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Unit of study_

LAWS6343: International Law and Technology

Intensive May, 2022 [Block mode] - Remote

Advances in technology pose new challenges for international governance. In an increasingly inter-connected world, new technology raises legal issues relating to its use, distribution and control. This unit will focus on the response of the international community to technological progress across the different specialised regimes in international law. The unit will commence with an overview of the framework of international law and international courts and the challenges relating to the regulation of new technology. This unit will then consider the intersection of technology and key specialised regimes in international law, focusing on Trade, Environment, Law of the Sea, Health, Crime, Use of Armed Force and Intellectual Property Rights. The unit will be taught using case studies, allowing students to discuss and analyse specific examples of new technology and international regulation.

Unit details and rules

Unit code LAWS6343
Academic unit Law
Credit points 6
Assumed knowledge


Available to study abroad and exchange students


Teaching staff

Coordinator Irene Baghoomians,
Lecturer(s) Rebecca Connolly,
Type Description Weight Due Length
Participation hurdle task Round-table Discussion
Part 2 of class problem
15% Week 09
Due date: 30 Apr 2022 at 09:00

Closing date: 17 May 2022
1.5 hours
Outcomes assessed: LO1 LO3 LO2
Assignment hurdle task Position Paper
Part 1 of class problem
15% Week 10
Due date: 06 May 2022 at 17:00

Closing date: 17 May 2022
1000 words including footnotes
Outcomes assessed: LO1 LO3
Assignment hurdle task Research essay
70% Week 13
Due date: 25 May 2022 at 17:00
6000 words
Outcomes assessed: LO1 LO2 LO3
hurdle task = hurdle task ?

Assessment summary

  • Class Problem: The Class problem will be a ‘mock’ international dispute involving a current technology and international law topic. The Class Problem will set out details of the dispute/events and include a proposal for new draft international laws. The set topic (and materials) for the Class Problem will be advised on 20 April 2022 i.e. ONE WEEK prior to the first class date. There are two parts to the assessment for the Class Problem:  (1) the Position Paper; and (2) the Round Table Discussion.
  1. Position Paper:  You will represent a STATE (it must be one of the 193 Member States of the United Nations). The Position Paper must set out your State’s position on the proposed draft international laws. The Position Paper must be no longer than 1000 words. The Position Paper must be submitted electronically by 5pm on 6 May 2022 AEST.
  2. Round Table Discussions: (equivalent of 1000 words). You will be allocated to ONE of the Round Table Discussions to be held on Saturday 30 April 2022 (you must attend your allocated Round Table). The Round-Table discussion is 1.5 hours long. You are expected to share and discuss your research findings on your selected State’s position on the topic and how that position relates to other Member States of the United Nations.
  3. Students are required to notify the lecturer by email by 6pm AEST on 27 April 2022 of your proposed chosen State (first and second choice), otherwise a State will be allocated to you (based on assisting with diversity of States for the Round Table Discussion).  NOTE – there is a limit of THREE students per each State (so that there are no double-ups at the Round Table discussions). If your chosen State has already been allocated another State must be selected.

  • Research essay: Students will be provided with FIVE different essay topic questions (covering 5 different sub-topics of the unit). Students must select ONE of these 5 different topics for their research essay. The essay topic questions will be made available on Canvas at 6pm AEST on 28 April 2022. The Research Essay is limited to a maximum of 6000 words. The Research Essay is due at 5pm 25 May 2022 AEST.

Alternative assessment for special consideration:

Any approved applications for special consideration will receive the following alternate assessments:

* Round Table - if unable to attend the Round Table on the day of the assessment, with reasonable excuse as per University Guidelines, the student can video/audio record their presentation and submit the video/audio recording by email to the coordinator.  The outcome of a successful application for special consideration in respect of round table attendance and/or submission of a video/audio recording may be additional time to complete the task or an alternative task at the discretion of the coordinator.

* Research Essay - the outcome of a successful application for special consideration will result in an extension of time granted to complete the essay.

Position Paper - the outcome of a successful Special Consideration application prior to the closing date is an extension. Special consideration after that date may lead to an alternative assessment which will be determined by the discretion of the lecturer.

Note: Students must retain pre-submitted drafts of their assessments on file. 

