LAST MODIFIED : Friday 8 December 2023 16:22

A register of Australian colonial musical organisations, groups, venues, events, series, subject headings, other entities, &c., A-Z

Dr GRAEME SKINNER (University of Sydney)


To cite this:

Graeme Skinner (University of Sydney), "A register of Australian colonial musical organisations, groups, venues, events, series, subject headings, other entities, &c., A-Z", Australharmony (an online resource toward the early history of music in colonial Australia):; accessed 11 December 2023



Adelaide Band also Adelaide Amateur Band, Adelaide Brass Band and Adelaide Town Band

Active by 1850-51, 1855 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], South Australian Register (13 February 1850), 2 

"ANNUAL DINNER OF THE HOPE LODGE OF ODD FELLOWS", Adelaide Times (31 October 1850), 3 

"OLD COLONISTS' FESTIVAL", Adelaide Times (28 March 1851), 3 

"OLD COLONISTS' FESTIVAL", South Australian Register (28 March 1851), 2

[Advertisement], Adelaide Times (8 August 1855), 1 

The public is respectfully informed that the ORIGINAL ADELAIDE BAND has been REORGANISED, and is under the directorship of MR LILLYWHITE.
The Band is now open to engagements for QUADRILLE PARTIES, BALLS, PUBLIC DINNERS, &c.
Persons desirous of securing their services, are respectfully requested to apply to Mr. Edwin Hunt, at the Practise-Room, Black Swan Hotel, North-terrace; or to Mr. R. Clisby, at his Musical Repository, Rundle-street.
N.B. - Parties desirous of joining the Band, can do so on application to the Bandmaster, Mr. Lillywhite, at North Adelaide; or to Mr. Hunt, as above.
Practise Nights—Tuesdays and Thursdays, from 7 to 10 o'clock.

ASSOCIATIONS: William Lillywhite (director); Redford Clisby (musician, musicseller, ? member)

Adelaide Choral Society

Founded Adelaide, SA, November 1842

Reformed late 1847

Reformed August-September 1853 (first concert 10 March 1854): (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"SACRED MUSIC", The Examiner (30 November 1842), 3 

We are much gratified to learn that a Society for the cultivation of this pleasing science has been recently established, under the appellation of the "Adelaide Choral Society," and as we believe that such rational amusements, when well conducted (independent of their general utility) are calculated to supersede others of a less harmless character, we heartily wish well to this, and every other institution which has a tendency to benefit the public. We understand the Music Saloon has been engaged for the use of the Society.

[Advertisement], Adelaide Times (4 December 1848), 3 

THE First Annual Meeting of the above Society, will be held on Monday evening the 4th December; at the Concert Room, Freemasons' Tavern, when the Subscribers are requested to attend, as the Report and Acounts for the past year will be submitted.
The Chair to be taken at half-past 7 o'clock precisely.
B. A. Kent, Esq., M.D., President.
JOHN W. F. DALTON, Honorary Secretary.
Adelaide, November 30, 1848.

[Advertisement], South Australian Register (13 January 1849), 2 

AT the Annual Meeting of the Subscribers, held at the "Freemasons' Tavern," on Tuesday evening, the 9th January, 1849 (Dr. Wyatt in the chair), the following reports and accounts were submitted, and ordered to be published:-

The Committee in giving their Report of the proceedings for the last twelve months, congratulate the members on the general results which have attended their efforts, inasmuch as the Concerts given by the Society have afforded general satisfaction to the subscribers, and the public who have favoured them with their attendance at the performances, while the advancement which the orchestra members have made, they trust, is as satisfactory to themselves as it is gratifying to the Committee to observe.
The proceeds from the Concerts have not equalled the expectations of the Committee, which, however, is attributable to the inclement weather on the evenings on which they took place. The success which attended their first Concert in February last, induced the Committee to authorise the purchase of a pianoforte which was offered to them on terms they thought they could have met without inconvenience; but in consequence of the deficiency in their receipts, they were reluctantly compelled to dispose of it again, and although the sale was effected without incurring any loss, they regret not being able to secure an instrument so desirable for the Society to possess.
They have, however, been enabled to purchase a Double Bass and three Trombones, which are acquisitions of importance, as well as a score copy of the Mesiah [sic], and the Oratories of Sampson, Jeptha, Judas, Maccabeas, Israel in Egypt, Joshua, Joseph, Solomon, and Acis and Galatea.
The payments for music books, paper and copying, have also been considerable, but unavoidable, until the Society can obtain the necessary music from England or elsewhere. The Committee are anxious to express their obligation for the great assistance which some members have afforded in copying free of cost, without which this item of expenditure would have been considerably augmented.

