Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) techniques yield structural insights on length scales of 1–200 nm, both in situ and non-destructively. It has thus become an important technique for studying soft, deformable and self-assembled materials, such as those found in drug delivery systems and structural biology. For structural biology, SAXS is a complementary technique to other standard characterisation techniques such as X-ray crystallography, allowing characterisation of structural changes in solution. For drug delivery, SAXS has long been a standard technique for accessing the size, shape and transitions of many common drug delivery vehicles such as micelles, emulsion drops, liquid crystals, vesicles, and microgels. X-ray scattering also is used to study defect structures and pores in metals, ceramics and rocks.
Please contact Paul FitzGerald
The SAXSpoint is the latest generation point collimated benchtop SAXS instrument from Anton Paar, which takes advantage of recent advances in both X-ray tube and detector technologies to give both an order of magnitude increase in intensity and an order of magnitude reduction in minimum q. In addition to the capabilities of the SAXSess, the SAXSpoint makes possible benchtop experiments - such as kinetics and grazing incidence SAXS - that were previously only available on synchrotron SAXS lines.
The Malvern Zetasizer can measure particle sizes from sub-nanometer to the micrometer range using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The Zetasizer can also measure particle zeta potentials using Electrophoretic Light Scattering (ELS). The Zetasizer is optimised for ease of use and rapid measurements, and is usually the first instrument most users should start with for particle characterisation in solution.
The Malvern NS300 can measure particles sizes, distributions, and concentrations using the Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) technique. Depending on the sample, the NS300 is optimised for measuring particle sizes in the nanometer size range. It is fit with a low volume flow cell that allows for minimisation of sample volumes but maximisation of signal to noise. It has the option of either a red (642 nm) or blue (488 nm) laser.
The Particle Metrix Zetaview is our latest Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) instrument for measuring particle size, distributions, and concentrations. It has the option of four lasers (405 nm, 488 nm, 530 nm, and 640 nm) and associated fluorescence filters. In addition, the Zetaview has the ability to measure zeta potentials and is optimised for the rapid processing of a large number of samples in a short amount of time.
Our partners at ANSTO operate two specialised small-angle X-ray scattering beamlines at the Australian Synchrotron (SAXS/WAXS and BioSAXS) covering complementary size ranges and sample requirements. We can provide advice on their suitability for your experiment and how to access them.
Neutrons scatter in a manner analogous to X-rays but with very different elemental contrasts (which can be manipulated by changing isotopes, e.g., deuteration), making them highly complementary. Our partners at ANSTO operate two small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and one ultra-small angle neutron scattering (USANS) instruments at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering, covering particle analysis over four orders of magnitude in size (1 nm to 10 µm) under a range of environmental conditions. We can provide advice on their suitability for your scientific problems and how to access them.
Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) is used to determine the structure of crystalline materials on an atomic scale, using a single sub-millimetre sized crystal. The ordered atoms cause an X-ray beam to be scattered in many different directions, and by measuring the angles and intensities of the diffracted beams the three-dimensional atomic structure of the crystal can be determined.
Please contact William Lewis
This high-performance system has a powerful microfocus rotating anode X-ray generator providing either copper or silver radiation, and two end stations that are tailored to study small molecules and proteins.
The Rigaku Oxford Diffraction SuperNova provides a choice of a copper or a molybdenum X-ray source, and is equipped with a large Atlas CCD area detector mounted on a four circle goniometer. The shorter wavelength molybdenum source allows higher resolution and reduces absorption effects. The longer wavelength copper source is much more intense and facilitates absolute structure determinations for light atom structures. The instrument is equipped with an Oxford Cryosystems Cyrostream 700 Plus liquid nitrogen based cryosystem for low temperature data collections.
This instrument has an Incoatec IµS 2.5 X-ray source, equipped with a D85 four circle kappa goniometer, state-of-the-art Incoatec Quazar multilayer optics, and an Apex II CCD area detector. The instrument is equipped with an Oxford Cryosystems Cyrostream 700 Plus liquid nitrogen based cryosystem, enabling data collection from 80-500K.
The following sample environments are offered:
Synchrotron X-rays are much more intense than in-house sources, allowing much smaller crystals to be measured much more quickly. Our partners at ANSTO operate four single-crystal X-ray diffraction beamlines at the Australian Synchrotron: MX1 (microfocus, for extremely small molecular and materials crystals), MX2 and MX3 (for proteins and other macromolecules), and ADS (for demanding samples and unconventional experiments, e.g., diffuse scattering). We can provide advice on their suitability for your experiment and how to access them.
Neutrons diffract in a manner analogous to X-rays but with very different elemental contrasts, making them highly complementary. Single-crystal neutron diffraction is particularly sensitive to light elements (e.g., hydrogen) in the presence of heavier ones. Our partners at ANSTO operate a dedicated single-crystal neutron diffractometer and several other instruments suitable for certain types of single-crystal experiment, at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering, capable of measuring samples down to ~0.1 mm dimensions under a range of environmental conditions. We can provide advice on their suitability for your scientific problems and how to access them.
