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Unit of study_

BIOS1170: Body Systems: Structure and Function

This unit will present the gross anatomy, functional histology, physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular, respiratory and urinary systems. Specific diseases of these systems that are commonly encountered in health care practice will be described. The unit will also cover the characteristics of the body's fluids and the concept of acid-­base balance within the body. Specific diseases of these systems that are commonly encountered in health care practice will be described. This unit includes laboratory classes in which human cadavers are studied. Attendance at practical classes is compulsory. Students who achieve a pass will have a basic working knowledge of professionally relevant aspects of anatomy and physiology. Students who achieve higher grades will be better able to integrate various aspects of the unit, and to apply their knowledge to solve problems or explain higher level phenomena.

Code BIOS1170
Academic unit Department of Medical Sciences
Credit points 6

At the completion of this unit, you should be able to:

  • LO1. Describe the distribution of water in the body, the difference between intra- and extra- cellular fluid, the structure and function of the cell membrane, membrane transport mechanisms and homeostatic systems (including (i) negative feedback, (ii) positive feedback & (iii) feedforward. Explain the significance of the autonomic nervous system and endocrine systems (eg. HPA axis) in feedback systems.
  • LO2. Describe the anatomy of the heart, blood vessels and lymphatics, the external and internal features of the heart, the major components of the cardiac conducting system, the coronary circulation, the nerve supply of the heart and blood vessels, how the microstructure of different types of blood vessels relates to their function, the lymphatic vessels, the location and role of valves (in the heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels), the features of the mammalian circulatory system: a dual circulation connected in series. (How this is an advantage over a single circulatory system?), the origin and regulation of electrical events of the heart (with reference to microstructure of the cardiac myocyte), how the heart functions as a pump, the factors that influence cardiac output and how it is regulated, including the mathematical formulae used to describe these factors, the factors that influence blood flow and blood pressure and the mathematical formulae used to describe them, the regulation of blood flow and blood pressure, including local, neural and humoral (e.g. renin-angiontensin system, vasopressin & natriuretic peptides) influences. Endocrine control of erythropoiesis. The microcirculation and exchange of substances, the role of the lymphatic system and its relationship to the circulation.
  • LO3. Apply the learning covered in Objective 2 to explain the cardiovascular changes that occur during exercise and the pathophysiology in common cardiovascular diseases
  • LO4. Describe the organs, passages and musculoskeletal framework of the respiratory system. Relate the function to the histology of the respiratory system. Describe: the process of ventilation, including the gas laws and the relationships between pressure, resistance and flow, the role of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles, the various pressures inside the chest, the role of the pleura in facilitating ventilation, the factors that affect ventilation with reference resistance and compliance, work of breathing, the measurement of ventilation, measures of volume and capacitance, pulmonary function tests, common diseases of the airways, the process by which gas is exchanged between the alveoli and the blood, including the concept of partial pressures, the significance of dead space, ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q) matching, the difference between movement of gas via bulk flow and diffusion, normal blood gases and how they can be affected in common disorders. the process by which gases are transported between the lungs and the tissues, focusing on oxygen and carbon dioxide, the key role of haemoglobin, the haemoglobin dissociation curve, control of ventilation, including the role of arterial levels of O2, CO2, H+.
  • LO5. Apply the learning covered in Objective 3 to explain the respiratory changes that occur during exercise and the physiological changes that occur in common respiratory diseases
  • LO6. Describe the general functions of the urinary system and how the urinary system contributes to the homeostasis of the body, the anatomy of the organs involved in the production, storage and elimination of urine, the location of the left and right kidney and major relationships of the ureter, bladder and urethra in the male and female, the location and structure of the internal and external sphincters of the bladder and their role in continence, the blood supply of the kidney, the relationship between the structure and function of the nephron, the process of urine formation and the factors controlling it, the micturition reflex, the role of the urinary system in regulation of blood volume and blood pressure, the endocrine functions of the kidney, including volume regulation (renin-angiotensin system, vasopressin, natriuretic peptides) and and erythrocyte production (erythropoietin) .
  • LO7. Describe the regulation of pH in the intracellular and extracellular fluid, the pH of the blood and how it is affected by carbon dioxide and bicarbonate ion concentration, how the body responds to changes in carbon dioxide and bicarbonate levels, the role of the respiratory system in the regulation of hydrogen ion concentration. the role of the kidneys in the regulation of hydrogen ion concentration, the terms: acidosis, acidaemia, respiratory acidosis, metabolic acidosis, alkalosis, alkalaemia, respiratory alkalosis, metabolic alkalosis.
  • LO8. Apply the learning covered in Objectives 6 and 7 to explain the acid-base changes that occur during exercise and the physiological relationship between kidney function and acid-base disturbances that occur in common kidney diseases