LAST MODIFIED Tuesday 1 October 2019 13:23

Thomas Kavanagh, master of the band of the 3rd Regiment

Dr GRAEME SKINNER (University of Sydney)


To cite this:

Graeme Skinner (University of Sydney), "Thomas Kavanagh, master of the band of the 3rd Regiment", Australharmony (an online resource toward the history of music and musicians in colonial and early Federation Australia):; accessed 5 April 2020


Sergeant and master of the band of the 3rd Regiment (Buffs), vocalist, violinist, violoncellist, composer

Born Dublin, Ireland, 23 October 1793
Arrived Sydney, NSW, 29     August 1823 (with head quarters of regiment, per Commodore Hayes, from England, via Hobart Town, VDL)
Departed Sydney, NSW, 27/28 January 1827 (per Woodford and Speke, for India)
Died ? India / Ireland, ? (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

See also Band of the 3rd Regiment (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


Bandsman 3rd Regiment (Buffs)


Choir leader (Catholic Chapel)

Arrived Sydney, NSW, by July 1829 ("for 12 months")


Some attention has been paid to Kavanagh by family historians, and also by military historians chiefly interested in his son, Thomas Henry Kavanagh (1821-1882) of Lucknow, VC, hero of the Indian Mutiny. According to Thomas Henry's biographer, D. H. Parry (1898):

The year of grace 1821, which saw the death of the great Napoleon, witnessed the birth of a son to Bandmaster Kavanagh of the 3rd Buffs, at the town of Mullingar, in County Westmeath Ireland.

Records confirm that the birth took place on 15 July 1821, to Thomas Kavanagh and his wife Catherine Murphy (b. 19 March 1899 at Borris Carlow). Thomas Henry's autobiography, How I won the Victoria Cross (London: Ward and Lock, 1860), contains no reference to his childhood or parentage, except to say, in 1859, that he had been away from Europe for 30 years, suggesting that he may have joined his father in India around 1829.

Registration of Thomas senior's birth has been plausibly traced to 23 October 1793, Dublin, Old St. Mary's Parish, which fits with the date of his first mention in 3rd Buffs records as a drummer boy in 1804.

Kavanagh (also Kavenagh, Kavannah, Kavannagh, Cavenagh) arrived in Sydney with the Buffs' Headquarters, on 29 August 1823, and disembarked on the following afternoon, the troops marching "to their quarters in the Barracks, the full Band of the 3d Regiment playing the whole of the way."

I have found no specific mention of the band in the press during 1824. However, they were evidently well known by the time of the Anniversary Dinner in January 1825, when it was reported:

The Band of the 3d (or Buffs) Regt, attended, and performed, in their usual masterly and exhilirating Style, several delightful airs and melodies.

According to regimental records, Kavanagh's band in Australia consisted of himself ("sarjeant"), and 10 rank-and-file musicians:

Zachariah Berry, John Blake, William Booth, William Kavanagh (Thomas's brother), Harry Keyser, Henry Lincoln, John May, Thomas Mylett, John Sullivan, and Edward White.

In 1825, for services at St. Philip's Church, the Government made payment to "Serjeant Kavanagh, and others for conducting the psalmody on Sunday mornings, from 7th March, to 7th Sept." For a Sunday service at St. James's in August 1826, Kavanagh's band, and George Sippe's band of the 57th regiment "paraded to and from the church", and several of the bandsmen also "assisted in the choir-they performed an appropriate anthem, Vital Spark of heavenly flame, with some effect".

A young chorister in the Catholic chapel at the time, Columbus Fitzpatrick, recollected late in life Kavanagh's playing a leading role, along with fellow bandmaster Joseph Reichenberg, in Catholic worship.

Kavanagh's famous and much-cited advertisement of "ORIGINAL AUSTRALIAN MUSIC" first appeared in the Sydney press on 5 January 1826:

All the music is lost, although Currency lasses was probably Kavanagh's arrangement of Tempest Paul's quadrille of the same name later published in London.

Otherwise, of the bravura song, The trumpet sounds Australia's fame, performed in July at the Sydney Amateur Concerts, the complete text survives separately, as printed in the Gazette (26 July 1826).

The trumpet sounds Australia's fame,
Lo! Echo, from her silent caverns bounding,
Catches and boldly spreads the joyous theme,
Her thousand shouts thro' thousand worlds resounding.

Live, live, Australia! land of future kings!
Land where new wonders each new sun discloses!
Land where the young renown luxuriant springs!
Land where the silent patriot worth reposes!

Bid, bid the trumpet yet renew the sound!
Once more awake the echo's loudest pealing!
Proclaim our isle, while nations sink around,
Securely on to wealth and greatness stealing!

Then live, Australia! matron young and mild!
Rear still bright Mercy's banner high unfurled!
Pardon and Peace for Britain's fallen Child!
Refuge for all th'oppressed of all the world!

Later in the series, at Clarke's benefit on 9 January 1827, "Mr. CAVANAGH was principal second violin". The Gazette also reported a few days later:

Mr. Cavenagh, we understand, is about to have a Benefit Concert, under very distinguished patronage. As a musician, Mr. C's talents rate high, and his exertions, on all occasions, to please, will, we have little doubt, procure him a liberal and substantial mark of public favour. A rich and varied musical treat, we are informed, is in preparation, and some new music, vocal and instrumental, composed by Mr. Cavenagh, will be produced on this occasion.

However, the concert appears not to have taken place, as the Gazette later clarified: "Mr. Cavanagh, we understood, was about to have a Benefit Concert . . .". Kavanagh and the band departed for India, with the Buffs headquarters on the Woodford and Speke on 28 January 1827.

Kavanagh was still in Calcutta with his regiment in November 1831, when he was reported performing with his band at Calcutta Town Hall. And though he is unlikely to have returned to Australia, it is possible that one of his relatives did, perhaps (? his brother) William. When a temporary Catholic chapel opened in Sydney in mid-1829, it was reported:

The music is excellent, the leader of the choir (a Mr. Cavanagh, lately arrived from Ireland) having undertaken to conduct it for twelvemonths.

For more on Kavanagh, see also:

Sydney Amateur Concerts of 1826-27

Tempest Paul and Currency Lasses


London, National Archives, PRO, WO12/2118: 3rd Regiment of Foot (Buffs) payrolls 1824-26; microfilm copy at SL-NSW: PRO Reel 3695


29 August 1823, arrival of Kavanagh with the band and headquarters of the 3rd Regiment

"SHIP NEWS", and "News", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (4 September 1823), 2

On Friday afternoon last arrived from England and Hobart Town, the ship Commodore Hayes, with the Head-quarters and Staff of the 3d Infantry (Buffs), and the following Officers; viz. Captain Cotton, accompanied by his Lady and family; Ensign Christie; Surgeon Anderson; and Paymaster Boyd. She brings hither also 46 rank and file of the Buffs; 1 private of the 30th; 3 privates of the 41st; and 2 privates of the 44th.

The Head-quarters of His Majesty's 3d Regiment (Buffs), under the command of Captain Cotton, were disembarked on Saturday afternoon last. The grenadier company of that Regiment received their military brethren, with the usual honors, on the King's Wharf. As soon as the Colours were landed, the troops marched to their quarters in the Barracks, the full Band of the 3d Regiment playing the whole of the way.

