LAST MODIFIED Sunday 11 February 2024 15:24

Catherine Hayes in Australia 1854-56

Dr GRAEME SKINNER (University of Sydney)


To cite this:

Graeme Skinner (University of Sydney), "Catherine Hayes in Australia 1854-56", Australharmony (an online resource toward the early history of music in colonial Australia):; accessed 16 April 2024

Catherine Hayes, by Edmund Thomas; from Australian album 1857 (Sydney: J. R. Clarke, 1857); National Library of Australia (DIGITISED)

ASSOCIATIONS: Edmund Thomas (artist, lithographer)

HAYES, Catherine (Miss Catherine HAYES; Mrs. W. A. BUSHNELL)

Soprano vocalist

Baptised Limerick, Ireland, 8 November 1818; daughter of Arthur Williamson HAYES (b. 1796) and Mary CARROLL

Arrived (1) Sydney, NSW, 10 September 1854 (per Fanny Major, from San Francisco, July 8, via Honolulu)
Departed (1), Adelaide, SA, 28 November 1854 (per Norna, for Calcutta, from Melbourne, 25 June)

Arrived (2) Melbourne, VIC, 28 June 1855 (per Glendargh, from Batavia, 26 May)
Departed (2) Melbourne, VIC, 24 May 1856 (per Royal Charter, for Liverpool)

Married William Avery BUSHNELL (1820-1858), London, England, 8 October 1857
Died Sydenham, London, England, 11 August 1861 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (NLA persistent identifier)

HAYES, Mary (Mary CAROLL; Mrs. Arthur Williamson HAYES)

Born Ireland, c. 1795/96
Married Arthur Williamson HAYES, Ireland, 1815
Died Brompton, London, England, 4 May 1871, aged "75"

BUSHNELL, William Avery (William Avery BUSHNELL)


Born Limerick, Ireland, 1820
Died Biarritz, France, 2/3 July 1858

Catherine Hayes, Swan of Erin; anonymous watercolour; State Library of New South Wales

Catherine Hayes, Swan of Erin; anonymous watercolour; State Library of New South Wales 

To 1854

"OPERA SALARIES", The Sydney Morning Herald (4 January 1850), 3 

We find in Mr. Delefield's [sic] balance sheet the following account of salaries given to the principal singers and dancers during the two years the speculation lasted. All the payments appear so extravagant in our eyes, accustomed as we are merely to consider the scale on which Admirals, Judges, and Generals, are remunerated, after the exertions of long and laborious lives, that we can scarcely exercise any principle of selection. Here, however, is the list as we find it in our bankruptcy report: - "Artistes' salaries. 1848 and 1849: Mdlle. Alboni, 1848, £4000; Mdlle. Angri, 1849. £2600 ; Madame Castellan, 1848, £1728 ; Mdlle. Corbari, 1848, £432; 1849, £480; Dorus Gras, 1849, £1500; Catherine Hayes, 1849, £1300 . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Edward Delafield became lessee of Italian Opera House, Covent Garden, in 1848, and was declared insolvent on 14 July 1849; his business manager Frederick Gye, in conjunction with the artists, carried on the house for the remainder of the season

"GREAT TUMULT IN THE DUBLIN THEATRE ROYAL", Adelaide Times (28 February 1850), 4 

An extraordinary scene was enacted in the Dublin theatre on Tuesday, Nov the 9th. The performances were "Lucia di Lammermoor." Miss Catharine Hayes made her first appearance, and a whirlpool of applause from a well-filled and fashionable house. On Signor Paglieri attempting to perform Edgardo, the audience at once perceived that he was unfit for the part. He was tolerated in the recitative, but in the opening of the duetto, "Verrano a sulle aure," the audience could no longer endure such an outrage on music, and at the close of a sadly-murdered passage, the prima donna lowly curtseyed to the unhappy Edgardo, and retired from the stage . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Onorato Paglieri; and also: 

"CATHERINE HAYES IN DUBLIN (From the Nation, August 2, 1850)", Empire [Sydney, NSW] (5 October 1854), 6 

[London news], Freeman's Journal [Sydney, NSW] (3 October 1850), 9 

Miss Catherine Hayes, of Limerick, still continues to charm with her melodious voice at the concerts given at her Majesty's Theatre, where she charmed the whole house with "Mathleen Mavourneen" [sic], (encored.) Her pathos is replete in her national melodies.

"CATHERINE HAYES", Dublin University Magazine (November 1850), 584

"CATHERINE HAYES (From the Cork Southern Reporter)", The Musical World (21 June 1851), 389

For reports on her American tour in the Australian press during 1852, see: (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

"THE UNITED STATES", The Sydney Morning Herald (8 December 1852), 1 supplement 

. . . we find that Catherine Hayes, having been most successful in the Atlantic States, was en route for San Francisco, whence it was expected she would sail for Sydney. Madame Sontag arrived at New York on the 6th of September. Whether this distinguished songstress will pass the "Panama Crossing," and take San Francisco and Sydney before her return to Europe, we are not in a position to predict.

For reports on her American tour in the Australian press during 1853, see: (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

"SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE", The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (14 May 1853), 3 

The first part of the Abyssinia's voyage was attended with tolerable success, she getting abreast of Norfolk Island in 38 days . . . Amongst her passengers are . . . Mr. Lewis Lavenue, a composer of much note from London, who has for the last two years conducted the concerts of Miss Catherine Hayes in the United States, and arrived in San Francisco with Miska Hauser, the violinist, which gentleman will shortly follow Mr. Lavenue to Australia.

ASSOCIATIONS: Lewis Henry Lavenu (conductor, composer); Miska Hauser (violinist)

"SAN FRANCISCO", The Musical World (23 July 1853), 466-67

"CALIFORNIA", Empire (2 August 1853), 2 

WE are in receipt of intelligence from California to the 16th May . . . Catherine Hayes had left California for Panama, it was supposed on her way to some of the cities of South America, and thence, it was said, to this country.

"SOUTH AMERICA", The Sydney Morning Herald (1 November 1853), 2 

By the arrival from Valparaiso we have files of Spanish papers to the 15th of August . . . Miss Catherine Hayes was attracting crowded audiences at the theatre.

"VALPARAISO [From the Correspondent of the Sydney Morning Herald]", The Courier (17 November 1853), 2

"A MUSICAL TREAT FOR THE ANTIPODES", The Sydney Morning Herald (7 April 1854), 5

By a recent paper from America we learn that Catherine Hayes, a sort of Jenny Lind secunda, meditates a visit to Australia after her brilliant career in North and South America . . .

Agreement between Catherine Hayes and Georges [Emile] Coulon, San Francisco, 6 July 1854; State Library of New South Wales, DLMSQ 606

Agreement between Catherine Hayes and Emile Georges Coulon, San Francisco, 6 July 1854; State Library of New South Wales, DLMSQ 606 

This Indenture made and entered into, this, the Sixth day of July AD Eighteen Hundred and Fifty four by and between Miss Catherine Hayes of the first part, and George Coulon of the Second part, both of the City and county of San Francisco, State of California, United States of America. Witnesses to That the party of the second part for and in consideration of the sum or sums herein after named to be paid by the party of the first part, agrees and hereby binds himself to accompany the party of the first part from the City of San Francisco aforesaid to some port in Aust. and there at any time and place in said Australia to assist as a Vocalist in any concert or musical and operatic entertainments that may there be given by said party of the first part, to the best of his abilities as a public Vocalist; and further to accompany said Miss C. Hayes of the first part from Australia to Every other place or places as she may require, in his said capacity of Vocalist.

For and in consideration of such services faithfully performed, the party of the first part agrees and binds herself to pay the charges of Said George Coulon's [verso] passage, and current expenses, after landing, necessary for Board and Lodging Together with the further and additional sum of Two Hundred Dollars (say £40) per month, for the first Three months, commencing with the date of the first musical rehearsal in Australia, and being suspended whilst going from Australia to any other parts.

It is further agreed that said Indenture may be renewed with such changes of monthly salary as may be agreed upon at the expiration of the three months last above named, and the parties agree to perform the covenant and obligations herein named.

In testimony whereof they the parties have herewith set their hands and seals the day and year first above mentioned

Catherine Hayes

E. G. Coulon

Witnesses -
James E. Carnegie de Healy
Louis F. Zantizinger

ASSOCIATIONS: Emile Georges Coulon (bass/baritone vocalist)

"THEATRICAL", The Sydney Morning Herald (26 August 1854), 5

Intelligence has just reached the colony, that Miss Catherine Hayes, the celebrated singer and Prima Donna, of the principal theatres of Europe, was to leave San Francisco on the 14th of July, for Sydney, on a professional visit. This will be a great treat for the musical public, and one which we have no doubt will be of advantage to the lady herself.

"MULTUM IN PARVO", Freeman's Journal (9 September 1854), 7 

Catherine Hayes, of operative celebrity, has, by virtue of her talents, extracted no less than £40,000 out of the pockets of the citizens of San Francisco.

"CATHERINE HAYES IN CALIFORNIA", Bell's Life in Sydney and Sporting Reviewer (16 September 1854), 3 

(From our Own Correspondent.) San Francisco, July.
The gloom into which this town has been plunged by the departure of Miss Kate Hayes, (to use an original expression) can be more easily conceived than described. And yet I don't know either! Conceived it cannot be. I defy you or anybody else to form the slightest idea of it. Whilst the possibility of description is a matter of course, I being here to give an account of it . . .