They have pleasure in reporting that the follow ing donations have been made to the Society:-
Governor Robe - £5; Governor Young and Lady - [£]2
A life subscription in Music, £10, by Mr. Brooke, since deceased, and £10 by Mr. Henry Stanford.
They have also to acknowledge the liberality of Mr. Dyke, who, in the most handsome manner, has not only accommodated the Society for their practice meetings, but has in every instance given them the use of the room free of any charge on every Concert that has taken place there. They have been much gratified by two offers of sites for building a room expressly for the use of the Society - the one from Mr. Osmond Gilles, and the other from Mr. Hornabrook - and regret they are not in a position to avail themselves of such liberality; but trust, from the encouragement already expressed, that, shortly, sufficient funds will be raised to carry out so desirable an object. The sum received from subscribers and members of the orchestra amounts to £89 12s 6d; and though the Committee have hitherto been unable, from want of funds, to form classes for the instruction of children of members of the Society, they have little doubt that the public will soon give them sufficient support to enable them to do so. The Committee have great pleasure in stating that they have been more successful in accomplishing another object of the Society - that of rendering assistance in deserving cases; one of these instances, it will be remembered, was towards the relief of the distressed in Ireland; and the other, to assist in the purchase and erection of the organ in St. John's Church.
Your Committee cannot conclude their Report with out expressing their thanks to those members who have assisted at the Concerts, and they trust their efforts will be continued to carry out the objects of the Society, and establish an intellectual institution that may be come an ornament to this their adopted country - combining charity and amusement, improving every good feeling of the heart, and promoting that social intercourse desirable in all communities; and they earnestly invite all who have a spark of music in their souls, to join in the advancement of a science admired by all.

Balance Sheet for the year ending 31st December, 1848
DR. £ s. d.
To subscriptions received - 89 1 2 6
- Proceeds of Concerts - 141 7 0
- Proceeds on sale of pianoforte - 48 6 0
- Sundries - 0 13 10
- Loan from Committee - 18 0 0
[total] 297 19 4 CR.
By Instruments, Books, Music, Music Paper, Copying, &c. - 103 1 8
- George Bennett - 87 12 0
- Incidental expenses - 43 16 5
- Professional assistance - 20 18 6
- Printing and advertising - 33 16 2
- Balance - 8 14 7
[total] 297 19 4
To Balance - 8 14 7
(Signed) GEO. WHITE, Treasurer.
JOHN W. F. DALTON, Hon. Secretary.
We have examined the enclosed accounts, and certify them to be correct.
(Signed) T. REYNOLDS, F. H. FAULDING, Auditors.
Subscriptions for the current year are now due. The Treasurer, Mr. Geo. White, Rundle-street, is prepared to receive the same, and also the names of persons desirous of encouraging the society.
JOHN W. F. DALTON, Hon. Secretary.
Adelaide, January 10, 1849.

[Advertisement], South Australian Gazette and Mining Journal (31 January 1850), 1 

Reformed August-September 1853:

[Advertisement], Adelaide Times (18 August 1853), 1 

A SPECIAL GENERAL MEETING of the Members of and Subscribers to the above Society will be held at the
FREEMASONS' TAVERN, on FRIDAY EVENING next, the 19th, instant, at 8 o'clock precisely,
for the purpose of taking into consideration the possibility of re-commencing the Musical Practice of this Society,
and other matters connected with its existence.
WM. COBBIN, Secretary pro tem.