ASSOCIATIONS: Sydney John Cotton (commander of 3rd regiment in Australia, until 20 October 1825)


7 March to 7 September 1824, Kavanagh, for leading the psalmody at St. Philip's Church

Statement of the receipts into and the disbursements from the colonial fund of New South Wales for the year ended on 31st December, 1824; NSW State Archives, Colonial Secretary's papers 

"ECCLESIASTICAL ESTABLISHMENT", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (3 October 1825), 1

St. Phillip's Church, Sydney . . .
Paid Serjeant Reid, and others of the band of the 48th Regt. for performing sacred music, from 1st April 1823, to 1st April 1824 - 42 00
Ditto John Onions, for conducting the psalmody, on Thursday evenings, and Sunday afternoons, from Mar. 18, to Sept. 7 - 19 00
Ditto Edward Hoare, for ditto from 8th Sept. to 7th Dec. - 10 00
Ditto Serjeant Kavanagh, and others, for conducting the psalmody on Sunday mornings, from 7th March, to 7th Sept - 21 00
Ditto McRoberts, for ditto and writing music, from 8th Sept. to 7th Dec - 13 00 . . .
Ditto Robert Howe, for 2 advertisements, 10s. 100 printed receipts, 12s. 6d. and 10 quires of medium paper for music, 50s. from 25th Dec. 1823, to 12th June, 1824 - 14 10
Ditto T. Edwards, for a mop, 1 hair, and 2 rush brooms, 8s. 6d. binding 4 music books, 20s - 5 70 . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Sergeant Reid; others of the Band of the 48th Regiment; Edward Hoare (singing leader); John Onions (singing leader); McRoberts (singing leader, music copyist); Robert Howe (printer)


26 January 1825, Anniversray dinner

"COMMEMORATION DINNER", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (3 February 1825), 3

On Wednesday the 26th ult. this Annual Festival was celebrated at Hill's Tavern, Hyde Park, when 80 of the principal Inhabitants sat down to a board abundantly supplied with the best viands that were attainable in the season; the wines in general were good; and the dessert served up in a superior style. We are informed, by our Reporter, that WILLIAM WENTWORTH, Esq., Barrister at Law, took the chair on this occasion as President, and that Dr. REDFERN officiated as his Deputy. After the cloth had been removed, several loyal and appropriate toasts were given, according to the usual course of such ceremonies . . . The Band of the 3d (or Buffs) Regt. attended, and performed, in their usual masterly and exhilirating style, several delightful airs and melodies.

"ANNIVERSARY MEETING", The Australian (3 February 1825), 3

On Wednesday last a numerous and respectable party assembled at Mrs. Hill's Hotel, for the purpose of celebrating the 37th Anniversary of the Colony . . . After dinner the following toasts were given, the President prefacing each of them with such observations as they naturally elicited, and dwelling on some few of them at great length: -
The King.
The Duke of York and the Army.
The Duke of Clarence and the Navy.
The memory of Governor Philip, the founder of the Colony.
The memory of Major General Macquarie, our late revered and lamented Governor.
Sir Thomas Brisbane.
Sir James Macintosh, and the other Advocates of Australia in the British Senate - three times three.
Trial by Jury - three times three.
A House of Assembly - three times three.
The freedom of the Press - three times three.
The Agriculture & Commerce of the Colony - three times three.
The Currency Lasses - three times three.
Prosperity and independence to the rising Generation - three times three.
Mrs. Macquarie and our fellow-countryman, Lachlan - three times three.
The health of the President, was then drank, who returned thanks; and, after some complimentary remarks on the manner in which the dinner had been got up, proposed The health of the Stewards.

There was a band of music in attendance and each of the above toasts was followed with an appropriate air . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: William Charles Wentworth (lawyer); William Redfern (surgeon)

[Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (4 August 1825), 3

TO BE SOLD, an ELEGANT CABINET PIANOFORTE, of the latest Patent, by Wormun [sic]. It is perfectly new, and in the finest Order - May be seen by Application to the Master of the Band of the 3d Regiment or Buffs.

ASSOCIATIONS: Robert Wornum (English pianoforte manufacturer)

7 September 1825, ball and supper to the French visitors

[News], The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (15 September 1825), 3 

One of our contemporaries (The Express) has anticipated the account we should have afforded of the splendid Ball and Supper, that was given on Wednesday evening last, in honour of our distinguished French Visitors. There were nearly 100 Subscribers. The Company were somewhere about 180 in number. Only 40 Ladies were present, which fact presents a melancholy picture of the vast disproportion, in high life at least, that exists between the sexes . . . Nearly all the Civil and Military Officers of the Colony, with their families, were to be distinguished amongst the imposing throng. The Commander Baron DE BOUGAINVILLE, Captain De CAMPIER, with about 20 of the Officers belonging to the French Squadron were nimbly employed the whole of the night. The Lieutenant GOVERNOR, and the Venerable the ARCHDEACON were amongst the interesting group. It was two in the morning before the supper-rooms were thrown open, and these exhibited every substantial and delicacy salubrious Spring affords: about 100 Ladies and Gentlemen partook of the supper, which was got up in true English style. The Band of the Buff's was in attendance, which gave life and soul to the assembly . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Hyancinthe Bougainville (captain); colonel William Stewart (1769-1854), of the 3rd Regiment (Buffs), served as Lieutenant Governor of NSW from his arrival in Sydney early in 1824, until 1827, when he left with his regiment for India; after the departure of Sydney Cotton in October 1825, he was also Kavanagh's commanding officer.

"MEMOIR OF THE LATE MAJOR-GENERAL STEWART", Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal (15 April 1854), 2 

7 November 1825, Nash's Inn, Parramatta,

"PUBLIC DINNER TO HIS EXCELLENCY SIR T. BRISBANE, K.C.B.", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (10 November 1825), 3

Persuant to public advertisements published in the Papers, the Free Inhabitants of the Colony assembled at Nash's Inn, Parramatta, for the purpose of welcoming their retiring Governor in Chief, at the festive board of Australia . . . The full Band of the 3d Regiment (Buffs) was despatched by water early in the morning, for which act, among others of no trifling consideration, the Colonists are indebted to a Personage that has not long been amongst us, but who seems nevertheless to entertain all that liberality of sentiment for which Governor Macquarie, Lieutenant Governor O'CONNELL, Governor Sir THOMAS BRISBANE, and Lieutenant Governor ERSKINE have rendered themselves pre-eminently distinguishable - we mean His Honour Lieutenant Governor STEWART . . .

After the cloth was removed, the President proposed, as a toast -
"The King." - God save the King!
"The Duke of York, and the Army." - Duke of York's March.
"The Duke of Clarence, and the Navy." - New Clarence, and the Navy . . .
[Toast to the governor] - Here's a health to those far awa.
. . . Happiness and Prosperity of New South Wales - Air, "Hail Australia" . . .
"The MEMORY OF GENERAL MACQUARIE" . . . Air - Should auld acquaintance be forgot . . .
"Trial by Jury as established in England" . . . Air, - Britons strike home . . .
"Liberty of the Press" . . . Air, - Old England for ever.
His Excellency and Suite retired about 10 o'clock, followed by the acclamations of the Assembly, the Band playing St. Patrick's Day . . .
"The Health of D'Arcy Wentworth, Esq." Air, - Bonnie Laddie . . .
Air, - Currency Lasses . . .