"CATHERINE HAYES IN CALIFORNIA . . . (CONLCUDED FROM OUR LAST)", Bell's Life in Sydney and Sporting Reviewer (23 September 1854), 2 

"SANDWICH ISLANDS", Empire (11 September 1854), 5 

We have Honolulu journals to the 24th July . . . The following items are from the New Era of the 27th; On Tuesday morning, at half-past 10 o'clock, Mrs. and Miss Catherine Hayes, accompanied by Mrs. Makee, Mr. Bushnell and Mr. Mackee, were presented to their Majesties the King and Queen.

On Tuesday evening Miss Catherine Hayes gave a concert at the Court House, supported by M. Coulon, accompanied on the piano by Drs. Hillebrand and Hoffman, who kindly volunteered on the occasion. The hall was crowded . . . we will simply say that though we have heard Catalani and Sontag in the prime of their power and glory, yet we firmly believe that the "Kate Mavourneen" of Miss Hayes would charm a soul from purgatory. In a word, she is a living AEolian harp, tuned by the Almighty and not to be beat.

First Australian visit (10 September to December 1854)
Sydney (10 September to 18 October 1854)

9 September 1854, publication announced of Why do I weep for thee? (Wallace)

Why do I weep for thee? composed expressly by Vincent Wallace for Catherine Hayes [ballad; written by George Linley; composed by W. V. Wallace} (Sydney: Woolcott and Clarke, 1854; and bound in Australian presentation album for 1855 (DIGITISED)

ASSOCIATIONS: William Vincent Wallace (composer); Jacob Clarke (of Woolcott and Clarke, music publishers)

[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (9 September 1854), 1

. . . WOOLCOTT and CLARKE, next Bank of Australasia. Publishing - "Why do I weep for thee," as sung by Miss Catherine Hayes; written by George Linley, and composed by Vincent Wallace.

11 September 1854, arrival of Catherine Hayes and Emile Coulon, from San Francisco and Honolulu

"ARRIVALS", The Shipping Gazette and Sydney General Trade List (11 September 1854), 170 

September 10. - Fanny Major, barque, 280 tons, Captain J. M. Green, from San Francisco July 8, and Honolula July 18th - Passengers - Miss Catherine Hayes, Mrs. Hayes, Mr. and Mrs. C. R. Thorne, Miss Emily Thorne, Miss Kate Dering, Mrs., and Dr. Montague, Mrs. Duncan, Mrs. and Miss Langmead, Messrs. William Thorne, Thomas Thorne, E. F. Thorne, Mr. Bushnel, Mr. Coulon, Mr. Rolfe, and Mr. Russell. Captain, agent.

"MISS CATHERINE HAYES", The Sydney Morning Herald (12 September 1854), 5

[Press release]: We feel confident that our readers will thank us for presenting to them a few particulars of the career of the gifted cantatrice who has just reached our shores. Miss Catherine Hayes was born in Limerick. At an early age her beautiful voice won for her the patronage of the late Hon. and Right Rev. Edmund Knox, Bishop of Limerick. In Dublin, Signor Antonio Sapio was the first singing master of Miss Hayes, in 1841; and her first appearance in public took place at his annual concert in the great room of the Rotundo. In the December of that year she sang at the Concert of the Anacreontic Society. Liszt, the celebrated pianiste, heard her at a concert in January, 1843, and was so struck with her singing, that he wrote to the Bishop of Limerick's daughter-in-law thus: "I do not know of any voice more expressive than that of Miss Hayes, I doubt if, among the singers of the day, there is one equal in extent and volume to what her's will be." During 1843, Miss Hayes continued to be the leading singer of the Anacreontic, Philharmonic, and other powerful concerts in Dublin. Lablache and Costa heard her at the close of this year, and expressed high opinions of her musical abilities. It was on hearing Grisi and Mario, in "Norma," in this year, that Miss Catherine Hayes first experienced the desire to go upon the lyric stage; and, after considerable opposition from her relatives and friends, she went to Paris in October, 1844, to study under Manuel Garcia (the brother of Malibran and Viardot, and the master of Jenny Lind), who after a tuition of a year and a half, advised her to proceed to Italy, in order to obtain the best experience for the stage. At Milan she became a pupil of Signor Felice Ronconi, brother of the great Giorgio Ronconi, and, through the kind intervention of the once famed Madame Grassini (Grisi's aunt), she was engaged for the Italian Opera House, at Marseilles, where she made her debut on the 10th of May, 1845, as Elvira, in Bellini's "Puritani". She subsequently appeared in Lucia, and in Rossini's "Mose in Eguitto" (Zora). After her return to Milan, she continued her studies under Felice Ranconi, until Morelli, the director of the Scala (the largest theatre in Europe), offered her an engagement. Her first character was Linda di Chamounix. She was recalled twelve times by the audience. Her next part was Desdemona, in Rossini's "Otello," her performance of which earned for her the title of "The Pearl of the Scala." In the spring of 1S46, she sang at the Italian Opera in Vienna; and at the Carnival of 1846-7 was engaged at Venice: two new operas were composed for her, "Griselda," by Ricci, and the "Albergo di Romano," by Malespini. After a second season in Vienna, where Ricci wrote his "Estella" for her, and she also appeared in Norma. Miss Hayes visited Bergamo, Verona, Florence, and Genoa, enacting Maria di Rohan, and the leading parts in Verdi's operas, with the most distinguished success. Rubini and Mercadante, the composer, and the late Madame Catalani, expressed the highest admiration of her talents. After the termination of her engagement at the Carlo Felice, at Genoa, Miss Hayes was offered a carte blanche for London, both by Mr. Lumley, for her Majesty's Theatre, and by Mr. Delafield, for the Royal Italian Opera. She appeared at the latter house on the 10th of April, 1849, as Linda, and afterwards as Lucia, and sang at the private concerts at Buckingham Palace during the season: her Majesty graciously congratulating her on "her deserved success." Having been engaged by Mr. Lumley for the season, 1850, at her Majesty's Theatre, she made her debut there on the 2nd of April, in Lucia. Miss Hayes was engaged at Rome at the Grand Carnival, 1851 at the Apollo; and during the season of 1851 she was the star of the concert rooms in London, and of the performances at the Sacred Harmonic Society; while her singing in the sublime oratorios of Handel, Haydn, and Mendelssohn, have won universal admiration. Since that time she has been sojourning in America, where, as our readers are well aware, She has won literally golden opinions. The voice of Miss Catherine Hayes is of extraordinary compass: in the air of Fides, "Ah! mon fils," from Meyerbeer's Prophète, she descends to the low notes of the contralto register, after attacking the most elevated soprano tones, and her singing is eminently distinguished by the most intensely dramatic and artistic style. Her ballad singing, too, is perfection; her "Kathleen" is one of those exquisite interpretations in which the intellect and sentiment of the exponent are equally apparent. We need say no more to show to those of our readers who have not already enjoyed the opportunity of listening to this all-accomplished and very excellent lady, that they have a treat in store such as has never before been presented to an Australian audience - one, the announcement of which we await with much impatience. 

"SERENADE TO CATHERINE HAYES", Empire (14 September 1854), 5

A party of amateur musicians, about thirty in number, and consisting chiefly of members of the St. Mary's Choral Society, betook themselves, at a late hour last night, to Petty's Hotel, on Church Hill, where Miss Catherine Hayes is residing, to offer a musical-to her, doubtless, the most appropriate-welcome to the distinguished songstress. The piece selected was Shield's exquisite glee "Oh, happy, happy, happy fair!" and was performed with great taste and effect.

ASSOCIATIONS: Isaac Nathan was the conductor of the society

"MISS CATHERINE HAYES", Bell's Life in Sydney and Sporting Reviewer (16 September 1854), 2 

At length we have caught a real nightingale, but, it is much to be feared that we have neglected to provide a fitting cage for its accommodation. It is a sad reproach to such a city as Sydney that it possesses no concert or assembly room, or even any building which an occasion such as the present can be converted into a temporary music hall. Even now, were a man possessed of the means and spirit to run up a structure for the introduction of Miss Hayes to the Australian public, we feel convinced that it would prove a telling speculation. We much fear that Mr. Torning's arrangements will militate against the fair cantatrice making an engagement of any length at the Victoria; and then there is only the Royal Hotel to fall back upon, in which, the strains of a seraph would sound "cracked and out of tune". We do trust that some one of our moneyed men will bestir himself to give this lady a suitable reception, or else bid her "God speed" to Melbourne, and so spare her the disappointment and us the humiliation which threatens to attend her visit to Sydney.

ASSOCIATIONS: Andrew Torning (lessee of the Royal Victoria Theatre, Sydney)

[Portrait] "MISS CATHERINE HAYES", The Illustrated Sydney News (16 September 1854); reproduced in The Australian picture pleasure book . . . engraved, selected and arranged by Walter G. Mason (Sydney: J. R. Clarke, 1857) (DIGITISED)

[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (23 September 1854), 8 

SONGS of the SWAN OF ERIN. - The undersigned have much pleasure in announcing that they have made arrangement for publishing all the most popular songs, as sung by Miss Catherine Hayes, arranged by Mr. Lavenu. H. MARSH and COMPANY. 171 (late 490 1/2), George-street.