Assessment requirement to pass a unit of study: A student must make a genuine attempt at all assessment tasks set out in this Unit of Study in order to obtain a Pass mark and grade (or above); otherwise an Absent Fail grade will be recorded as the student’s result for this Unit of Study.


Assessment criteria

The University awards common result grades, set out in the Coursework Policy 2014 (Schedule 1).

As a general guide, a high distinction indicates work of an exceptional standard, a distinction a very high standard, a credit a good standard, and a pass an acceptable standard.

Result name

Mark range


High distinction

85 - 100

  • Completely answers the question.
  • Contains striking originality of approach or analysis.
  • Demonstrates exhaustive or innovative research (where independent research required).
  • Exceptionally well written, structured and expressed.
  • Is otherwise exceptional in some way.


75 - 84

  • Completely answers the question.
  • Achieves a critical and evaluative approach to the issues.
  • Content and structure is well organised in support of the argument.
  • Demonstrates extensive research and analysis to support a well-documented argument.
  • Generally well expressed and free from errors.
  • Has a clear structure and is well articulated.


65 - 74

  • Covers main issues fairly well in answering the question.
  • Contains no significant errors.
  • Demonstrates an attempted critical approach to the issues.
  • Demonstrates reasonably sound research and analysis in addressing the key issues.
  • Has a clear structure and reasonably clear expression.


50 - 64

  • Identifies the key issues, but does not follow through with a reasoned argument.
  • Contains some significant errors.
  • Displays satisfactory engagement with the key issues.
  • Offers a descriptive summary of material relevant to the question.
  • Superficial use of material, and may display a tendency to paraphrase.
  • Demonstrates little evidence of in-depth research or analysis.
  • Adequate expression.
  • Overall, demonstrates the minimum level of competence in the assessment and satisfies the requirements to proceed to higher-level studies in the degree or subject area.


0 - 49

  • Does not answer the question.
  • Contains significant or numerous errors.
  • Few or no identifiable arguments.
  • Content that is inappropriate or irrelevant.
  • Lack of research or analysis.
  • Difficult or impossible to understand through poor grammar, expression or structure.
  • Overall, does not demonstrate the minimum level of competence in the assessment.

For more information see guide to grades.

Late submission

In accordance with University policy, these penalties apply when written work is submitted after 11:59pm on the due date:

  • Deduction of 5% of the maximum mark for each calendar day after the due date.
  • After ten calendar days late, a mark of zero will be awarded.

This unit has an exception to the standard University policy or supplementary information has been provided by the unit coordinator. This information is displayed below:

The late submission of a piece of assessment, which has not been granted an extension, will attract a penalty of 10% of the total marks available for the piece of assessment per calendar day or part thereof.

Academic integrity

The Current Student website  provides information on academic integrity and the resources available to all students. The University expects students and staff to act ethically and honestly and will treat all allegations of academic integrity breaches seriously.  

We use similarity detection software to detect potential instances of plagiarism or other forms of academic integrity breach. If such matches indicate evidence of plagiarism or other forms of academic integrity breaches, your teacher is required to report your work for further investigation.

You may only use artificial intelligence and writing assistance tools in assessment tasks if you are permitted to by your unit coordinator, and if you do use them, you must also acknowledge this in your work, either in a footnote or an acknowledgement section.

Studiosity is permitted for postgraduate units unless otherwise indicated by the unit coordinator. The use of this service must be acknowledged in your submission.

Simple extensions

If you encounter a problem submitting your work on time, you may be able to apply for an extension of five calendar days through a simple extension.  The application process will be different depending on the type of assessment and extensions cannot be granted for some assessment types like exams.

Special consideration

If exceptional circumstances mean you can’t complete an assessment, you need consideration for a longer period of time, or if you have essential commitments which impact your performance in an assessment, you may be eligible for special consideration or special arrangements.

Special consideration applications will not be affected by a simple extension application.

Using AI responsibly

Co-created with students, AI in Education includes lots of helpful examples of how students use generative AI tools to support their learning. It explains how generative AI works, the different tools available and how to use them responsibly and productively.