. . . The utmost harmony prevailed up to an early hour in the morning, when the Party separated, highly pleased with the testimonies of the evening, though regretting the occasion which called them together . . .

"Sydney Intelligence", Colonial Times and Tasmanian Advertiser (2 December 1825), 4

ASSOCIATIONS: Thomas Brisbane (outgoing governor of NSW)

MUSIC: The duke of York's march (Eley); Here's a health to those far awa (Scottish); Britons strike home (Purcell); St. Patrick's day (Irish)

25 November 1825, dinner on board the Mary Hope

[News], The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (28 November 1825), 2 

His Honor Lieutenant Governer Stewart paid His Excellency and Family a Visit on board the Mary Hope, in the forenoon of Friday. His Excellency and Lady Brisbane entertained the Honorable the Chief Justice, Mrs. Forbes, and Family on board, at Dinner, on Friday last. The Band of the 3d Regt. (Buffs), as well as the Naval Officer's, were playing all the afternoon on each side of the ship . . . About Wednesday, or Thursday at furthest, His Excellency, and His amiable Family, will take their long and last Farewell of Australia.

ASSOCIATIONS: Captain Piper's Band

9 December 1825, funeral of John Ovens

"GARRISON ORDERS. GOVERNMENT HOUSE, SYDNEY, 8th DECEMBER, 1825", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (12 December 1825), 3 

IT is with extreme Concern that His Honor the COMMANDER of the FORCES has this Day to announce the Death of Captain and Brevet Major JOHN OVENS, of the 47th Regiment, and Major of Brigade in this Colony, who expired yesterday Afternoon, at 5 o'Clock . . . The Funeral will take Place To-morrow Morning, at 6 o'Clock precisely, moving off from his House in Bent-street at that Hour . . . A Firing Party, consisting of one Major, two Captains, four Lieutenants, two Serjeants, and two hundred Rank and File, with the Bands of the 3d and 40th Regiments, will be under Arms, opposite to the late Residence of the deceased, in Bent-street, at a Quarter before Six o'Clock To-morrow Morning . . .

"THE LATE MAJOR OVENS", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (12 December 1825), 3 

. . . The hour of six in the morning wart appointed for the interment to take place, and about a quarter before 7 the procession formed, and began to move from the residence of the deceased, in Bent-street . . . The whole of the Civil, Naval, and Military Officers swelled the mournful train, which moved from Bent-street, through Tank-street into Hunter-street, thence to George-street, and finally to the place of interment, in the following order:-;
A detachment of the 40th and 57th Regts. with arms reversed.
The Bands of the 40th and 3d Regiments.
Four Mutes . . .

"THE LATE MAJOR OVENS", The Australian (15 December 1825), 3 

. . . The military party which was destined to pay their last tribute of respect, consisting of about three companies from the 57th and 40th regiments, commanded by a field officer, marched first in sections with their arms reversed; these were followed by the regimental staff, the bands of the 3rd and 40th regiments, which continued playing, alternately, slow and solemn airs in unison with the melancholy occasion they were met to celebrate . . .


20 December 1825 (postponed from the 19th due to rain), landing of governor Ralph Darling

"Government and General Order. GOVERNMENT HOUSE, SYDNEY, 18th DECEMBER, 1825", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (19 December 1825), 3 

AS HIS EXCELLENCY LIEUTENANT GENERAL DARLING, Captain General and Governor in Chief &c. &c. &c. of this Colony and its Dependencies, has arrived, and will land at Four o'clock To-morrow Afternoon, at the King's Wharf, His Honor the LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR requests the Whole of the CIVIL and MILITARY OFFICERS will be pleased to assemble at that Point to receive His Excellency on his Landing, and to follow in Procession to Government House . . .

The Band of the Buffs will assemble at the King's Wharf and will precede His Procession, playing Marches until they reach the Gate leading to Government-house.

The Band of the 40th Regiment, with a Guard of Honor, consisting of One Captain, Two Lieutenants, Two Serjeants, and Fifty Rank and File of the Buffs, will be formed on the Inside the Entrance Gate to Government-house, and will receive His Excellency with the Compliments due to his distinguished Rank . . .

"HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR IN CHIEF", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (22 December 1825), 2 

. . . Owing to the extreme wetness of the weather, the official lauding of His EXCELLENCY was unavoidably postponed to the following forenoon (Tuesday) . . . The Lieutenant Governor then escorted His EXCELLENCY through the military lane that was formed of the 3d (Buffs), the 40th, and the 57th Regiments, as well as the Staff Corps, being preceded by the full Band of the Buffs, playing "Welcome to Australia!" . . .
On the procession gaining the Government-gate, a guard of honour . . . were drawn up to receive His EXCELLENCY with the honour of his distinguished rank, the Band of the 40th Regiment striking up "See the conquering Hero comes!" . . .

"GOVERNOR DARLING", The Australian (22 December 1825), 3 

. . . tell it not how the projected procession became a mingled crowd - how councilmen and female peripatetics got jostled; how the great people got mixed up with the little folk; how the civil officers amalgamated with un-civil, who were nevertheless very civil, and bore their civil proximities with great deference and humility - but, mention how the Governor marched at the head instead of the tail of the train; but, notwithstanding, how well the Staff and, his Excellency proceeded through the files of two and two from the water's edge to government-house, on the grounds of which the band of the buffs struck up the accustomed and sonorous welcome . . .

On Tuesday morning his Excellency General Darling made his public entry on our shores. A few minutes before 11 o'clock the road leading from the King's Wharf to the entrance gate of the Government Domain was lined by the troops, who were placed so as to extend the whole of the way, forming a lane nearly the breadth of the street, facing inwards to each other. - In front of the landing place were posted a party of the light dragoons, under the command of Lieut. Lowe, of the 40th regt. any the band of the Buffs, which was stationed thence for the purpose of preceding the procession . . .

The procession, on leaving the wharf was preceded by the band of the Buffs, playing marches until the whole arrived at the Government Domain, when the entrance gate was thrown open to admit the group. - The band of the 40th, which had been previously stationed there, together with a guard of honor, received his Excellency with the accustomed observances . . .

. . . The Colonial Secretary then read the appointment of an Executive Council in the Colony, in addition to the Legislative Council. This, together with, the appointment of General Darling, was also read by Mr. Goulburn. The civil and military officers then gradually dispersed, and the bands having played for about one hour, the domain was once again left to the enjoyment of a Governor . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Ralph Darling (incoming governor of NSW)

27 December 1825, St. John the Evangelist's day, masonic festival

[News], The Australian (29 December 1825), 3 

Tuesday (St. John's) being the day set apart for the anniversary observances of Freemasons, the usual grand doings took place by "the Brethren" of Australia. The members of the three lodges, the Australian, No. 260, the Leinster Marine, and the Military Lodge, met at twelve o'clock at Webster's, the Australian Social Lodge room, and, after all due preparatory ceremonies, formed into procession and proceeded, with the band of the buffs at their head, to the church to hear a sermon preached, expressly on the occasion. The Archdeacon officiated, and delivered a sermon, which was considered both appropriate and pleasing, to a numerous congregation . . . On leaving church . . . the Military Lodge was escorted to quarters by the two other Lodges, the members of which then repaired to Hill's Tavern, and spent the remainder of the day and the evening in hilarity and good fellowship; the band, by the handsome acquiescence of Colonel Stewart, being allowed to enliven them. A collection was made at church for the use of the Benevolent Society. It amounted to thirty pounds.