ASSOCIATIONS: Henry Marsh (music publisher)

26 September 1854, first concert, Royal Victoria Theatre, Sydney

The first appearance of Miss Catherine Hayes at the Victoria Theatre, Sydney, on Tuesday September 26th, 1854

The first appearance of Miss Catherine Hayes at the Victoria Theatre, Sydney, on Tuesday September 26th, 1854; original in Illustrated Sydney News (30 September 1854); reproduced in The Australian picture pleasure book . . . engraved, selected and arranged by Walter G. Mason (Sydney: J. R. Clarke, 1857) (DIGITISED)

NOTE: Hayes is pictured with Emile Coulon (vocalist), and Lewis Lavenu conducting the theatrical band

Programme of Miss Catherine Hayes' grand concert this evening [26 September 1854] (Sydney: Male & Pratt, [1854]) 

[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (26 September 1854), 1 

has the honour to announce to the public of Sydney that her first GRAND CONCERT in this city will be given at the above Theatre
On which occasion she will be assisted by the following distinguished Artists, Madame SARA FLOWER; Monsieur COULON; Mr. FRANK HOWSON; Mr. John HOWSON; and an enlarged and efficient Orchestra, conducted by Mr. LAVENU.
GRAND MARCH from "Le Prophète," - Meyerbeer.
AIR - "Gone is the calmness," - Wallace - MR. JOHN HOWSON.
SCENA AND ARIA - "Vieni la mia Vendetta," ("Lucrezia Borgia,") - Donizetti - M. COULON.
CAVATINA - "Ah mon flls," (Le Prophète) - Meyerbeer - Miss CATHARINE HAYES.
GRAND AIR - "This heart by woe o'ertaken," Maritana - MR. FRANK HOWSON.
CAVATINA - "Io non ti posso offrir," - Donizetti - MADAME SARAH FLOWER.
IRISH BALLAD - "Kathleen Mavourneen," - Crouch - MISS CATHARINE HAYES.
GRAND DUETTO - "Suoni la Tromba," (Puritana) - Bellini - M. COULON AND MR. FRANK HOWSON.
OVERTURE - "Allessandro Stradella," - Flotow.
BUFFO DUETTO - "Signora in tanta fretta," (Don Pasquale) - Donizetti - Miss CATHERINE HAYES AND M. COULON.
DUETT - "Peace to the Dead," (Night Dancers,). E. Soder. [Loder] - MADAME SARA FLOWER AND MR. J. HOWSON.
ENGLISH BALLAD - "Home Sweet Home," - Sir H. Bishop - MISS CATHARINE HAYES.
ARIA BUFFO - "Largo al factotum," (Il Barbiere,) - Rossini - MONSIEUR COULON. BALLAD - "By the Sad Sea Waves," (Brides of Venice) - Benedict - MADAME SARA FLOWER.
Books containing the words of the songs and the programme will be for sale at the Theatre.
The piano used on this occasion is one of Broadwood's grand action, and is kindly furnished by Messrs. Johnson and Co., Pitt-street.
USHERS will be in attendance to show persons to the proper seats, on their exhibiting their numbered checks, The prices of tickets will be as follows -
Dress boxes - £1 1 0
Parquette and orchestra - 1 1 0
Upper boxes - 0 15 0
Pit - 0 10 0
Gallery - 0 5 0 . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Sara Flower (contralto vocalist); Frank Howson (bass/baritone vocalist); John Howson (tenor vocalist); Stephen Wheeler (cornet)

"MISS CATHARINE HAYES' FIRST CONCERT", The Sydney Morning Herald (27 September 1854), 4 

"MISS CATHERINE HAYES' CONCERT", Empire (27 September 1854), 5 

[Printed program booklet to the above concert], Programme of Miss Catherine Hayes' grand concert this evening [26 September 1854] (Sydney: Male & Pratt, [1854]) 

The booklet also includes the following biographical sketch:

It is a singular fact often commented upon by the natives of Ireland, that the "Emerald Ide," so essentially the land of song, whose bardic remains have obtained a world-wise renutation, whose national melodies alternate from, the touchingly simple to the thrilling superb; being alike "beautiful exceedingly," whether they breathe the soul of pathos or glow with the fervor of martial enthusiasm, - whose war songs stir up the heart like the sound of a trumpet. It is a remarkable fact, we repeat, that this Musical Island has given to the lyric stage but a single female vocalist, within our memory, capable of interpreting, with success, the highest order of dramatic music. Although, in every other branch of art Ireland has given proof of unlimited genius and talent, as a vocalist who has already achieved triumphs which place in the shade many of the proudest lyric victories of the Italian and German prima donnas - CATHERINE HAYES stands alone.

CATHERINE HAYES is a native of Limerick, Ireland, where she resided with her mother and sister, up to the period of her departure for Dublin, to be placed under the care of Signor ANTONIO SAPIO. The development of her musical talent was early, and almost, without precedent. From her childhood she exhibited a precocity of vocal power that excited astonishment and admiraiion, and won for her the patronage of the Bishop of Limerick, to whose warm and liberal encouragement she owes the eminence she has gained.

An incident, somewhat romantic in its characters, formed her first introduction to the Right Rev. EDMUND KNOX. Near the See House, is the town mansion of the Earl of Limerick. The gardens attached to those grounds stretch in parallel lines towards the Shannon, and were remarkable for their picturesque beauty. It was the chief apparent delight of CATHERINE HAYES, then a young and timid girl, to sit alone. half hidden by the leaves, and warble the beautiful Irish ballads, with which her memory wes stocked, hour after hour. One evening, while thus employed, some pleasure parties on the river were attracted to the place by the clear silvery tones of her voice, and the correct taste she even then displayed. Boat after boat, dropped silently down the river and passed in the shadow of the trees, whence, as from a bird-cage, came the warbling that attracted them. Not a whisper announced to the unconscious child the unseen audience she was delighting, until a rapturous shout of applause went up, - the first intimation the blushing child received of their presence. The Right Rev. EDMUND KNOX was one of those listeners, and his correct taste and refined discrimination at once discerned the germ of that talent, the maturer growth of which has proved the soundness of his judgment. That evening the open air practice terminated, and the timid girl, who knew not the glorious natural gift she possessed, found herself suddenly a musical wonder, and heard, with a kind of incredulous delight, confident anticipations of her future celebrity pronounced. She was at once invited to the See House, where she received the kindest encouragement from her patron. Bishop KNOX, astonished beyond measure with the progress of his protege, consulted with his friends, by whom it was decided to place her under the care of some musical professor of eminence; and soon after she arrived at Dublin with letters of introduction to Signor SAPIO. Her voice then possessed the silvery clearness and mellowness which are its characteristics; her taste was pure and reflncd; but, in what may be called the mechanical portion of her art, in which it requires carefully and judiciously directed study to acquire a mastery, she was still deficient.

In a few weeks, however, her improvement was astonishing. Her first appearance took place on the 3rd May, 1842, just one mouth after her arrival in the metropolis. The scene of this, then, great event in her life was the annual concert of Signor SAPIO, an entertainment uniformly commanding a large, fashionable, and discriminating auditory. The affair was a great triumph: her timidity was still great, yet her progress had been so rapid under the instruction of Signor SAPIO, that her friends were astonished by it, and the papers of the day were filled with favourable notices of her powers.

She remained with this instructor until 1843, a year which is signalized in her memory by her first having listened to an opera, and having heard Madame GRISI, with the Signor MARIO and LABLACHE, who then appeared in Dublin. From this moment her destiny was cast, and she determined on becoming an operatic singer. After overcoming the opposition of her friends, she was in the following year enabled to repair to Paris, where she placed herself under thu tuition of EMANUEL GARCIA, - in every respect the greatest teacher of singing at present living, as may be readily divined when it is remembered that he is the brother of MALIBRAN and VIARDOT GARCIA, and in addition to this, has been the channel through which MARIO, JENNY LIND, and many others of the leading vocalists of the day have acquired the instruction necessary to attain their present position. Somewhat more than 18 months did Miss HAYES remain with GARCIA, who was, to use her own words, "the kindest and most generous of masters." He then declared that it would be impossible, by mere study, to add a grace to the fully developed and beautiiul voice she then possessed, so extensive was it in its compass, and so perfect was it, both in its upper and lower register. She therefore made up her mind to proceed to Italy, and appear on the stage under the auspices of the Signor FELICE RONCONI. Accordingly, about a month after she made her first appearance on the stage at La Scala, in the Linda di Chamounix. So unspeakably triumphant, indeed, we may say, so absolute was her success, that at the conclusion of the opera she was summoned before the curtin no less than twelve times. She next visited Vienna, and here her triumph was so flattering that in a letter home she mentioned her fears that she should be quite "spoiled" by it. She next proceeded to Venice, where she made her debut in Lucia di Lammermoor, and the excitement incident upon her appearance was unparalleled. Even in that city of musicians, the public were perfectly crazy about "LA HAYES," and the critics of the Venetian journals, from whose fiat there is no appeal, pronounced her the greatest of living prima donnas. She then returned to Vienna, and subsequently visited Naples, Florence, and Genoa. Everywhere her course was attended by the same triumphs. She afterwards returned to England, to dazzle and enchant the lovers of music in her own land.

