Unit outline_

# AERO9560: Flight Mechanics 1

## Overview

This unit aims to develop an understanding of aircraft longitudinal equilibrium, static stability, dynamic stability and response. Students will develop an understanding of the importance and significance of flight stability, will gain skills in dynamic system analysis and will learn mathematical tools used for prediction of aircraft flight behaviour. Students will gain skills in problem solving in the area of flight vehicle motion, and learn the fundamentals of flight simulation. At the end of this unit students will be able to understand: aircraft flight conditions and equilibrium; the effects of aerodynamic and propulsive controls on equilibrium conditions; the significance of flight stability and its impact of aircraft operations and pilot workload; the meaning of aerodynamic stability derivatives and their sources; the effects of aerodynamic derivatives on flight stability; the impact of flight stability and trim on all atmospheric flight vehicles. Students will also be able to model aircraft flight characteristics using computational techniques and analyse the aircraft equations of rigid-body motion and to extract stability characteristics. Course content will include static longitudinal aircraft stability: origin of symmetric forces and moments; static and manoeuvring longitudinal stability, equilibrium and control of rigid aircraft; aerodynamic load effects of wings, stabilisers, fuselages and power plants; trailing edge aerodynamic controls; trimmed equilibrium condition; static margin; effect on static stability of free and reversible controls.

### Unit details and rules

Academic unit Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic 6 AMME9500 or AMME5500 None AERO8560 Mathematics, Physics and Dynamics assumed knowledge at the level of Bachelor of Science or equivalent. No

### Teaching staff

Coordinator Ben Thornber, ben.thornber@sydney.edu.au Daniel Linton Anne Bettens Jeremy Cox

## Assessment

Type Description Weight Due Length
Final exam (Open book) Final Exam
Open book Canvas quiz (multiple choice, short & long answer questions)
40% Formal exam period 2 hours
Outcomes assessed:
Assignment Assignment 1: Coordinate systems and transformations
Technical report and code addressing mathematical and conceptual questions.
10% Week 05
Due date: 28 Sep 2020 at 00:00
10 hours
Outcomes assessed:
Assignment Assignment 2: Longitudinal flight stability and control
Technical report and code addressing mathematical and conceptual questions.
20% Week 07
Due date: 12 Oct 2020 at 00:00
20 hours
Outcomes assessed:
Assignment Assignment 3: Flight simulation and stability analysis major project
Technical report and code addressing mathematical and conceptual questions.
30% Week 12
Due date: 20 Nov 2020 at 17:00
30 hours
Outcomes assessed:
= group assignment
= Type C final exam

### Assessment summary

• Final exam: will cover all material as scheduled. It is a requirement that to pass the course you must pass the exam.

Detailed information for each assessment can be found on Canvas.

### Assessment criteria

The University awards common result grades, set out in the Coursework Policy 2014 (Schedule 1).

As a general guide, a high distinction indicates work of an exceptional standard, a distinction a very high standard, a credit a good standard, and a pass an acceptable standard.

Result name

Mark range

Description

High distinction

85 - 100

Awarded when you demonstrate the learning outcomes for the unit at an exceptional standard.

Distinction

75 - 84

Awarded when you demonstrate the learning outcomes for the unit at a very high standard.

Credit

65 - 74

Awarded when you demonstrate the learning outcomes for the unit at a good standard.

Pass

50 - 64

Awarded when you demonstrate the learning outcomes for the unit at an acceptable standard.

Fail

0 - 49

When you don’t meet the learning outcomes of the unit to a satisfactory standard.

### Late submission

In accordance with University policy, these penalties apply when written work is submitted after 11:59pm on the due date:

• Deduction of 5% of the maximum mark for each calendar day after the due date.
• After ten calendar days late, a mark of zero will be awarded.

This unit has an exception to the standard University policy or supplementary information has been provided by the unit coordinator. This information is displayed below:

The penalty for lateness is 5% per day. The penalty would apply from the next calendar day after the deadline. The penalty is a percentage of the available mark and is applied to the mark gained after the submitted work is marked (e.g., an assignment worth 100 marks is 1 day late. The content is given a mark of 75. With the 5% penalty, the final mark is 70).

The Current Student website provides information on academic integrity and the resources available to all students. The University expects students and staff to act ethically and honestly and will treat all allegations of academic integrity breaches seriously.

We use similarity detection software to detect potential instances of plagiarism or other forms of academic integrity breach. If such matches indicate evidence of plagiarism or other forms of academic integrity breaches, your teacher is required to report your work for further investigation.

Use of generative artificial intelligence (AI) and automated writing tools

You may only use generative AI and automated writing tools in assessment tasks if you are permitted to by your unit coordinator. If you do use these tools, you must acknowledge this in your work, either in a footnote or an acknowledgement section. The assessment instructions or unit outline will give guidance of the types of tools that are permitted and how the tools should be used.

Your final submitted work must be your own, original work. You must acknowledge any use of generative AI tools that have been used in the assessment, and any material that forms part of your submission must be appropriately referenced. For guidance on how to acknowledge the use of AI, please refer to the AI in Education Canvas site.

The unapproved use of these tools or unacknowledged use will be considered a breach of the Academic Integrity Policy and penalties may apply.

Studiosity is permitted unless otherwise indicated by the unit coordinator. The use of this service must be acknowledged in your submission as detailed on the Learning Hub’s Canvas page.

Outside assessment tasks, generative AI tools may be used to support your learning. The AI in Education Canvas site contains a number of productive ways that students are using AI to improve their learning.