[News], The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (29 December 1825), 2 

. . . At the hour of half-past one in the afternoon the Brethren of the various Sociul Lodges in Sydney, in full costume, repaired in order of procession to St. James's Church, preceded by the Band of the 3d Regiment, where, after Divine Service, the Venerable the Archdeacon delivered an appropriate sermon . . .

[News], The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (2 January 1826), 2 

Tuesday last, St. John's day, the Brethren of the Australian Social Lodges dined together at Hill's Tavern, Hyde Park. The Band of the 3d Regiment (Buffs), by permission of His Honor the LIEUTENANT GOYERNOR, attended, and contributed to the festivities of the evening, which were kept up till an early hour on the following morning.

ASSOCIATIONS: Arthur Hill (publican, musical amateur);


[Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (5 January 1826), 3


Dedicated, by Permission, to His Excellency Sir THOMAS BRISBANE, K. C. B. &c. &c. &c. and by Permission of His Honor the Lieutenant Governor.

MR. KAVANAGH, Master of the Band of the 3d Regiment, begs to acquaint the Gentry of Sydney and its Environs, that he has lately composed the following Pieces, which are now submitted at his Quarters in the Military Barrack, where Copies may be had:

General Ralph Darling's Australian Slow March;

General Darling's Quick Step;

Mrs. Darling's Waltz;

His Honor Col. Stewart's Slow March, Hail Australia!;

Sir Thomas Brisbane's Grand Australian March;

Sir Thomas Brisbane's Grand Australian Quick March;

Lady Brisbane's Waltz;

My Native Distant Home (Scotch Air);

Currency Lasses;

The Trumpet sounds Australia's Fame (Song).

Mr. K. in submitting to the Australian Public this Specimen of National Music, trusts he will meet with that Encouragement he will be always studious to merit.

[Advertisement], The Australian (5 January 1826), 1

The advertisement last appeared at the head of page 2 of the The Australian on 19 January.

26 January 1826, 28th anniversary of the establishment of the colony

"SEVENTEEN HUNDRED AND EIGHTY EIGHT; OR, THE FIRST LANDING", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (28 January 1826), 3 

Thursday last, being the Anniversary of Australia's Establishment as a British Colony, the same was observed with the usual demonstrations of remembrance.
In the morning the Royal Standard, as well as the Union, was displayed at Dawes' Point; and at noon a salute of 38 guns, corresponding with the number of years the Colony has been founded, was fired from Dawes' Battery, in honour of the day.

In the evening about 100 of the Gentry, Land-holders, Merchants, and others, sat down to a Dinner that was prepared by Mrs. Hill, at the Hyde Park Tavern. W. C. WENTWORTH and WILLIAM REDFERN, Esquires, were President and Vice President. The Band of the Buffs attended to enliven the festive scene. After the cloth was removed, the President gave:

The King, three times three - Air, God save the King.

The Duke of York and the Army - Duke of York's March.

The Duke of Clarence and the Navy - Rule Britania [sic].

The Duke of Sussex, and the rest of the Royal Family - The Royal Branch.

The health of our present Governor, Lieutenant General Darling, three times three - General Darling's March

. . . our late Governor, Sir Thomas Brisbane . . . Sir Thomas Brisbane's March.

The Memory of our late revered Governor, Major General Macquarie . . . Scots wha' hae.

The Memory of Governor Philip, the Founder of the Colony . . . Hail, Australia!

Trial by Jury, in its most unlimited extent. Drank with three times three - Air, Tyrolese Song of Liberty.

. . . A House of Assembly for Australia - Air, Sir James Macintosh's Reel.

The Liberty of the Press. - Air, Sir Thomas Brisbane's Quick March.

The Currency lasses and Lads. - Air, Currency Lasses.

Success to the Fleece and the Plough. - Air, Speed the Plough.

The Trade and Commerce of New South Wales. - Air, Hearts of Oak.

About 12 o'clock Mr. Wentworth retired, and Robert Campbell, jun. Esq. being called to the Chair, the health of the President, W. C. Wentworth, Esq. was proposed, and drunk with acclamation. Several of the party remained to an early hour in the morning.

MUSIC: Tyrolese song of liberty; Hearts of oak

2 February 1826, dinner to major Goulburn

"MAJOR GOULBURN" and "DINNER TO MAJOR GOULBURN", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (4 February 1826), 2 

This respected and valuable Public Officer, is at length on the eve of retiring from the shores of Australia, after an ardnous and faithful discharge of the high trust reposed in him by HIS MAJESTY's Government. Major GOULBURN was the first Colonial Secretary that ever adorned the Government of New South Wales, and he was also the first titled Colonial Secretary . . .

On Thursday last a Party of Gentlemen, 31 in number, entertained the late Colonial Secretary at Dinner, at the Sydney Hotel. The chair was taken about half-past 6 o'clock, by His Honor the Lieutenant Governor, at whose right hand sat the distinguished Guest. His Honor was supported by Captain Piper, as Vice President. Amongst the Company were present, Mr. Justice Stephen, Mr. Mackaness, Dr. Douglass, Messrs. Browne, Icely, Carter, Rossi, Lithgow, Reid, Moore, Kinghorne, Garling, Reddall, McKenzie, and Spark, Captains Moore, King, and Brooks; Major Marley, Doctor Bland, &c. &c. &c. The entertainment was protracted to the hour of two on the following morning, when the entire of the party retired, accompanied by Major Goulburn, who remained until the last moment. In the course of the evening, the usual loyal and patriotic toasts were drank, which were followed by appropriate airs from the Band of the Buffs that were in attendance. The Dinner was of the first order, and the arrangements altogether were so highly creditable to the liberality and good taste of Mr. Cummings, as to elicit the marked approbation of all present, and more particularly of His Honor the Lieutenant Governor, who was pleased personally to express his satisfaction at the manner in which every part of the entertainment was conducted.

ASSOCIATIONS: Frederick Goulburn (colonial secretary)

26 April 1826, the king's birthday

"THE KING'S BIRTH-DAY", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (29 April 1826), 2 

Wednesday last, the 26th ult. being the day set apart by the Government Orders for the celebration of the Anniversary of His Most Gracious Majesty's Birthday, the same was observed with all the usual demonstrations of affection and loyalty. At sunrise the Royal Standard of Great Britain - our venerated Mother Isle - was displayed from the heights of Fort Phillip, and the Union at Dawes' Battery. At 8 o'clock the ships in the harbour became arrayed in their usual costume, by an exhibition of their flags and colours. At noon, the troops in garrison, were drawn up in Hyde-park, under the command of Colonel Stewart (our valuable and respected Lieutenant Governor), and fired feu-de-joie on the auspicious occasion. The Battery at Dawes' Point also paid the customary compliment, in honour of the day. The Public Offices were all closed, and official business suspended, the day being observed as a holiday throughout the Territory.