Here she made her first appearance in the Royal Italian Opera, in Covent Garden, and her success was at the same time unequivocal and most decided. The crowd around the doors of the Theatre was almost numberless, and when they were opened, the lovers of melody thronged into the building in a manner sufficiently regardless of decorum. At the close of the opera she was recalled before the curtain, and the applause of the audience broke forth with an energy that rendered it obvious to her that she had attained one of the highest points of her ambition. She had succeeded on a stage that witnessed the almost nightly appearance of GRISI and MARIO. From this moment her course has been constantly onward. In the following season she was selected by Mr. LUMLEY to replace JENNY LIND, who had retired altogether from the scenes, and reaped an even greater triumph at Her Majesty's Theatre than any which she had previously gathered. See was also honoured by an invitation to sing at Buckingham Palace, where the QUEEN herself complimented her on the thoroughly "deserved success" which she liad gained; and she received from PRINCE ALBERT, who was very essentially a thorough judge of music, a warm and well merited tribute of his admiration for her talent. At the close of the season, she appeared also in oratorio, and in the Messiah, of HANDEL, and the St. Paul, of MENDELSSOHN, with a success so decided that it at once established her reputation as the greatest interpreter of sacred music at present to be found. She now visited her own native laud, where her reception was beyond conception enthusiastic, and she was the recipient of an ovation of popular delight, which is almost beyond belief. Soon after which, the most tempting offers were made to induce her to visit the Western hemisphere, where JENNY LIND was then singing to crowded audiences. This precedent induced her to entertain the matter favourably, and according well with her desire for travel and romantic love of adventure. Negotitaion were speedily completed, and early in September, 1851, she arrived in New York, where she met with a welcome that proved, in the most flattering manner, that her arrival had been long since heralded by her name, and that her reputation had spread from world to world. She sang: and the assembled thousands that heard her voice - transfixed and spell-bound - treasured every sound of the rich melody, until it ceased; when, as if with one universal impulse, the assembly rose, and while the deafening applause rolled and swelled like bursting thunder, there fell such a shower of bouquets and garlands upon the stage, that, at that moment, her path in life was indeed strewed with flowers.

This success continued - nay, if possible, increased, while taking a rapid tour through the United States; indeed, her movements more resembled those of a triumphal march, than the journey of a private individual; and, after experiencing the most gratifying proofs of appreeiation among the Americans, she determined to visit that golden State in the Far West, where it was said that, in six years, enterprise had wrought from a savage land a beautiful and civilized country.

Again, she travelled; and anon, stood on the shores where she saw the setting sun hidden by the bosom of the broad Pacific. She arrived in San Francisco in November, 1852, and though the records of her various successes outnumber the variety of terms in which they can be expressed, yet, here, language must be found to give some idea of the enthusiasm and popular excitement that then greeted her arrival; and, after her announcements were out, it was found necessary, by the managers, to dispose ofthe tickets by auction, owing to the tumultuous rush to obtain seats; and to such an extent was it carried, that the amount of 1,130 dollars was paid, alone, for one ticket, being the first choice of seats in the house. For seven months her career here was but one succession of triumphs; and at its close, on departing for South America, she bore with her the most touching proofs of kindness and esteem. She visited the large cities in South America, and, although in a land that differs so widely from her own, and among a people whose manners, language, and prejudices vary necessarily so much from the Anglo-Saxon or the Celt, still, Music, that language of the feelings in all lands, created a link of sympathy that won her a path into their hearts and fast as the echoes travel from hill to hill, so ran the praises of the "Swan" from lip to lip, and tongue to tongue, until town and city and country all reverberated far and near. She appeared before them - her notes, so wild, so gladsome; or so sad, fell on them like a spell, through which their native feeling occasionally burst with terrific violence; and so little did the usual methods of testifying their approbation satisfy them, that, on her leaving the concert-room to return to her residence, they took the horses from her carriage, and with most boisterous shouts, by the light of waving torches, drew her in triumph to the hotel.

We have thus briefly traced the vocal career of CATHERINE HAYES, from the early period when her first audience cheered the child-songstress on the Shannon's brink, till pronounced second only to JENNY LIND by the coldest and severest critics in the world.

If to JENNY LIND. "the Queen of Song," be given that purely beautiful perfection of vocal melody - that true "sunshine spoken," blending light, and loveliness, and feeling, which, never till her advent, came from human throat - to CATHERINE HAYES have descended the deep sensibility, the mournful pathos, the heart-speaking expression, which characterise her native music. Her voice, is a clear and beautiful soprano, of the sweetest qualities in all its ranges, ascending with perfect ease to D in alto, and in its freshness, mellowness, and purity, giving no token o£ having at all suffered by the excessive severity of her Italian discipline.

It has been well said of JENNY LIND and CATHERINE HAYES, "The one, like a gem, flashes upon the sense, and emits a thousand rays; each glorious in itself; the other, like a flower, is redolent of our soil, and gradually diffuses sweetness around. Or, we might compare the foreign artist to one of her native landscapes, basking in splendour, and clear in its outline and objects, beneath a starry sky. MISS HAYES' beauties are those of her native clime, with its features of tenderness, melting into light or darkening into shade."

Indeed, her success in both worlds has been unparalleled; but we have already exceeded our limits. Yet it must be said, that in every position of her professional career, her reputation for virtue as awoman has gone hand in n hand with her reputation for genius as an artist, and that she has ever adorned and graced the private circle as much as she has charmed and delighted in the Theatre or Concert Room.

The text of the biographical sketch above is also reproduced here:

"SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF CATHERINE HAYES", South Australian Register (24 November 1854), 3

28 September 1854, second concert, Royal Victoria Theatre, Sydney

[Advertisement], Empire (28 September 1854), 1 

MISS CATHARINE HAYES has the honour to announce to the public of Sydney, that her SECOND GRAND CONCERT In this City, will be given at the above Theatre,
THIS DAY, Thursday, September 28th, 1854.
On which occasion she will be assisted by the following Distinguished Artists:
- Madame Sara Flower, Monsieur Coulon, Mr. F. Howson, Mr. J. Howson, and an enlarged and efficient Orchestra, conducted by Mr. Lavenu.
Overture - "Zampa," Herold.
Ballad - "It reminds me of Thee," (composed expressly for Madame Sara Flower, by Mr. Lavenu.) - Madame Sara Flower.
Ballad - "There Is a Flower that Bloometh," Wallace. - Mr. J. Howson.
Grand Scena and Aria - '"Casta Diva" (Norma), Bellini. - MISS CATHARINE HAYES.
Cavatina - " Vi ravviso" (La Somnambula), Bellini. - Monsieur Emile Coulon.
Grand Duett - "Bright lovely Image" (Semiramide), Rossini. - Madame Sara Flower and Mr. F. Howson.
National Duett, from Masaniello - Auber. - Mr. Ellard and Monsieur Emile Coulon.
Ballad - "The Irish Emigrant's Lament," Barker. - MISS CATHARINE HAYES.
Overture - Rossini.
Buffo Duett - "Quanto Amore" (L'Elisire D'amore), Donizetti. - MISS CATHARINE HAYES and Monsieur Emile Coulon.
Ballad - "I love her, as that Heaven," (Enchantress, Balfe). - Mr. J. Howson.
Scotch Ballad - Auld Robin Gray." - MISS CATHARINE HAYES.
Scena - "Oh! her Accents sweetly Glowing" (Sappho), Pacini - Mr. F. Howson.
Aria - "Roberto," (Roberto ll Diavolo).- Madame Sara Flower.
Aria Buffo - "Mia Rampoli" (La Cenerentola) Rossini. - Monsieur Emile Coulon.
Celebrated Bravura Song - "Happy Birdling," (Composed expressly for Miss Catharine Hayes, by W. Wallace. - Miss CATHARINE HAYES.
Finale Instrumental, Rossini.
Conductor. - Mr. LAVENU.
Leader. Mr. J. GIBBS.
Books containing the words of the songs and the programme will be for sale at the Theatre.
The Piano used on this occasion is one of Broadwood's Grand Action, and is kindly furnished by Messrs. Johnson and Co., Pitt-street . . .


[Two humorous items], Bell's Life in Sydney and Sporting Reviewer (30 September 1854), 3 

CELESTIAL HARMONY. - Angels desirous of enjoying the heavenly strains of their sister songtress, this evening, are respectfully informed left the skylight of the Theatre will be left open for their descent.

THE SWAN'S NEST. - It will be gratifying to the donors of the magnificent bouquets so lavishly showered upon Miss Catherine Hayes to learn that the fair recipient now reposes on a bed of roses, composed exclusively of the floral offerings to her peerless talent. She wears a laurel wreath for a night cap, and her pillow is fragrant with essence of two lips. Night-shade forms the curtains of her couch, and Heart's ease woos her to repose. No Dandy-lion disturbs her slumbers, and her maid Polly Anthus keeps strict watch and ward over the sanctuary.

"MISS CATHERINE HAYES", Bell's Life in Sydney and Sporting Reviewer (30 September 1854), 2 

30 September 1854, third concert, Royal Victoria Theatre, Sydney

[Advertisement], Bell's Life in Sydney and Sporting Reviewer (30 September 1854), 3 

3 and 5 October 1854, fourth and fifth concerts and opera, Royal Victoria Theatre, Sydney

[Advertisement], Empire (3 October 1854), 1 

"MISS CATHERINE HAYES' FIRST APPEARANCE IN OPERA", The Sydney Morning Herald (4 October 1854), 5 

"SYDNEY (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT) 4th October, 1854", The Argus [Melbourne, VIC] (10 October 1854), 4 

I have little to tell you to-day, except that our usually quiet cozy, dozy, citizens have gone raving mad on the subject of Catherine Hayes. She is reaping a golden harvest. There has been one more "last appearance" this week, and there is to be another to-morrow, and I dare say that even this will not be the real finale. You see, then, that notwithstanding the golden bait which you rich Melbournites are enabled to offer, you must wait awhile. You must bridle your impatience to hear the sweet notes of the "Swan of Erin" until the unusual furor of us quiet metropolitans shall have abated. At the risk of being deemed a little heretical, I must venture to say that although Miss Hayes is unquestionably the best vocalist that has ever raised her voice (in public) in Australia, I cannot admit the justice of those "totum porkum" critics who will scarcely admit that she has, or ever has had, and equal, much less a superior, in the world. Bit I expect to hear of just such a furor at Melbourne; perhaps, if possible, something more rabid. Energetic people are usually inflammable in proportion to their energy, and the good citizens of Melbourne being, as a body, peculiarly energetic, are also, so far as I have been able to judge of their their character, peculiarly inflammable.