X-ray powder diffraction also measures the structure of crystalline materials, however in this case fine powders or flat solids are used, broadening the application to wide range of materials. Crystal structure, phase composition, and residual stress can be determined.
Please contact Samuel Duyker.
The Stadi P is the most advanced laboratory powder diffractometer available. Configured with molybdenum or copper X-ray sources, this instrument has two beamlines equipped with accessories to control sample temperature from 12 K to 1000°C:
This multipurpose Bragg-Brentano (flat plate) X-ray diffractometer is ideal for routine powder diffraction measurements. It is equipped with a 48-capacity robot sample changer, a copper X-ray source and has automatic alignment and component recognition. Its advanced 2D photon-counting XSPA-400 detector has a narrow 340 eV energy resolution that eliminates most fluorescence problems.
Equipped with a robot sample changer, and configured with a copper X-ray source and Bragg-Brentano geometry, this instrument is ideal for routine powder diffraction measurements.
This instrument, configured with a copper X-ray source and Bragg-Brentano geometry, is equipped with two high temperature stages:
This instrument also has an Open Eulerian Cradle that can be used to perform either X-ray reflectometry (XRR) or residual stress measurements. X-ray reflectometry measurements probe the vertical depth and distribution of thin films. The horizontal geometry of this instrument allows measurement of both solid-air and liquid-air interfaces. This has applications to thin film technologies such as catalytic interfaces, surfactant layers, adsorbed polymer layers, and biological membranes.
This instrument also has an Open Eulerian Cradle that can be used to perform either X-ray reflectometry (XRR) or residual stress measurements:
Located in the Australian Technology Park, the GBA Mini-Materials Analyser diffractometer is optimised collection on clays and similar materials. The system has a Cu sealed tube source, and a fast MtriX Multi-strip solid state detector. The system is also equipped with an Anton Paar CHC+ humidity chamber, which allows data collection between -5 to 400°C, and 5 to 95% relative humidity (10-60 °C only).
Our partners at ANSTO operate two high-intensity X-ray powder diffraction beamlines at the Australian Synchrotron (PD and ADS) capable of measuring smaller samples, at higher resolution, more quickly, over wider Q ranges (including for total-scattering analysis) and under a wider range of conditions (e.g., GPa pressures) than in-house instruments. We can provide advice on their suitability for your experiment and how to access them.
Neutrons diffract in a manner analogous to X-rays but with very different elemental contrasts, making them highly complementary. Neutron powder diffraction is particularly sensitive to light elements (e.g., lithium) in the presence of heavier ones, and particularly powerful when difficult sample environments are required (e.g., liquid-helium temperatures and high magnetic fields). Our partners at ANSTO operate two neutron powder diffractometers at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering. We can provide advice on their suitability for your scientific problems and how to access them.
The PANalytical energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) bench-top spectrometer performs non-destructive analysis of elements from sodium to uranium, in concentrations from 100% down to ppm levels. This instrument is equipped with the Malvern Panalytical standardless Omnian calibration program and is specifically configured for the analysis of heavy metals.
Please contact William Lewis
The Bruker Tracer 5i is a handheld energy-dispersive XRF spectrometer, ideally suited for analyses both in the laboratory and in the field, and capable of analysing elements from Mg to U (variously % to ppm levels). The system is equipped with an internal camera, 3mm and 8mm collimators, and an automated internal wheel filter as well as a manual filter slot. Current calibrations include those for metals, ceramics and rocks, with custom calibrations possible with the use of EasyCal software.
Please contact Vibrational Spectroscopy
The Bruker ARTAX800 µ-XRF system is a portable energy-dispersive XRF spectrometer, with a 70 µm resolution, capable of both spot analyses and mapping. Elements from Na to U can be analysed (variously % to ppm levels) and a rotating measuring head enables analysis of a wide variety of samples without the need for contact, including samples too large to otherwise be analysed by conventional laboratory instruments and extremely small samples that require high resolution. Custom calibrations are possible with the use of EasyCal software.
Please contact Vibrational Spectroscopy
This instrument, located in the Sydney Nanoscience Hub, is designed for surface and thin film characterisation. It is capable of both x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) and provides information on elemental composition, oxidation states and electronic states.
A Thermo Scientific MAGCISTM dual mode ion beam enables depth profiling and surface cleaning using either a monatomic or gas cluster beam, while a patented dual beam flood source prevents sample charging enabling easy analysis of insulators.
The size of the x-ray beam can be adjusted from 30 – 400 um in 5 um increments and samples analysed as single points or lines. Chemical imaging is also available allowing distribution maps from 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm up to 3 mm x 3mm in size to be collected.
Specialised accessories include:
Please contact Vibrational Spectroscopy