The belles and beaux of Australia were on the tiptoe of expectation for the eventful night which was to be held in commemoration of the Birth of Our Most Gracious Sovereign . . . It was the first real Ball at Government-house since the time of the venerated Macquarie - the festivities of the olden time were to be revived - and every body was to be happy . . . THE BALL commenced with quadrilles, and was diversified with an occasional country-dance, but quadrilles were the favourites of the ladies, and the Band of the 3d (Buffs) exquisitely performed them. The ladies skipt "on the light fantastic toe" with all imaginable grace and spirit. It was supposed that 200 individuals occupied the saloon at one time . . .

Sydney Amateur Concerts (June 1826 to January 1827)

31 May 1826, first rehearsal (originally to have been the first concert, until postponed to 7 June)

"Domestic Intelligence", The Monitor (26 May 1826), 4 

A SUBSCRIPTION CONCERT, patronised by His Honor the Lieutenant Governor, will take place on Wednesday next, under the direction of Mr. Edwards. The Subscribers are tolerably numerous, and a rich treat is expected by the Cognoscenti.

We feel much pleasure in communicating this intelligence to the public. It affords no mean proof of the rapid progress of Taste in the fine arts. In our Metropolis, we begin now to have a GOUT for the elegancies of life.

[News], The Australian (3 June 1826), 2 

We are glad to state that the intended periodical Concert to be held at the Freemasons Tavern in George street, is likely to be patronised to a greater [3] extent than what was anticipated, by its projectors. The first rehearsal took place on Wednesday last. The Concert is intended to be on Wednesday evening next. Colonels Stewart and Shadforth have in a very liberal and handsome manner promised the assistance of some of the best musicians among their respective bands - the buffs and the 57th; and amongst the other subscribers of this week we are gratified to observe the names of Captain Piper, Colonel Dumaresq, and the Sheriff.

See full documentation of the series, in which Kavanagh and his band performed: 

8 June 1826, military review

"THE REVIEW", The Australian (10 June 1826), 3 

A regular sham battle was enacted on Thursday, by all the military that could be spared from the forts, and guard houses, and other stations in and about town. They made up altogether about four hundred men or more, and between two and three o'clock in the afternoon commenced their march from barracks, not in a "joint and corporate" body, but broken into sections, a convenient form for passing between narrow gates and not over wide streets, and proceeded in the shortest direction, and without beat of drum, towards Hyde Park, which was destined to become the embattled plain . . .

In spite of all, before the church clock could tell three, the troops had entered on the ground, and occupied an allignment diagonally with the South Head road, and fronting St. Philip's Church [recte St. James's] . . . At length his Excellency the Governor, with his Staff, appeared at some distance in front, and the troops were instantaneously arranged in open order. His Excellency rode towards the centre, and if received the customary marks of respect a la Militaire. He then dismounted, and walked along the line and between the front and rear ranks, accompanied by an Aide-de-Camp, each company's drum and fife beating the accustomed number of ruffles, and both bands alternately striking up their martial and soul-enlivening strains . . .

A good many more difficult movements were executed in a very gallant style, but now as
"The setting sun descending low,
Levelled with right aspect his evening rays,"
and made "long shadows," it was judged both meet and fit to put a stop to the battle, and the troops being arranged in line again, saluted his Excellency, who was still on foot, with martial music, and presented arms. He expressed himself highly pleased at their excellent state of discipline, and when they had re-formed in sections, the band of the buffs struck up a lively air, to which every one, whether of high or low degree, male or female, marched away just as it pleased them.

[News], The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (10 June 1826), 2 

HYDE PARK presented an animated appearance on Thursday last. A Review of the Troops of the Garrison took place by His Excellency the GOVERNOR, which drew together a large assemblage of the Sydney Fashionables . . .

About three o'clock, the GOVERNOR . . . arrived on the ground, and were received by the 40th [recte 3rd] and 57th Regiments, under the command of His Honor the LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR (Colonel STEWART), drawn up in line in full uniform, with arms presented and colours flying, their respective Bands stationed in front, striking up, "God save the King" . . .

Even the sable gentry, a tribe of whom appeared on the ground, took their share in the pleasures of the day, and expressed their satisfaction by a grand corrobora, which attracted its quota of admiration and applause . . .

14 June 1826, first day of the Sydney race meeting

"THE RACES (FIRST DAY", The Australian (17 June 1826), 3

Wednesday, the long looked for, first day of this year's Races, was a day of real sport, and mirth, and almost general satisfaction . . . There was a military band, too, which tended not a little to enliven the day . . . . All were now looking forward to the third race - for a turf club subscription purse; and the band, which was still close to the grand stand, continued to play off waltzes and quadrilles, for those who liked to hear them; while the bright beams of an enlivening sun were reflected on their instruments and on the spire of St. James's church, which could still be seen perspectively from different parts of the ground, peering above the other buildings . . .

"THE SYDNEY RACES", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (17 June 1826), 3 

. . . The grand stand was occupied during the day by a large assemblage of rank, beauty, and fashion, amongst whom we particularly noticed His Honor the Chief Justice and family, the Colonial Secretary, Mrs. and the Miss McLeays, the Solicitor General, Mrs. and Miss Stephen, Captain Piper, the Sheriff, &c. &c.; and the band of the Buffs, stationed immediately under it, contributed to the amusement, by the performance, at intervals, of a delightful selection of music . . .

22 June 1826, funeral of lieutenant Wood, 3rd regiment

[News], The Australian (24 June 1826), 3 

We regret to have to record the death of Lieutenant Wood, of the Buffs, a gentleman respected by his corps and by all who knew him . . . The remains were interred in the new Burial Ground, at three o'clock on Thursday . . . The following Regimental Order is sufficiently declaratory of the esteem in which he was held:

It is with feeling's of the deepest concern, that Colonel Stewart has this day the melancholy duty to perform, of making known to the Regiment the death of Lieutenant Woods, who breathed his last at half-past five o'Clock this morning . . .

"The Funeral will take place to-morrow afternoon at three o'Clock, moving off from his late Quarters in the Garrison, precisely at that hour, the whole of the Officers and men being assembled there, at half past two o'Clock.

"The Commanding Officer as Chief Mourner, and Brevet Lieut.-Colonel Cameron, Captains Innes and Lockyear, and his particular friends the Surgeon and Paymaster of the Regiment, and Lieut. King, the Barrack Master, will be the Paul Bearers.

"Two Grenadiers with scarfs, &c. will be stationed in front of the Hearse as Mutes, and a Firing Party, to consist of 1 serjeant and 40 rank and file, under the command of Lieut. Hughes, and followed by the whole of the Band, and Drums mufled, will be under arms opposite to the Quarters of the deceased, at the hour mentioned.

"Sydney, 21st June, 1826."