Having given the due precedence to Miss Hayes, I will turn to the Legislative Council . . .

7 October 1854, sixth concert, Royal Victoria Theatre, Sydney

[Advertisement], Empire (7 October 1854), 1 

10 October 1854, seventh concert, Royal Victoria Theatre, Sydney

[Advertisement], Empire (10 October 1854), 1 

12 October 1854, eighth concert, Royal Victoria Theatre, Sydney

[Advertisement], Empire (12 October 1854), 1 

14 October 1854, ninth concert, Royal Victoria Theatre, Sydney

[Advertisement], Bell's Life in Sydney and Sporting Reviewer (14 October 1854), 3 

"Sydney News (From our Correspondent) Sydney, Thursday Evening", The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (14 October 1854), 2 

The Sydney people are positively Catherine Hayes mad. To-morrow a public meeting is convened, Mr. Justice Therry in the chair, for the purpose of considering the propriety of presenting Miss Hayes with a suitable testimonial in honor of her transcendent talent. This lady will be succeeded here, as we are informed, by Madame Anna Bishop, who, with Mr. Bochsa, is at present starring at San Francisco.

ASSOCIATIONS: Anna Bishop (soprano vocalist); Nicholas Bochsa (conductor, composer)

Miss Catherine Hayes receiving a public testimonial at the Victoria Theatre, Sydney, Tuesday, October 17th, 1854

Miss Catherine Hayes receiving a public testimonial at the Victoria Theatre, Sydney, Tuesday, October 17th, 1854; original in Illustrated Sydney News (October 1854); reproduced in The Australian picture pleasure book . . . engraved, selected and arranged by Walter G. Mason (Sydney: J. R. Clarke, 1857) (DIGITISED)

Catherine Hayes, centre; with Frederick Meymott reading the address, at left; and Lewis Lavenu, seated at the piano, far right

17 October 1854, testimonial and tenth concert (benefit for the Destitute Children's Asylum), Royal Victoria Theatre, Sydney

[Advertisement], Empire (17 October 1854), 1 

"MISS HAYES' CHARITY FAREWELL CONCERT", The Sydney Morning Herald (18 October 1854), 5 

"MISS CATHERINE HAYES", Empire (18 October 1854), 3 

Departure of Miss Catherine Hayes from Sydney, October 18th, 1854; originally in Illustrated Sydney news (28 October 1854); reproduced in The Australian picture pleasure book . . . engraved, selected and arranged by Walter G. Mason (Sydney: J. R. Clarke, 1857) (DIGITISED)

Melbourne and Geelong (22 October - 25 November 1854)

"VESSELS IN HOBSON'S BAY AND THE RIVER", The Argus (23 October 1854), 4 

Captain Moodie, of the City of Sydney, has had the good fortune as well as the honor of bringing in his vessel from Sydney to Melbourne, the "Irish Nightingale," Miss Catherine Hayes. This lady has enjoyed excellent health, and expressed herself very warmly to Captain Moodie, for his courtesy during the trip. A written testimonial of regard and esteem was presented to the Captain, attached to which are the signatures of Miss Hayes, that of her mother, and the names of the whole of the saloon passengers.

"MISS CATHERINE HAYES", The Argus (23 October 1854), 5 

This lady arrived here yesterday in the City of Sydney, and has taken up her abode at the Prince of Wales Hotel. Miss Hayes has not yet made arrangements for her public appearances in Melbourne, but we believe that the new amphitheatre in Spring-street will be the place selected, that building being very spacious, well adapted for vocal performances, and always conducted in the most orderly and respectable manner. The stay of Miss Hayes is likely to be limited to about a month, as she intends to proceed to India by the next steamer of the Peninsular and Oriental Company, and the number of her performances in Melbourne will not exceed six or seven.

Considering that we are fully as liberal a people as our neighbors in Sydney, and rather more excitable, we have no doubt that this talented lady will forthwith succeed in reducing us as completely to a condition of enthusiastic admiration, as has been the case the last scene of her triumphs . . .

"QUEEN'S THEATRE. MISS CATHERINE HAYES", The Argus (30 October 1854), 5 

"MISS HAYES'S SECOND CONCERT", The Argus (1 November 1854), 5 

"MISS HAYES'S CONCERT", The Argus (3 November 1854), 5 

[Advertisement], The Argus (7 November 1854), 8

"QUEEN'S THEATRE. LAST NIGHT", The Argus (8 November 1854), 5 

"DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE", The Age (14 November 1854), 5 

Letter, Catherine Hayes, Melbourne, 9 November 1854, to Jacob Clarke, Sydney; State Library of New South Wales 

[1r] Melbourne
9 No'ber 1854
My dear Sir
Accept my best thanks for your kind note. I am glad to hear that my dear friends in Sydney have not forgotten [1v] me and that they miss me from their midst. I assure you that since my arrival in Melbourne not one day or hour has passed without wishing ourselves back in Sydney. My concerts here have been [ ? ] [2r] pecuniarily pleasing but they lack the warmth of friendship and heartfelt enthusiasm which characterized my Sydney audiences. I herewith send you a Daguerotype which is considered a good likeness. [1r cross] And with kind regards to Mr. Woolcott in which my mother and Jack join, I remain My dear sir, &c I am
Yours sin'y
C. Hayes

NOTE: The daguerreotype has not survived with the letter; it may well have been a copy of the same image reproduced here: "CATHERINE HAYES", Freeman's Journal (28 May 1904), 36 

21 November 1854, concert, Geelong, VIC

"CATHERINE HAYES" and "THE CONCERT", Geelong Advertiser and Intelligencer (22 November 1854), 4 

Adelaide, SA (27-28 November 1854)

"MISS CATHERINE HAYES", Adelaide Observer (11 November 1854), 4 

This celebrated and truly charming vocalist, on being urged by a gentleman from this colony to pay Adelaide a visit, declared her willingness to afford its citizens the much-desired gratification, but pleaded the prior engagements which would necessitate her taking a passage in the Norna on the return of that steamer. Miss Hayes kindly promised, however, that if the Norna remained at Port Adelaide for ten hours only, she would give a concert at the Victoria Theatre in this city; and we understand that the requisite local arrangements will be made, fully confiding in the willingness of the Irish Nightingale to subject to her enchantment as many of us as may be able to attend upon her gentle summons.

27 November 1854, arrival, Adelaide, SA

"MISS CATHERINE HAYES", South Australian Register (28 November 1854), 2 

The P. and O. Company's steamer Norna reached the Lightship anchorage about 5 o'clock, and Miss Hayes, fearful that the completion of the assiduous arrangements of Dr. Kent might have been prevented by some accident, landed near the Semaphore Hotel in the Norna's barge, crossed Lefevre's Peninsula, and reached Galton's Port Admiral Hotel at about half past 6 o'clock. Dr. Kent, accompanied by Mrs. Kent, had left the Port in the Government Steam-tug about 4 o'clock, and his kind endeavours having been partially frustrated by equally kind intentions, he returned to Calton's Hotel, where he found Miss Hayes and her mother, who had awaited his return, and the party shortly after reached Adelaide in a carriage and four. Mr. Newman and other gentlemen at the Port were most politely attentive to the charming visitor and her suite, and exceedingly anxious to assist her in affording to the citizens of Adelaide the much-desired opportunity of enjoying that musical treat which had given such unbounded satisfaction in Sydney and Melbourne, after charming "the old world and the new". Miss Hayes, accompanied as before mentioned, reached the York Hotel, in this City, at about 10 o'clock last night. The reception, at that late hour, if not enthusiastic was most respectful, kind, and unobtrusive. Mons. Coulon does not accompany Miss Hayes; and we regret to learn that it was only at the last moment, almost, that he signified his intention to remain in Melbourne. Mr. Lavenu, who will take the place of Mons. Coulon, is highly spoken of, but the change has necessitated some alteration in the programme for the concert of this morning, which will take place at 11 o'clock, at the Victoria Theatre, as announced. The liberality of the Sydney proprietors has already been recorded. We have now to add that the like sentiments were found to animate the proprietors of the Melbourne Theatre, who presented the admired songstress with a piece of plate, very valuable diamond necklace, and bracelet.

Our readers will be delighted to hear that Miss Hayes appears to be in excellent health, and much gratified by preparations so greatly beyond what she had allowed herself to expect from so short a visit. A special advertisement will supply all the remaining information as to the Concert, which is expected to bring a very large and highly respectable attendance.

Miss Hayes proceeds hence to Calcutta, where she will probably remain about six weeks; from thence it is her intention to return to England, and afterwards to cross the Atlantic again to New York.

28 November 1854, morning concert, Royal Victoria Theatre, Adelaide, SA

[Advertisement], South Australian Register (28 November 1854), 3 

MISS CATHERINE HAYES. - The CONCERT This Morning, at the Victoria Theatre, will commence at 11 o'clock precisely; and although the absence of Mons. Coulon will necessitate some alteration in the programme, it is hoped that the professional devotedness of Miss Hayes, and the effective assistance of Mr. Lavenu, will go far to obviate the possibility of disappointment. As the arrangements will not admit of the receipt of money at the entrance-doors of the Theatre, it will be necessary for all who wish to attend the Concert to provide themselves with tickets at Mr. Main's, King William-street.

"LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL. TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 28", South Australian Register (29 November 1854), 2 

There was no House yesterday. A few members were present, but the attentions of Miss Catherine Hayes's Concert prevented a sufficient attendance to form a quorum. At half-past 1 the Speaker adjourned the House till next day at 1 o'clock.

