-free stability 3. Longitudinal aircraft stability cont'd Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 05 1. Axis systems and coordinate transformations 2. General equations of aircraft motion 3. Newton and Euler laws of motion Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 06 1. General nonlinear equations of motion in six DOF 2. General equations of aircraft motion cont'd 3. Moments and products of inertia Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 07 1. Aerodynamic force and moment derivative definitions 2. Control force and moment derivatives 3. Manifestations of aerodynamic force and moment derivatives 4. Sources of aerodynamic forces Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 08 1. Linear equations of motion 2. Linearisation about an equilibrium 3. Linearised equations of aircraft motion Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 09 1. Eigenvector and Argand diagrams 2. Eigenvalues and modes of motions 3. Lateral-directional equations of motion 4. Longitudinal equations of motion 5. Relationships with time-domain behaviour 6. Longitudinal and lateral-directional motion subsystems Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 10 1. Order and flow of simulation tasks 2. State-space representations. Flight simulation architectures and procedures 3. Integration techniques 4. Time-domain solution of equations of motion Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 11 Major project - flight simulation Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 12 Major project - flight simulation Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 13 Summary and sample problems Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)

### Study commitment

Typically, there is a minimum expectation of 1.5-2 hours of student effort per week per credit point for units of study offered over a full semester. For a 6 credit point unit, this equates to roughly 120-150 hours of student effort in total.

### Required readings

Reference 1:

• Title: Airplane Flight Dynamics and Automatic Flight Controls
• Author/s: Roskam, J.
• Publisher: Roskam Aviation and Engineering Corporation
• Publish Year: 1982/1997

Reference 2:

• Title: Dynamics of Atmospheric Flight
• Author/s: Etkin, B.
• Publisher: Dover Publications
• Publish Year: 2012

Reference 3:

• Title: Dynamics of Flight: Stability and Control
• Author/s: Etkin, B. Reid, L.D.
• Edition: 3rd
• Publisher: Wiley
• Publish Year: 1996

Reference 4:

• Title: Flight Stability and Automatic Control
• Author/s: Nelson, R. C.
• Edition: 2nd
• Publisher: McGraw-Hill
• Publish Year: 1998

## Learning outcomes

Learning outcomes are what students know, understand and are able to do on completion of a unit of study. They are aligned with the University's graduate qualities and are assessed as part of the curriculum.

At the completion of this unit, you should be able to:

• LO1. Demonstrate capabilities in written communication through preparation of reports.
• LO2. Demonstrate developed skills in group interaction and interactive problem solving.
• LO3. Analyse the aircraft equations of rigid-body motion and extract stability characteristics.
• LO4. Model aircraft flight characteristics using computational techniques.
• LO5. Understand aircraft flight conditions and equilibrium.
• LO6. Understand the effects of aerodynamic and propulsive controls on equilibrium conditions.
• LO7. Understand the significance of flight stability and its impact on aircraft operations and pilot workload.
• LO8. Understand the meaning of aerodynamic stability derivatives and their sources.
• LO9. Understand the effects of aerodynamic derivatives on flight stability.
• LO10. Understand the impact of flight stability and trim on all atmospheric flight vehicles.

### Graduate qualities

The graduate qualities are the qualities and skills that all University of Sydney graduates must demonstrate on successful completion of an award course. As a future Sydney graduate, the set of qualities have been designed to equip you for the contemporary world.

 GQ1 Depth of disciplinary expertise Deep disciplinary expertise is the ability to integrate and rigorously apply knowledge, understanding and skills of a recognised discipline defined by scholarly activity, as well as familiarity with evolving practice of the discipline. GQ2 Critical thinking and problem solving Critical thinking and problem solving are the questioning of ideas, evidence and assumptions in order to propose and evaluate hypotheses or alternative arguments before formulating a conclusion or a solution to an identified problem. GQ3 Oral and written communication Effective communication, in both oral and written form, is the clear exchange of meaning in a manner that is appropriate to audience and context. GQ4 Information and digital literacy Information and digital literacy is the ability to locate, interpret, evaluate, manage, adapt, integrate, create and convey information using appropriate resources, tools and strategies. GQ5 Inventiveness Generating novel ideas and solutions. GQ6 Cultural competence Cultural Competence is the ability to actively, ethically, respectfully, and successfully engage across and between cultures. In the Australian context, this includes and celebrates Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures, knowledge systems, and a mature understanding of contemporary issues. GQ7 Interdisciplinary effectiveness Interdisciplinary effectiveness is the integration and synthesis of multiple viewpoints and practices, working effectively across disciplinary boundaries. GQ8 Integrated professional, ethical, and personal identity An integrated professional, ethical and personal identity is understanding the interaction between one’s personal and professional selves in an ethical context. GQ9 Influence Engaging others in a process, idea or vision.

### Outcome map

Learning outcomes Graduate qualities
GQ1 GQ2 GQ3 GQ4 GQ5 GQ6 GQ7 GQ8 GQ9

## Responding to student feedback

This section outlines changes made to this unit following staff and student reviews.

Changes to the assessment schedule have been made to reduce the number of submissions throughout the semester. Additional learning material will be provided to support online learning and more exam-like questions will be discussed in tutorials and lectures.

### Disclaimer

The University reserves the right to amend units of study or no longer offer certain units, including where there are low enrolment numbers.

To help you understand common terms that we use at the University, we offer an online glossary.