23 June 1826, Tempest Paul's private concert

"Mrs. Paul's private concert . . .", The Australian (28 June 1826), 3 

Mrs. Paul's private concert, which we but cursorily noticed last week, was one of peculiar attraction; and both in concert and ball-room, the muses and graces mingled together most harmoniously. Private concerts, are in this sequestered land, in this semi-metropolis, Sydney, a novel innovation on the amusements of an evening. They are however, a pardonable, a delightful innovation, where such natural powers of voice, and so perfect a knowledge of music can be brought together, as the lady to whom we allude, and who is perhaps the first within the Colony, that has led the way toward so elegant and refined a species of entertainment, is gifted with. The enlivening contre-danse was for some time superseded by the treat which Mrs. Paul afforded her numerous fair female and male visitants, in the performance of several different pieces and accompaniments on the pianoforte. Among other delightful airs, "Home, sweet home" was given, with those touching tones of sweet ness and expression which thrill to the heart, which irresistibly, may be said to "take the prisoned soul and wrap it in Elysium" - tones peculiar to a Madame Vestris, Catalani, or our English vocalist, Miss Stephens. "The soldier tired," with its difficult and rapid passages, its alternate swells and cadinces [sic] was sung and played over with the same ease and success as the other pieces. There were other songs by gentlemen, comic and sentimental songs, which made a pleasing and diverting demele. The room was extremely well calculated for the purposes of a music-room, and the light and graceful manner of its decorations, as well as of the ball room, showed that the proprietor's taste for music did not exclude a taste for the other elegancies of life. Five of the Buffs' band attended in the ball-room in a neatly fitted-up orchestra, and contre-dancing, which was only interrupted for a short time by a visit to the supper room, was kept up with spirit by fifteen to twenty couples, to an early hour of Saturday morning, when the company by degrees took leave of their courteous host and hostess.

ASSOCIATIONS: Tempest Margaret Paul

24 June 1826, St. John the Baptist's day, masonic festival

"FREE MASONRY [FROM A MASONIC CORRESPONDENT]", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (28 June 1826), 3 

Saturday the 24th, being the Anniversary of St. John the Baptist, the usual festival rites were observed by the Masonic Body of Sydney, on that day. The Australian Social Lodge, 260, assembled at high twelve, at the Freemason's Tavern, George-street, where the lodge was opened with solemnity, for the reception of their visiting Brethren, and were occupied in lodge duties and refreshment about an hour, and retired. They congregated again at half-past four o'clock, and proceeded from the Freemason's Tavern, to the Sydney Hotel. The procession moved as follows; the Buffs' Band playing that Masonic soul-enlivening tune, "Come let us prepare." The Tyler with his drawn sword; two Deacons with rods; the junior Members, two and two, one carrying the banner; the Treasurer and Secretary ; the senior and junior Wardens; the Past Master, and Master of Ceremonies; and lastly, the Right Worshipful Master. They sat down to a most sumptuous entertainment . . . The following toasts were drank:

"The King and the Craft," with the usual masonic honors, and the Band playing, God save the King;

"The Three Grand Lodges, England, Ireland, and Scotland;" " The Fraternity all round the globe;" both followed by masonic honors and appropriate tunes.

The next toasts were, "Our worthy Governor, General DARLING," followed by the tune British Grenadiers;

Our worthy Lieutenant Governor, Colonel STEWART; tune, the Buffs' Quick March . . .

The Brethren of this Lodge feel it a duty incumbent on them, to proffer their most cordial thanks to His Honor Colonel STEWART, for the kindness he has evinced to them on many occasions, in allowing his Band to afford that animation which music gives to hilarity, and may he long live to command his brave Regiment, is the heartfelt wish of the Australian Social Lodge! The Brethren also think it due to the Band, to say, that their good order gave general satisfaction.

"The Masonic Brethren . . .", The Australian (28 June 1826), 3 

MUSIC: Come let us prepare (The entered apprentices' song)

20 August 1826, church parade, sermon and anthem on receiving news of the death of the bishop of Calcutta, Reginald Heber

[News], The Australian (23 August 1826), 2 

At noon service in St. James's Church on Sunday, the Archdeacon preached a sermon on the occasion of the death of Dr. Heber, the late Bishop of Calcutta. The venerable gentleman chose his text from the 55th verse, xv. chap. St. Pauls' I. to the Corinthians. - "Oh death, where is thy sting? Oh grave, where is thy victory?" The Governor, several naval, military, and civil officers attended; and, by his Excellency's order, detachments from the 3rd and 57th regiments, with side arms. The bands of both regiments paraded to and from church. Several of the performers assisted in the choir - they performed an appropriate anthem, "Vital spark of heavenly flame," with some effect.

The prisoners who usually, attend divine service at St. James's Church, were conducted to St. Philip's, on account of the auditory who were present at the former.

"DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE", The Monitor (25 August 1826), 2 

A funeral sermon was preached at St. James's church by the Archdeacon of the colony, on the death of the Bishop of Calcutta. The troops in garrison, commanded by his Honour the Lieutenant Governor in person, occupied the gallery usually apportioned to the prisoners, who on this occasion were absent. The body of the church presented an assemblage of the chief persons of rank in Sydney and its vicinity. His Excellency the Governor and suite, arrived at the church in his travelling carriage from Parramatta, at a quarter before eleven. The service commencing with some passages from the burial service, was read by the Rev. Mr. Hill; and an impressive discourse from 1 Cor. 15 chap. 55 verse, "O death where is thy sting?" was delivered by the Venerable the Archdeacon, in which he eulogised the deceased Prelate, and expaciated forcibly on the uncertainty of life. Pope's appropriate anthem of "The dying Christian to his soul," was sung at the close of the sermon. The altar and pulpit were hung with black.

ASSOCIATIONS: Richard Hill (officiating clergyman); Thomas Hobbes Scott (archdeacon of NSW); Reginald Heber (d. India, 3 April 1826; Australia was then part of the diocese of Calcutta)

Vital spark of heavenly flame, Rippon's collection (1790), no. 182

MUSIC: Vital spark of heavenly flame ("The dying Christian to his soul"; "The dying Christian"; "Pope's ode"), music by Edward Harwood (c.1707-1787); words by Alexander Pope (1712).

[As above] A selection of psalm and hymn tunes . . . the whole forming a publication of above two hundred hymn tunes, besides other pieces by John Rippon. A. M. ([London]: Sold by Mr. Rippon, [1790]), no. 182 (DIGITISED)

See also the original edition:

A set of hymns and psalm tunes in three and four parts adapted to the use of churches and chapels, composed by Ed. Harwood (London: For the author . . . by Joh. Johnson, ), 36-40 (DIGITISED)

28 October 1826, funeral of midshipman Warren of the Warspite

"DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE", The Monitor (3 November 1826), 2 

The funeral of the son of Admiral Sir John Borlase Warren, a midshipman on board H. M. S. Warspite, took place on Saturday last. The body was removed from the vessel at three o'clock in the jolly-boat. It was met at the dock-yard by a firing party and the band of the Buffs regiment, and moved along George-street, followed by the midshipmen of the ships of war now in harbour, and the boats-crew of the Warspite. The Union Jack supplied the place of a pall, which was borne by four friends of the deceased.