"MISS CATHERINE HAYES", Adelaide Times (29 November 1854), 2 

"MISS CATHERINE HAYES", Adelaide Times (30 November 1854), 2 

"MISS CATHERINE HAYES'S CONCERT", South Australian Register (30 November 1854), 3 

"MISS CATHERINE HAYES", Adelaide Times (30 November 1854), 3 

5 December 1854, Albany, WA

"LATEST COLONIAL INTELLIGENCE", The Perth Gazette and Independent Journal of Politics and News (15 December 1854), 3 

. . . The Norna, steamer, arrived Albany on the 5th instant, having Miss Hayes on board on her way to Calcutta . . .

South and South-east Asia (January to June 1855)

"SHIPPING", Allen's Indian Mail and Register of Intelligence (14 February 1855), 68

BENGAL . . . Per steamer Norma (Jan. 3), from GALLE. - Col. Haythorne, H.M.'s 98th regt.; Mrs. and Miss Catherine Hayes, Messrs. Bushnell, Dency, Lavena [sic], Robertson, Stubbs, Wendelstalt, and Wrincolt; and Lieut. Hickey.

"CATHERINE HAYES", Adelaide Times (4 April 1855), 3 

The latest Bengal papers announce the arrival in Calcutta of the fair cantatrice who so recently enchanted a large Adelaide audience with her exquisite songs. By the last accounts the Swan of Erin, had not made her appearance in Calcutta, but she had issued a programme by which we learn that her series of concerts in India was to commence on the 22nd of January. It appears, however, that her advent in the City of Palaces, has not been hailed with that boundless enthusiasm with which she was greeted here - in consequence, chiefly, of the exorbitant charges of admission announced in her advertisement, - 30s for reserved, and a pound for unreserved seats! A correspondent, addressing a leading Calcutta journal, says upon this subject -
"Miss Catherine Hayes has advertised her prices, viz.: reserved seats at 10 rs., and unreserved seats at 10 rs. Miss Hayes does not, like Mr. Hullah, sing for the Million. If she did, her prices would have been suitable to their means. Miss Hayes has not come out to India to astonish all classes. She has presented herself in this City of Palaces for the few and the Aristocratic - her prices are suited to them, and to them she will only sing. It would be well for Miss Hayes to consider her prices and suit them to the means of all classes, if she really wants support. It is a question whether most people would not rather resubscribe to the Patriotic Fund, towards the widows and the orphans of the brave soldiers who have fallen in the struggle with Russia, than give it to Miss Hayes' unprecedented exorbitancy. It is lamentable that she should be so ill advised."

"CATHERINE HAYES", Bell's Life in Sydney (21 April 1855), 2

[Advertisement], Java-bode: nieuws, handels- en advertentieblad voor Nederlandsch-Indie (16 May 1855), 2 

[Advertisement], Java-bode: nieuws, handels- en advertentieblad voor Nederlandsch-Indie (18 May 1855), 2 

[Advertisement], Java-bode: nieuws, handels- en advertentieblad voor Nederlandsch-Indie (19 May 1855), 3 

"To Miss CATHERINE HAYES, prior to her departure for Australia", Java-bode: nieuws, handels- en advertentieblad voor Nederlandsch-Indie (23 May 1855), 4 

"VAARWELL! TOEGEZONGEN AAN Miss CATHERINE HAYES", Java-bode: nieuws, handels- en advertentieblad voor Nederlandsch-Indie (26 May 1855), 4 

"MISS CATHERINE HAYES", The Sydney Morning Herald (18 June 1855), 5

Many of our readers will be glad to hear that this gifted lady contemplates a second visit to our city; and her sojourn, we have reason to believe, will be of some duration. Miss Hayes writes in April from Batavia, where her success has been most complete, her magnificent powers of singing and acting being ably supported by the French operatic company located in that singular city. A file of Calcutta papers, just received, contains many enthusiastic critiques on her performances in the "city of palaces", and although it seems the first three concerts did not command overflowing audiences, yet the remainder of the series were entirely successful, the proverbial apathy of the people being at length overcome. The voyage from Melbourne to Ceylon in the Norna must have been unusually agreeable, as the passengers, with Miss Hayes' assistance, gave a succession of operatic and dramatic entertainments, and the addresses delivered on the several occasions written, we imagine, by our facetious friend, M. Lavenu, are very amusing. The programmes place Miss Hayes for Bishop's glee, "Blow gentle Gales", assisted by Lieutenant Woolridge, R.N., Captain Burne, and Mr. Bain; also a selection of her favourite songs, concluding on each evening with the National Anthem: the solos by Miss Hayes, M. Lavenu on the harmonium, a gentleman rejoicing in the patronymic of Fitz Stubbs on the guitar, with numerous vocal displays by the rest of the company.

ASSOCIATIONS: Napoleon Fitz-Stubbs (son of Thomas Stubbs)

Second Australian visit (24 July 1855 to 14 May 1856)
Melbourne, VIC (28 June - July 1855)


June 28. - Glendargh, ship, 682 tons, A. T. Smith, from Singapore 2nd May, via Batavia, 26th May. Passengers-cabin : Miss Catherine Hayes, Mrs. Hayes, Miss Kelly, Mrs. Nugent, Mrs. Millar and child . . . Messrs. W. A. Bushnell, L. H. Lavenu, J. McLean, W. W. Blow, J. Grey, J. Roberts; and one hundred and ninety-nine Chinese in the steerage. Captain Smith, agent.

"MISS CATHERINE HAYES", The Argus (2 July 1855), 5

On Friday next Miss Catherine Hayes will give a GRAND CONCERT in aid of the Destitute in and around Collingwood ...

"ENTERTAINMENTS TO COME", The Moreton Bay Courier [Brisbane, QLD] (7 July 1855), 2 

That talented musician, Miska Hauser, having been on a tour to the southward, was about to give another series of concerts in Sydney, according to the metropolitan papers. We understand that he will pay another visit to Brisbane shortly, with an efficient staff of assistants. Ali-Ben-Soualle, the Turcophone player, may be expected by next steamer, so that the lovers of sweet sounds will have entertainment in prospectu. Miss Catherine Hayes is about to revisit Australia. Is there any overwhelming difficulty in the way of securing a visit from the Irish Nightingale to Brisbane? Moreton Bay is wealthy enough, although the population is scattered. Let a Committee be formed, and communicate with the wealthy stockholders in the bush, and we shall not despair of hearing the Swan of Erin pour forth the dulcet notes of "Savournean Deelish" in this good town.

ASSOCIATIONS: Ali-Ben Sou-Alle (saxophonist, composer)

[Editorial], "THE COLONY OF VICTORIA", The Argus (20 July 1855), 4-5 

The departure of the Marco Polo, the celebrated pioneer of the fleet of clippers engaged in the Australian service, on her fifth homeward-bound voyage, affords an opportunity, of which we readily avail ourselves, of transmitting, for the information of the distant reader, a brief history of of our progress and a review of our present condition . . . [5] . . . We have on previous occasions referred to the performances of Miss Catherine Hayes, who has lately returned here from Batavia, and of Mr. G. V. Brooke, who, after a most successful professional visit to New South Wales, is again in Melbourne. The extravagant enthusiasm which characterifed the reception of Miss Hayes on her former visit to Sydney, and which our facetious contemporary Punch has very properly satirised, was not participated in by our colonists, who wore satisfied with admiring the performances of this excellent artiste in a rational manner . . .

Sydney, NSW (24 July - 19 September 1855)

"SHIPPING. ARRIVALS", The Sydney Morning Herald (24 July 1855), 4

July 24. - City of Sydney (s.), 700 tons, Captain Moodie, from Melbourne 21st instant. Passengers - . . . Mr. and Mrs. Dean, Miss K. Hayes, Mrs. Hayes . . . Messrs. . . . Bushnell, Lavenu, Green, Gordon, Steel, Driver, Wheeler . . .

[News], The Sydney Morning Herald (6 August 1855), 4

"MISS. C. HAYES - OPERA", The Sydney Morning Herald (24 August 1855), 8

Melbourne, VIC, and regional (22 September 1855 to 15 January 1856)

"SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE", The Argus (24 September 1855), 4 

September 22. - City of Sydney, A. S. N. Co.'s S.S.S., 750 tons. R. T. Moodie, from Sydney 19th inst. Passengers - cabin: Mrs. Hayes, Miss Catherine Hayes and servant . . . Messrs. Bushnell, Jones, Lavenu . . .

Hobart and regional TAS (17 January - 17 April 1856)

"Shipping Intelligence. PORT OF HOBART TOWN. ARRIVALS", Colonial Times (18 January 1856), 2 

Jan. 17 City of Hobart, 363 tons, G. V. Bentley from Melbourne, 15th inst. Passengers: Mr. Justice Therry, Mrs. Hayes, Miss Catherine Hayes and servant . . .

"DISTINGUISHED ARRIVALS", Launceston Examiner (19 January 1854), 3 

Amongst the passengers who arrived at Hobart Town on Thursday last by the City of Hobart, were Miss Catherine Hayes, and Mr. Justice Therry, of New South Wales.

"MADAME ANNA BISHOP V. MISS CATHERINE HAYES. To the Editor", Empire (21 January 1856), 3 

SIR - I have perused with considerable pleasure the interesting critiques of your theatrical reporter on the different operatic performances of Madame Anna Bishop since her arrival here.

It cannot have escaped the recollection of play-goers, that during Miss Hayes's protracted stay in this city, very lengthy notices of her various performances from time to time appeared in your daily contemporary. Those notices, it was generally believed, were from the pen of one of their honors the judges, who seemed to have obtained from the Herald a carte blanche to occupy, for that purpose at all events, as much space in the columns of that paper as he thought fit.