## Learning support

### Simple extensions

If you encounter a problem submitting your work on time, you may be able to apply for an extension of five calendar days through a simple extension.  The application process will be different depending on the type of assessment and extensions cannot be granted for some assessment types like exams.

### Special consideration

If exceptional circumstances mean you can’t complete an assessment, you need consideration for a longer period of time, or if you have essential commitments which impact your performance in an assessment, you may be eligible for special consideration or special arrangements.

Special consideration applications will not be affected by a simple extension application.

### Using AI responsibly

Co-created with students, AI in Education includes lots of helpful examples of how students use generative AI tools to support their learning. It explains how generative AI works, the different tools available and how to use them responsibly and productively.

## Weekly schedule

WK Topic Learning activity Learning outcomes
Week 01 1. Basic aerodynamic relationships 2. Axis systems and state variable definitions 3. Aircraft component and control identification 4. Aircraft axis and state definitions Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 02 1. Introduction to stability concepts 2. Mean aerodynamic chord and aerodynamic centre 3. Wing contribution to longitudinal stability 4. Equilibrium and phase plane concepts 5. Aerodynamic forces and moments Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 03 1. Control effects on equilibrium 2. Neutral point and static margin 3. Total longitudinal stability 4. Contribution of the tail 5. Longitudinal aircraft stability Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 04 1. Stick forces and trim 2. Stick-fixed and stick-free stability 3. Longitudinal aircraft stability cont'd Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 05 1. Axis systems and coordinate transformations 2. General equations of aircraft motion 3. Newton and Euler laws of motion Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 06 1. General nonlinear equations of motion in six DOF 2. General equations of aircraft motion cont'd 3. Moments and products of inertia Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 07 1. Aerodynamic force and moment derivative definitions 2. Control force and moment derivatives 3. Manifestations of aerodynamic force and moment derivatives 4. Sources of aerodynamic forces Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 08 1. Linear equations of motion 2. Linearisation about an equilibrium 3. Linearised equations of aircraft motion Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 09 1. Eigenvector and Argand diagrams 2. Eigenvalues and modes of motions 3. Lateral-directional equations of motion 4. Longitudinal equations of motion 5. Relationships with time-domain behaviour 6. Longitudinal and lateral-directional motion subsystems Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 10 1. Order and flow of simulation tasks 2. State-space representations. Flight simulation architectures and procedures 3. Integration techniques 4. Time-domain solution of equations of motion Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 11 Major project - flight simulation Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)
Week 12 Summary and sample problems Lecture and tutorial (5 hr)

### Attendance and class requirements

Students are expected to attend a minimum of 90 percent of timetabled activities for a unit of study, unless granted exemption by the Dean or Head of School most concerned.

### Study commitment

Typically, there is a minimum expectation of 1.5-2 hours of student effort per week per credit point for units of study offered over a full semester. For a 6 credit point unit, this equates to roughly 120-150 hours of student effort in total.

## Learning outcomes

Learning outcomes are what students know, understand and are able to do on completion of a unit of study. They are aligned with the University's graduate qualities and are assessed as part of the curriculum.

At the completion of this unit, you should be able to:

• LO1. Demonstrate capabilities in written communication through preparation of reports.
• LO2. Demonstrate developed skills in group interaction and interactive problem solving.
• LO3. Analyse the aircraft equations of rigid-body motion and extract stability characteristics.
• LO4. Model aircraft flight characteristics using computational techniques.
• LO5. Understand aircraft flight conditions and equilibrium.
• LO6. Understand the effects of aerodynamic and propulsive controls on equilibrium conditions.
• LO7. Understand the significance of flight stability and its impact on aircraft operations and pilot workload.
• LO8. Understand the meaning of aerodynamic stability derivatives and their sources.
• LO9. Understand the effects of aerodynamic derivatives on flight stability.
• LO10. Understand the impact of flight stability and trim on all atmospheric flight vehicles.

The graduate qualities are the qualities and skills that all University of Sydney graduates must demonstrate on successful completion of an award course. As a future Sydney graduate, the set of qualities have been designed to equip you for the contemporary world.

 GQ1 Depth of disciplinary expertise Deep disciplinary expertise is the ability to integrate and rigorously apply knowledge, understanding and skills of a recognised discipline defined by scholarly activity, as well as familiarity with evolving practice of the discipline. GQ2 Critical thinking and problem solving Critical thinking and problem solving are the questioning of ideas, evidence and assumptions in order to propose and evaluate hypotheses or alternative arguments before formulating a conclusion or a solution to an identified problem. GQ3 Oral and written communication Effective communication, in both oral and written form, is the clear exchange of meaning in a manner that is appropriate to audience and context. GQ4 Information and digital literacy Information and digital literacy is the ability to locate, interpret, evaluate, manage, adapt, integrate, create and convey information using appropriate resources, tools and strategies. GQ5 Inventiveness Generating novel ideas and solutions. GQ6 Cultural competence Cultural Competence is the ability to actively, ethically, respectfully, and successfully engage across and between cultures. In the Australian context, this includes and celebrates Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures, knowledge systems, and a mature understanding of contemporary issues. GQ7 Interdisciplinary effectiveness Interdisciplinary effectiveness is the integration and synthesis of multiple viewpoints and practices, working effectively across disciplinary boundaries. GQ8 Integrated professional, ethical, and personal identity An integrated professional, ethical and personal identity is understanding the interaction between one’s personal and professional selves in an ethical context. GQ9 Influence Engaging others in a process, idea or vision.