30 November 1826, St. Andrew's day

"St.Andrew's Day", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (2 December 1826), 3 

The Anniversary of Scotland's tutelary Saint was commemorated, by a splendid entertainment, at Cummings' Hotel, on Thursday evening last. At six o'clock, a party of Gentlemen, fifty-five in number, Captain PIPER in the Chair, sat down to a dinner . . . In an adjoining apartment were stationed the Band of the 3d Regiment, or Buffs, who enlivened the entertainment by the performance of some very fine pieces of music, as well as appropriate national airs . . . The following are the toasts given on the occasion:


The King - God Save the King.

Duke of York and the Army - Duke of York's March.

Duke of Clarence and the Navy - Rule Britannia.

The pious and immortal memory of St. Andrew - Ye banks and braes.

Toper na Fiosach - Green grow the rushes O.

H. E. Lieut. General Darling - Charley is my darling.

Lord Bathurst and the Colonies - Hail Australia.

Lord Eldon and the British Bar - Bonny Dundee.

Sir James Brisbane and the Officers of H. M. S. Warspite - Hearts of Oak.

Captain Stirling, and the Officers of H. M. S. Success - Highland Laddie.

Hon. Captain Dundas, and the Officers of H. M. S. Volage - Louden's bonny banks and braes.

Land of Cakes, and prosperity to the Sons of St. Andrew, all over the world - Brose and butter.

The memory of our brave ancestors, Wallace and Bruce, and may their countrymen ever imitate their glorious example - Scots wha hae wi' Wallace bled.

Sir Thomas Brisbane - Should auld acquaintance.

The Lieut. Governor, and the Forces stationed in the Colony - Up and waur them a' Willie.

Our friends the Sons of St. George, St. Patrick, and St. David, who have honored us this day with their presence - Willie brew'd a pack of maul.

The Ladies of the Colony - My love is like a red red rose.

The Memory of Gov. Macquarie - My lodging is on the cold ground.

The Land we live in - Sweet home.

The Memory of our Bard, Robert Burns - Burns' farewell.

The Agricultural and Commercial interests of N.S.Wales - Money in both pockets.

The Sister Colony . . .

"DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE", The Monitor (8 December 1826), 2 

THE Sons of Caledon delebrated the Anniversary of their Patron Saint by an elegant Entertainment at Cummins's Hotel, on Thursday Evening. Fifty-three gentlemen, among whom we noticed most of the Naval, Military, and Civil Officers in Sydney, sat down to dinner at tables judiciously arranged in an open area at the back of the hotel . . . the band of the Buffs renovated the ears of the guests with soul-inspiring melody . . .

13 December 1826, funeral of commodore James Brisbane

Government Order (No. 43) COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE, 12th DECEMBER, 1826", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (20 December 1826), 1 

HIS EXCELLENCY the GOVERNOR announces, with Feelings of deep and unfeigned Regret, the Death of Commodore Sir JAMES BRISBANE, which took Place this Morning, at Ten o'Clock . . .

His EXCELLENCY has been pleased to order, that Arrangements be immediately made for the Funeral, which is to take Place To-morrow Afternoon, at 5 o'Clock.
The Procession will be formed as follows:--
The Funeral Party to consist of 200 Men, of the Royal Marines, and the 3d Regt of Foot.
The Bands of the 3d and 57th Regts.
The Hearse, with the Body.
The GOVERNOR, and Lieutenant BRISBANE, as Chief Mourners . . . The Whole to assemble at Government house, at 4 o'Clock . . .

"THE LATE SIR JAMES BRISBANE", The Australian (23 December 1826), 3 

The funereal obsequies were performed over the mortal remains of this respected and lamented Officer on Thursday afternoon . . . it was not till a few minutes before five o'clock that all was in readiness. About that time the order for proceeding to the Burial Ground was announced, and the mournful cavalcade was put in solemn motion . . . The two Bands of the Third and Fifty-seventh Regiments, performing that beautiful Anthem, "Pope's Dying Christian to his Soul" . . .

MUSIC: "Pope's Dying Christian to his Soul" = Vital spark of heavenly flame (above)

27 December 1826, St. John the Evangelist's day, masonic festival

[News], The Monitor (29 December 1826), 5 

THE Masonic Brethren of Australia celebrated the Festival of the Evangelist St. John, by the usual Anniversary and Procession. Nos. 260 and 266, designated the "Australian Social and Leinster Marine Lodges," proceeded at "High Twelve" from the Freemason's Tavern, preceded by the band of the 3rd Regiment, to Macquarie Street Chapel, where a most appropriate Sermon was preached by the Rev. W. Horton, and a collection made in aid of the Benevolent Society's Funds. After the Service, Dinners at Cummins's and Brother Warman's were partaken of, at which brotherly love and unanimity prevailed.

[News], The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (30 December 1826), 2 

Wednesday last, being the festival of St John the Evangelist, the Masonic Brethren of the Australian Social and Leinster Marine Lodges assembled at the Free Masons' Tavern, in George-street, whence, after the usual business had been gone through, they proceeded in procession to Macquarie-street Chapel, where an appropriate sermon was preached by the Rev. William Horton, and a collection made in aid of the funds of the Benevolent Society. After Divine Service, the Brethren returned to the Free Masons' Tavern, where some of the party dined, the remainder proceeding to the Sydney Hotel, where preparations had been made for their reception by Mr. Cummins. After dinner, the usual loyal and patriotic toasts went round, and the glass circulated freely, the zest of which was not a littie heightened by the lively strains proceeding from the Band of the 3d Regiment, which was stationed in the verandah adjoining the dining apartment, and which kept up a succession of delightful music to the hour when the party separated, about 12 o'clock at night.

"FREEMASON'S DINNER", The Australian (30 December 1826), 3 

Wednesday being the Anniversary of Saint John the' Evangelist, according to custom the two Lodges of freemasons in Sydney had their festival. After marching in procession through the principal streets with the band of the 3d regiment (or buffs) at their head, drums beating, colours flying, and hearing an appropriate sermon at Macquarie-street Chapel, on the motives of charity, a numerous and very respectable portion of the company assembled at the Sydney Hotel to dinner . . . After the cloth was removed, the following, toasts were given from the chair, and at the end of each the band of the buffs, which was in attendance, struck up some cheerful and appropriate airs.

The King and the Craft. Tune - "God Save the King."

The three Grand Lodges of England, Ireland, and Scotland. Tune - "Masonic Air."

The Memory of Robert Burns. Tune - "Burn's Farewell."

Governor Darling. (Solemn silence.)

Sir Thomas Brisbane. Tune - "Should Auld Acquaintance be forgot."
This toast was drank with rapturous applause.

The Memory of our late revered Governor Macquarie. Tune - "Scot's Wha Hae"

Colonel Stewart and the Officers of the Garrison. Tune - "British Grenadiers."

Robert Campbell, jun. Esq., of London. Tune - "the Campbells are coming."

William Graham - Secretary to the Grand Lodge of Ireland. Tune - "St. Patrick's Day."

After a number of other loyal toasts and tunes, the meeting broke up, well pleased with their day's entertainment.


9 January 1826, Clarke's benefit concert (last of the Sydney Amateur Concerts series)

"Subscription Concert", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (11 January 1827), 2

Mr. CLARKE'S Benefit Concert took place on Tuesday evening, and, we regret to say, was but thinly attended . . . The Concert took place at Mr. LORD'S rooms, in Macquarie-place, and the company, though, as we have, already stated, limited, was respectable. The room was neatly and commodiously fitted up, and well lighted. Mr. EDWARDS, who is always ready to oblige wherever occasion offers, led the band; Mr. SIPPE performed on the violoncello, and accompanied the vocal music on the piano-forte; and Mr. CAVANAGH was principal second violin . . .