How different the Herald's treatment of that gifted English songstress, Madame Anna Bishop. Without pretending to offer any thing like a professional opinion of their respective abilities, it will scarcely I think be asserted that she is less talented than her rival, Miss Hayes. Twice in the course of the present week has Madame Bishop appeared in the opera of "Norma," yet the Herald could not or would not find room for a paragraph of half-a-dozen lines on the subject.

I do not for one moment envy Miss Hayes the cordial success which attended her performances in this city; but I cannot understand why two of our Judges and the Attorney-General in particular (to say nothing of others of equal respectability amongst us) should ever have been ready to do her honour, and yet withhold their patronage and support from Madame Bishop. The very flattering reception awarded to that lady last evening, during her exquisite performance in the opera alluded to, will, I sincerely trust, in some measure console her for tire indifferent support extended to her here.

I, for one, however, think it will be a reflection on our citizens if Madame Bishop be suffered to leave our shores without receiving a substantial testimonial for the many musical treats she has afforded them. To the full extent of my means I shall be most happy to subscribe for such a purpose, and I have no doubt whatever that hundreds will be found to do likewise.

I remain. Sir, yours respectfully,
Sydney, 18th January, 1856.

Melbourne and regional VIC (18 April - 24 May 1856)

"SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE. ARRIVED", The Argus (19 April 1856), 6 

April 18.- Lady Bird, s.s.s., 170 tons, T. Robertson, from Launceston 17th inst. Passengers - cabin: Miss Catherine Hayes and servant, Mrs. Hayes . . . Messrs. Bushnell . . .

"MELBOURNE", The Sydney Morning Herald (5 May 1856), 5

"EXTRACTS. REVERSE OF FORTUNE", The Moreton Bay Courier [Brisbane, QLD] (17 May 1856), 3 

At the admission of paupers at the last meeting of the guardians of this union, a venerable man, who still held under the exterior garb of poverty the impress of respectability, was brought before the board in the workhouse clothes. He stated that his name was Robert Hayes; that he was born near Mitchels town; that for ten years he was the first tenor and director of music at Windsor Castle, and subsequently director of music to the King of Belgium; and that he was uncle to the celebrated Irish cantatrice (Catherine Hayes), and her teacher; that he was eighty-seven years of age, in perfect health and possession of his faculties, and willing to instruct any one who would require his professional services rather than continue a recipient of workhouse relief; and he further said that he had sent a detailed account of his reverses to his niece, Miss Hayes, but that, as she was at present in Australia, he could not have had a reply up to the present. - Tipperary Free Press.

24 May 1856, cleared for departure, per Royal Charter, from Melbourne, VIC, for Liverpool, England

"CLEARED OUT", The Argus (26 May 1856), 4

May 24. - Royal Charter, auxiliary screw-steamer, 2165 tons. Francis Boyce, for Liverpool. Passengers - cabin: Rev. Dr. Scoresby, lady and servant, Mr. Montagu Moses and lady, Mrs. Hayes, Miss Catherine Hayes and servant, His Grace the R. C. Archbishop of the South Sea Islands and chaplain, Rev. R. Boyce, Mrs. and the Misses Boyce . . . [Mr.] Bushnell . . . and seventy-four intermediate and one hundred and ninety-two steerage passengers. Bright Brothers and Co., agents.

After Australia

Mid August 1856, arrived, Liverpool, England, per Royal Charter, from Melbourne

May 1860, first public showing of Baccani portrait, Royal Academy, London

The exhibition of the Royal Academy of Arts, 1860, the ninety-second (London: William Clowes and Sons, 1860), 12 

. . . 200. Madame Catherine Hayes - A. Baccani . . .

"EXHIBITION OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY. THIRD NOTICE", Morning Post [London] (24 May 1860), 6

. . . Signor A. Baccani's full-length portrait of Miss Catherine Hayes (200) claims favourable notice for the excellence of its drawing, the quiet truthfulness of its colouring, and its striking resemblance to the original . . .

THE ROYAL ACADEMY EXHIBITION. THE NINETY-SECOND, 1860", The art journal (1 June 1860) 166 

. . . No. 200. "Madame Catherine Hayes," A. BACCANI. An elegant and simple portrait of the accomplished and popular cantatrice - full length, of the size of life, presenting the lady, dressed in black, before a plain green background . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Attilio Baccani (c.1823-1906), painter, born in Rome, resident in London by 1859, the first year he exhibited at the Royal Academy.

Letter, Catherine Hayes, London, 6 October 1860, to Jacob Clarke, Sydney; State Library of New South Wales

Letter, Catherine Hayes, London, 6 October 1860, to Jacob Clarke, Sydney; State Library of New South Wales 

[1r] 13 Westbourne Park Rd
6 Ocb'r / 60
My dear Sir
Will you allow me to introduce to you two artists of dictinction Mr. Horace Poussard & Mr. Rene Douay. They propose visiting Australia and I have much pleasure in giving them these lines to you. I shall be [1v] glad to hear of their success for their talents [ ? ] much. They will [ ? ] advice from you who [ ? ] so capable of assisting them in their professional arrangements. Any kindness you can show them will oblige [2r] yours, my dear Sir sincerely
C. Hayes Bushnell

ASSOCIATIONS: Horace Poussard (violinist); Rene Douay (cellist)

11 August 1861, death of Catherine Hayes, Sydenham, London, England

[Editorial], The Musical World (17 August 1861), 520-21

IT is with unfeigned regret we have this week to chronicle a serious loss to the Vocal Art, in the death of Catherine Hayes. The celebrated Irish songstress expired on Sunday last, at Sydenham, after a very brief illness. Catherine Hayes was only forty years' of age, and in the zenith of her fame and full command of her powers. She dies universally lamented. In social life, a more amiable lady never existed. She was a true-hearted Irishwoman, and was ever ready, with her voice or her purse, to assist the distressed. She was idolised by her immediate friends; and her loss will be deeply deplored by all who happened to come within the circle of her acquaintance. As a public character, she was equally respected for the strict decorum of her life, and admired for the powers and versatility of her talents. No singer, in short, ever left a fairer name behind her, or more emphatically merited the name of an "artist" . . .

The vocal powers of Catherine Hayes were not of the highest order. Her voice was a true soprano, with more than an average share of the middle voice, which enabled her to sing music beyond the means of ordinary sopranos. The tone was brilliant and telling, rather than clear and sweet, being slightly veiled, or clouded, and not possessing that purity of quality we might point to in many native and foreign cantatrice. This voice, however, the artist had disciplined to so high a degree of perfection as to enable her to produce effects out of the power of far more gifted singers.

Catherine Hayes was a great mistress of expression, and this, with her innate delicacy and high susceptibilities, threw such a charm round her ballad singing as to render it irresistible. With such means and impulses, it is not difficult to account for the prodigious success she achieved in Ireland when interpreting the national ballads of the country, into which she appeared to throw her whole soul, and which she delivered with so much earnestness and reality as to savour, at least in sober English ears, of exaggeration. No doubt with a more captivating and sweeter organ all this eagerness for display would not have been required - most probably not manifested; and in this, as in everything else connected with her singing, Catherine Hayes exhibited the consummate artist, as she knew exactly how far she was deficient, and in what she could prevail. Her influence over the feelings of the Irish was absolutely magical, and no other singer of our own times had the same power to arouse them to such ecstacy and admiration. She held, indeed, the key to the hearts of her countrymen, and could open and shut them as she listed. As a bravura singer, we are inclined to rate Catherine Hayes higher than as a ballad singer. Indeed, her art appeared to us invariably to predominate over her natural gifts, and while that which was simple seemed to be forced, her ornamental displays were often in the highest degree satisfactory. At all events, in whatever light we may be inclined to view her, it cannot be denied that a real singer has gone from us, and as such the loss of Catherine Hayes is to be seriously lamented.

"MADAME CATHERINE HAYES-BUSHNELL", The Gentleman's Magazine (September 1861), 331

"OBITUARY: MADAME CATHERINE HAYES", The Sydney Morning Herald (12 October 1861), 5

The death of this talented and popular vocalist took place on Sunday, August 11th, at Sydenham. On the previous Monday her medical attendant, Mr. Chappell, of George-street, Hanover square, was requested by telegraph to attend her. From that time, in spite of medical treatment, she gradually became worse, and on Sunday morning she was speechless. At half past six in the evening she expired, in the presence of her mother, and the friends at whose house she had been staying on a visit. Madame Hayes was about 40, and not in the least worn by her exciting profession. The effects of heated theatres had been blown away from her by the breezes of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and, accustomed to every climate of the world, she seemed the very last person for whose life one would have feared. Her great success as a vocalist is a matter of too much notoriety to need description. Even when matched against the great heroines of the Italian stage she was successful and for many years her position at the head of English concert singers has been impregnable. In Catherine Hayes Ireland has lost one of the sweetest singers of its national airs. A daughter of the sister isle, she was thoroughly imbued with the spirit of its melody, and it was in the alternately wild and tender melodies which have inspired so many poets that her genial warmth of expression found it highest medium for display. As a singer of this particular class of music she was probably unsurpassed. It was here, far more than in the Italian vocalisation of which she made herself an accomplished adept, that Catherine Hayes possessed the secret to charm the crowd. In her own country she had but to give a national air and hold the audience spell-bound. In private life the departed lady owned none but enthusiastic partisans, for no professor of the musical art ever reflected more social honour on her calling. Her career extended over some twenty years and upwards, during which she studied in Ireland under Signor Sapio, in France under Signor Manuel Garcia, and in Italy under Signor Filice Ranconi. Her public performances abroad were commenced, we believe, at Marseilles. From Marseilles she went to Milan, from Milan to Vienna thence to Venice and other Italian towns. In 1849 she came to London with a first class continental reputation, and few amateurs can have forgotten the flattering reception accorded to her when she appeared (with Mr. Sims Reeves) in "Linda di Chamouni" at the Roval Italian Opera. After two years in Great Britain, Catherine Hayes went to the United States, visited California, the Sandwich Islands, and subsequently Australia and India. In these distant regions the fame she had acquired in England was turned to profitable account, and, everywhere "triumphant," she realised a handsome fortune. On her return to England she sang at the concerts presided over by the late M. Jullien at her Majesty's Theatre, and since that period she has made tours in the provinces, especially in Ireland, where her way may be said, without exaggeration, to have been paved with gold and strewn with flowers. She was married in 1857 to Mr. Bushnell, who had undertaken the superintendence of her professional business in the New World. Her domestic happiness was, however, of very short duration, as she had for some years been a widow when she was herself called away.