WK Topic Learning activity Learning outcomes
Ongoing 1. Introduction: International Legal Frameworkand challenge of regulating technology; 2. Success stories – Technology and International Law; 3. Sciene and Technology and International Trade Law; 4. Agricultural biotechnology. Block teaching (7 hr) LO1 LO2 LO3
1. Technology and climate change; 2. Wildlife Conservation, Endangered Species and Technology; 3. Technology and international health law: Pharmaceuticals; 4. Disaster Response – Global Pandemic COVID 19 – case study. Block teaching (7 hr) LO1 LO2 LO3
1. The Internet and IT Law; 2. Technology and the Law of the Sea; 3. International Space Law and technology; 4. Armed Conflict – Autonomous Weapons – seminar class discussion. Block teaching (7 hr) LO1 LO2 LO3
Round table Discussions Block teaching (7 hr) LO1 LO2 LO3

Attendance and class requirements

Attendance: All students are required to attend 70% of classes (or as otherwise specified by the Unit Coordinator) to satisfy the pass requirements for each unit of study. Attendance requirements may be satisfied by in person and/or online attendance as specified by the Unit Coordinator. Failure to meet this requirement may result in a student being precluded from sitting the final assessment.

For units offered in Intensive mode, participation in all scheduled sessions may be expected by a Unit Coordinator in order to satisfy the requirements of the unit.

Word count penalty: A piece of assessment which exceeds the prescribed word limit will attract a penalty of 10% of the total marks available for the piece of assessment for every 100 words, or part thereof. The total word count for essay and other written assessments will exclude: bibliography; footnote numbers; footnote citation; cover page and include: body text; headings and sub-headings; quotations; anything other than numbers and citations in footnotes.

Referencing: The Sydney Law School expects you to use the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (4th edition, 2018) for your footnoting style, although you should confirm this with your lecturer, and a link to the library website where this is set out comprehensively is available at


Study commitment

Typically, there is a minimum expectation of 1.5-2 hours of student effort per week per credit point for units of study offered over a full semester. For a 6 credit point unit, this equates to roughly 120-150 hours of student effort in total.

Required readings

All readings for this unit are available on Canvas on the Reading List tab.

Learning outcomes are what students know, understand and are able to do on completion of a unit of study. They are aligned with the University's graduate qualities and are assessed as part of the curriculum.

At the completion of this unit, you should be able to:

  • LO1. Gain an in-depth understanding of the international legal response to new technology, including the relevant international legal instruments and organisations.
  • LO2. Understand the policy challenges for regulating new technology, particularly issues crossing over different specialised areas of international law.
  • LO3. Examine the current debates regarding technological progress and the policy arguments that drive regulation.

Graduate qualities

The graduate qualities are the qualities and skills that all University of Sydney graduates must demonstrate on successful completion of an award course. As a future Sydney graduate, the set of qualities have been designed to equip you for the contemporary world.

GQ1 Depth of disciplinary expertise

Deep disciplinary expertise is the ability to integrate and rigorously apply knowledge, understanding and skills of a recognised discipline defined by scholarly activity, as well as familiarity with evolving practice of the discipline.

GQ2 Critical thinking and problem solving

Critical thinking and problem solving are the questioning of ideas, evidence and assumptions in order to propose and evaluate hypotheses or alternative arguments before formulating a conclusion or a solution to an identified problem.

GQ3 Oral and written communication

Effective communication, in both oral and written form, is the clear exchange of meaning in a manner that is appropriate to audience and context.

GQ4 Information and digital literacy

Information and digital literacy is the ability to locate, interpret, evaluate, manage, adapt, integrate, create and convey information using appropriate resources, tools and strategies.

GQ5 Inventiveness

Generating novel ideas and solutions.

GQ6 Cultural competence

Cultural Competence is the ability to actively, ethically, respectfully, and successfully engage across and between cultures. In the Australian context, this includes and celebrates Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures, knowledge systems, and a mature understanding of contemporary issues.

GQ7 Interdisciplinary effectiveness

Interdisciplinary effectiveness is the integration and synthesis of multiple viewpoints and practices, working effectively across disciplinary boundaries.

GQ8 Integrated professional, ethical, and personal identity

An integrated professional, ethical and personal identity is understanding the interaction between one’s personal and professional selves in an ethical context.

GQ9 Influence

Engaging others in a process, idea or vision.

Outcome map

Learning outcomes Graduate qualities

This section outlines changes made to this unit following staff and student reviews.

No changes have been made.


The University reserves the right to amend units of study or no longer offer certain units, including where there are low enrolment numbers.

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