January 1826, Kavanagh's proposed benefit concert (did not take place)

[News], The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (16 January 1827), 2

Mr. Cavenagh, we understand, is about to have a Benefit Concert, under very distinguished patronage. As a musician, Mr. C's talents rate high, and his exertions, on all occasions, to please, will, we have little doubt, procure him a liberal and substantial mark of public favour. A rich and varied musical treat, we are informed, is in preparation, and some new music, vocal and instrumental, composed by Mr. Cavenagh, will be produced on this occasion . . .

[Editorial], The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (30 January 1827), 2

. . . Mr. Cavanagh, we understood, was about to have a Benefit Concert; we were of opinion that he was entitled, on more than one ground, to public support, and, with the most friendly intentions, we pointed out to him what we conceived to be the cause of the failures on the part of other benefit takers, and recommended him to avoid falling into the same error . . .

25 January 1826, embarkation for India

[News], The Australian (27 January 1827), 3 

The band of the Buffs embarked on Thursday.

"DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE CONTINUED", The Monitor (1 November 1827), 8 

The remainder of the 3rd Regiment Buffs, now in Garrison, expect to embark on the Cambridge, for Calcutta, on the first of December, to join their corps in that part of India. The Band which usually accompanies Head Quarters, has in this instance preceded it.

"Shipping Intelligence", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (30 January 1827), 3

ON Sunday sailed, for Calcutta, the ship Woodford, having on board a detachment of the 3d Regt, under the command of Colonel Cameron. Same day, for the same destination, the ship Speke.


[News], The Sydney Monitor (4 July 1829), 3

The temporary chapel is finished, so as to admit our Roman Catholic brethlen hearing mass performed in that very comfortable place by Mr. Therry. It is crowded every Sunday. The music is excellent, the leader of the choir (a Mr. Cavanagh, lately arrived from Ireland) having undertaken to conduct it for twelvemonths.

ASSOCIATIONS: John Joseph Therry (Catholic chaplain)

After 1830

"ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SONS OF ST. ANDREW AT THE TOWN HALL", Calcutta magazine and monthly register 25 (1832), 34

Last Wednesday evening the upper long room of the Town Hall was enlivened by a convivial party of Caledonia's Sons with their guests, who met to commemorate the Anniversary of Scotland's Patron Saint . . . The Buff's band, well known for its excellence, under the guidance of Mr. Kavannah Senr. its master, were in attendance, and occupied the Re-union stage as an Orchestra . . . At dinner . . . the band played a few appropriate pieces, the first of which was "the Blue Bells of Scotland" . . . [toasts]
"The health of the King." (Drunk with rapturous applause, the company standing while the band played the National Anthem.) . . .
"The Land of our Ancestors." . . . "The Land of Cakes." - Tune, "Cauld Kail in Aberdeen" . . .
"The Queen and Royal Family." Tune, "Wilt thou be my dearie" . . .
"The Kirk of Scotland." . . . Tune, "John Anderson my Jo" . . .
"The health of the Duke of Sussex" . . . the band striking up "Highland Laddie" . . . [several more tunes]

"LUCKNOW KAVANAGH", South Bourke and Mornington Journal (31 January 1883), 1 supplement

Time has dealt heavily of late with the heroes of the Indian Mutiny, and the name of another has to be added to the roll of fame. Mr. Thomas Henry Karanagh, better known as Lucknow Kavanagh, whose death was announced from Gibraltar on Nov. 13, was so far fortunate that he succeeded in obtaining a place among the famous men of that struggle by a single deed of heroism . . .

Bibliography and resources

Kavanagh 1860

Thomas Henry Kavanagh, How I won the Victoria Cross (London: Ward & Lock, 1860) 

Fitzpatrick 1865

[Columbus Fitzpatrick], "REMINISCENCES OF CATHOLICISM IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE COLONY", Freeman's Journal (25 November 1865), 741 

. . . In 1825 there were a great number of soldiers in this country and as it happened, the Bandmaster (Mr. Cavanagh) of the 3rd Buffs was a Catholic, as also the Bandmaster (Mr. Richenberg) of the 40th Regiment, an Italian and a great musician . . . and it was a common thing to have five or six clarinets, two bassoons, a serpent, two French horns, two flutes, a violincello, and first and tenor violin, and any amount of well-trained singers, all bursting forth in perfect harmony the beautiful music of our Church . . . There being as I said before, two Catholic bandmasters in Sydney at that time, there was a spirit of emulation in the bands to see who could do most for the Church, and as Mr. Cavanagh the bandmaster of the Buffs was a fine singer, he gave is the benefit of his voice in addition to playing the violincello. Such choruses I have never since heard . . .

See also modern editions of Fitzpatrick's reminiscences:

Duffy 1966

C. J. Duffy (ed.), Catholic religious and social life in the Macquarie era: as portrayed in the letters of Columbus Fitzpatrick (1810-1878) (Sydney: Catholic Press Newspaper Company, Ltd., 1966), 17-19

O'Farrell 1969

Patrick O'Farrell, Documents in Australian Catholic History: 1788-1883 (Sydney: G. Chapman, 1969), 32-33

Kavanagh 1876

Thomas Henry Kavanagh, Guilty or not guilty of conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman? (Lucknow: American Methodist Mission Press, 1876) 

Parry 1898

D. H. Parry, Britain's roll of glory, or the Victoria Cross, its heroes and their valor (London: Cassell and Company, 1898), 159 (DIGITISED)

McGuanne 1901

John Percy McGuanne, "The humours and pastimes of early Sydney", The Australian Historical Society journal and proceedings 1 (1901), 40 (DIGITISED)

Hall 1951

James Lincoln Hall, "A history of music in Australia: [3]: Early period - New South Wales: 1818-1826", The canon 4/8 (March 1951), 37576

". . . 4: Early period - New South Wales: the Sydney amateur concerts, 1826", The canon 4/9 (April 1951), 421-427

Both of the above republished as:

Hall 1989

James Lincoln Hall, "A history of music in Australia: early period - New South Wales: 1818-1826", Australiana 11/2 (June 1989), 53-58

Covell 1967

Roger Covell, Australia's music: themes of a new society (Melbourne: Sun Books, 1967), 10

Hibbert 1978

Christopher Hibbert, The great mutiny: India, 1857 (London: Allen Lane, 1978), 332

Hibbert described young Kavanagh at Lucknow as "a tall, muscular, talkative, ludicrously vain Irishman of thirty-six".

Sargent 1995

Clem Sargent, "The Buffs in Australia - 1822 to 1827", Sabretache (Military Historical Society of Australia) 36/1 (1995), 3-15;dn=951009381;res=IELAPA (PAYWALL)

Skinner 2011

Graeme Skinner, Toward a general history of Australian musical composition: first national music, 1788-c. 1860 (Ph.D thesis, Sydney Conservatorium of Music, University of Sydney, 2011), 80-87 (DIGITISED)

© Graeme Skinner 2014 - 2020