Hayes as remembered in Australia


. . . The directors understand that a portrait of Miss Catherine Hayes, by an Italian artist, may be expected in the colony during the current year - a donation from herself to the society - and which they propose placing in some appropriate position in the building which is to bear her name . . .

"CATHERINE HAYES HOSPITAL", Empire (19 December 1868), 5 

With much pleasure we beg to direct the attention of our readers to an advertisement in our columns, announcing that the foundation stone of the Catherine Hayes Hospital in connection with the Destitute Children's Asylum at Randwick, will be this day laid by the Hon E. Deas Thomson, C. B., who has been the president of the society ever since its formation in the year 1852. At the visit of that celebrated cantatrice, Miss C. Hayes to this colony in 1855, she presented a sum of £800 to the charity. This sum, being put out to interest, has now become £1300, to which the Government have added £2000. In commemoration of the late lamented Miss Hayes, and as a slight recognition of her generous douceur, the board determined to form an Infirmary, to be called the "Hayes Hospital," in connection with the Asylum for Destitute Children, which is now so great a success. Plans and specifications were accordingly called for, and, out of several first-class designs, one has boon selected by the board of directors, by Mr. Howe, the contract for which has been entrusted to Mr. W. Bailey, of Newtown. The ceremony of laying the foundation-stone is announced to take place at 3 o'clock this day, and it is proposed to present the hon. the President with a handsomely finished silver trowel and myall mallet, contained in an elegant rosewood case, made by Delarue. It may not perhaps be out of place to mention that just previous to her death, Miss Hayes desired that a full length portrait of herself, painted expressly for the purpose, should be presented to the Randwick Asylum. Various communications on the subject have taken place with the representatives of Miss Hayes in England, and Mr. Justice Therry has been more recently communicated with to endeavour to obtain possession of this record of her remembrance of and interest in the Asylum for Destitute Children at Randwick . . .

"DESTITUTE CHILDREN'S ASYLUM", Evening News (26 January 1870), 3 

. . . The Catherine Hayes Hospital is now nearly finished. Its external appearance is fine, and its spacious apartments will for the future prevent the necessity of keeping sick children within the institution . . . A full length portrait of Miss Catherine Hayes, from whom the hospital takes its name, on account of her munificent donation (including interest) of £1300, has been received from England, and is now temporarily placed in the board-room of the asylum . . .

The Randwick portrait of Catherine Hayes (probably that by Baccani), in situ, Hayes Hospital, Randwick; photograph ? c.1915; Randwick City Library 

"A VISIT TO RANDWICK ASYLUM", The Protestant Standard (7 November 1874), 5 

. . . On the left of the entrance hall are the office and Board Room. In the latter hangs a full length portrait of Miss Catherine Hayes. A little romance may be said to attach to this picture. It was painted speedily for the Institution; but fore it could be sent out the talented cantatrice died, and the picture was pawned and lost sight of for some time. A clue being obtained as to its whereabouts, enquiries were made, and finally it was released from "my uncle's" care, and eventually arrived here to occupy the position originally meant for it, and where we hope it may long remain to recall the noble charity of the lady it represents . . .

"CATHERINE HAYES", Freeman's Journal (28 May 1904), 36 

A reproduction of a daguerrotype of Catherine Hayes by a Philadelphia firm is given in a recent number of the "Century Magazine." The picture is one of a group of three, the others being Jenny Lind at the age of 30, and Adelina Patti at 14. The portrait of Catherine Hayes represents her at the age of 26. The quaint dress of the period is in striking contrast to modern costumes. Many old colonists remember with pride the visits of Catherine Hayes to Australia. In odd corners of the country people still tell of the peasant prima donna who had all the country at her feet. It is safe to say the name of Catherine Hayes will live in Australia, when stars of great magnitude at present shining in the firmament of song are dead and forgotten . . .

NOTE: The source in question, The century illustrated monthly magazine 67 (1903), 673-74

"RANDWICK ASYLUM. REMOVING THE CHILDREN", The Sydney Morning Herald (11 October 1915), 10 

. . . In all probability the large oil painting of Catherine Hayes, which hangs in the Board-room, will be presented by the directors to the State Government. If it does not find its way to our National Art Gallery the portrait of the ever-memorable singer who helped to build the Catherine Hayes wing of the asylum should have a place of honour in the new Conservatorium of Music . . .

Related musical prints

Why do I weep for thee (Wallace)

Why do I weep for thee, Composed expressly by Vincent Wallace for Catherine Hayes (Sydney: Woolcott & Clarke, [September 1854]); also in the Australian Presentation Album 1855 (DIGITISED)

Happy birdling of the forest Composed expressly for and sung by Miss Catherine Hayes (Wallace)

Happy birdling of the forest by W. V. Wallace; composed expressly for and sung by Miss Catherine Hayes arranged by L. Lavenu (Sydney: H. Marsh & Co., [? 1854]) (DIGITISED)

Home sweet home (Bishop)

Home sweet home as sung by Miss Catherine Hayes (Sydney: Woolcott & Clarke, [1855]) (DIGITISED)

The Irish emigrant (Barker)

The Irish emigrant as sung by Miss Catherine Hayes, by G. Barker (Sydney: H. Marsh & Co., [1854]) (DIGITISED)

Cushla Machree

Cushla Machree, or Oh! Erin my country, sung by Miss Catherine Haye (Sydney: Woolcott And Clarke, [1855]) (DIGITISED)

My Molly Asthore (Lavenu)

My Molly Asthore, ballad (new version), as sung by Miss Catherine Hayes, by L. Lavenu (Sydney: H. Marsh and Co., [1855]) (DIGITISED)

The singing polka (Alary) with variations

[Rondo, The singing polka, Alary] Variations as sung by Miss Catherine Hayes (Sydney: J. R. Clarke, 1857) (DIGITISED)

Bibliography and resources (selected)

A brief sketch of the professional career of Miss Catherine Hayes : containing an account of her early history, education, debut in France, and sojourn in Italy, with remarks on her tour through England, North and South America, India, California and the Australasian colonies (Melbourne : Printed by Wilson, Mackinnon & Fairfax, 1856) 

"Catherine Hayes", in Ellen Creathorne Clayton, Queens of song: being memoirs of some of the most celebrated female vocalists . . . volume 2 (London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1863), 274 (DIGITISED

See "MELBOURNE (From our own Correspondent) Tuesday, June 3", Geelong Advertiser and Intelligencer (4 June 1856), 2 

The sketch of the life of Miss Catherine Hayes, lately published, is said to be from the pen of Mr. Wm. Akhurst. Though a namhy pamby affair, it is surprising to find so many of those who were supposed to be the tried friends of this gentleman, ridiculing his efforts. There is a great deal of spleen mingled with the pretensions to criticise the work, and those who crow the loudest are but bantlings after all.

ASSOCIATIONS: William Mower Akhurst (writer); see also, "PUNCH'S POLICE COURT", Melbourne Punch (29 May 1856), 131 (DIGITIES)

"Catherine Hwyes", in E. Owens Blackburne, Illustrious Irishwomen: being memoirs of some of the most noted Irishwomen from the earliest ages to the present century (London: Tinsley Brothers, 1877), 386-402 (DIGITISED)

Francis Campbell Brewer, The drama and music in New South Wales (Sydney: Charles Potter, Govt. Printer, 1892), 4, 59-61 (DIGITISED) (DIGITISED)

The romance of the Sydney stage, by Alfred J. Crips and Humphrey Hall, MS [by 1911], National Library of Australia 

Published as: The romance of the Sydney stage by "Osric" (Sydney: Currency Press, 1996), 158-63, 197-98 

Dennis Shoesmith, "Hayes, Catherine (?-1861)", Australian dictionary of biography 4 (1972) (ONLINE)

Deborah Crisp, "'Acted and sung in Italian': Catherine Hayes and Anna Bishop in Sydney, 1855-1856", Australasian music research 4 (1999), 33-58 

Alison Gyger, Civilising the colonies: pioneering opera in Australia (Sydney: Pellinor, 1999), 66, 67, 68-79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 89, 91, 92, 98, 103, 110, 171, 249 

Basil Walsh, Catherine Hayes: the Hibernian (Irish) prima donna (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2000)

Nicole Anae, "A crowned and selected band of women": Tasmanian actress/celebrities of the nineteenth century and "home-grown" identity (Ph.D thesis, University of Tasmania, 2005) (DIGITISED)

Luke Agati, "Sweetly sings the swan of Erin: Catherine Hayes in Tasmania in 1856", Tasmanian Historical Research Association papers and proceedings 57/2 (2010), 119-38 (PAYWALL)

Catherine Ferris, The use of newspapers as a source for musicological research: a case study of Dublin musical life 1840-44 (Ph.D thesis, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, 2011) 

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