[Advertisement], Adelaide Times (24 August 1853), 1 

CHORAL SOCIETY. IN accordance with a requisition signed by ten members of the Adelaide Choral Society, a Special MEETING of the members is hereby convened, to be held at the
Freemasons' Tavern, Pirie-street, Adelaide, on Monday evening next, the 29th August, at S o'clock,
for the purpose of taking into consideration and sanctioning the meeting and proceedings of the members called by the late Committee of the Society, held at the Freemasons' Tavern, on the 19th inst.; also for the purpose of taking into consideration and sanctioning the meeting and proceedings of the Special Committee appointed at the last-mentioned meeting; and, generally, for the purpose of receiving reports of the property and prospects of the Society, and the future safe custody of its property; and for re-establishing the periodical meeting for practice and concerts, and for increasing the number of members under such arrangements as may be approved of, at a general meeting to be called by advertisement for the first day of September next.
WILLIAM COBBIN, Hon. Secretary.

"THE CHORAL SOCIETY", Adelaide Times (7 September 1853), 3 

We are glad to hear that, by the exertions of a few spirited individuals, this Society has not only again come into existence, but that there is every probability of its being within a short space of time in as flourishing a condition as it was prior to the establishment of the gold-fields. There have been of late several committee meetings held at the Freemasons' Tavern, and on Monday evening last it was resolved that, on Friday evening next, the members should meet for the purpose of commencing practice. As a guarantee that the Society is likely to prosper, we may say that Dr. Kent, President to the Society, and George Stevenson, Esq., are actively engaged in their interests, and that Mr. George Bennett, the well-known pianist, has undertaken to take the lead of the band. We therefore hope to hear shortly that the Society will give the public the benefit of their talent by a good concert.

[Advertisement], Adelaide Times (7 March 1854), 3 

Under the patronage of His Excellency the Governor and Lady Young.
THE Subscribers of the above society are respectfully informed that the
first CONCERT will take place on Friday evening next, the 1Oth inst., at the Hall of the Freemasons' Tavern, Pirie-street.
Subscribers are requested to bring with them their tickets as on no account will money be taken at the door.
Annual subscription tickets may be obtained on application to the secretary.
Gentlemen holding subscription lists will please to forward them to the secretary as soon as possible, in order that tickets may be issued to the subscribers.
To commence at eight o'clock precisely.
1. Overture - Semiramide, Rossini.
2. Solo and Chorus - Come with the Gipsy Bride, Balfe.
3. Chorus - Ever be happy, Balfe.
4. Cavatina - L'Abbrachio, with flute obligato, from the Opera Il Ciro, Rossini.
5. Glee - Blow Gentle Gales, Bishop.
6. Barcarole - Massaniello, Auber.
An interval of ten minutes.
7. Overture - Cenerentila, Rossini.
8. Song - Merry is the Greenwood, Glover.
9. Duett - The Sailor Sighs, Balfe.
10. Glee - The Merriest time in all the Year, Bloomgrave.
11. Solo and Chorus - The Gipsies Tent, Cooke.
God Save the Queen!
Conductor - Mr. GEORGE BENNETT.
WILLIAM COBBIN, Sen., Hon. Secy.

Adelaide Glee and Madrigal Club (also Adelaide Glee Club)

Adelaide, SA, from 1855 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], Adelaide Times (13 December 1855), 1 

PATRON - His Excellency the Governor.
PRESIDENT -George Stevenson, Esq.
AUDITORS - Messrs. Smythe and Whitington.
TREASURER - Mr. W. Goddard.
LIBRARIAN - Mr. John Mitchell.
THE Members and Public are informed that the above Society have permanently
COMMENCED PRACTICE every FRIDAY EVENING, in the large Room attached to the Gresham Hotel, and that tickets are ready for distribution.
Subscriptions may be paid to any of the above officers; or to
W. G. HARRIS, Hon. Sec.

Adelaide Liedertafel (Deutsche Liedertafel; German Liedertafel; German Chorus)

Active Adelaide, SA, from 1858 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (NLA persistent identifier) (Wikipedia)


"THE ADELAIDE LIEDERTAFEL", The Register (22 September 1908), 6 

From "One of the Originators": - "The interesting account of the growth and progress of the Adelaide Liedertafel, as given in The Register of September 17, is worthy of a little further elucidation. The original founders were all members of the Deutscher Club, which used to meet at the Hotel Europe, at the corner of Gawler place and Grenfell street. A party of younger members who, under the leadership of Herr Carl Linger, carried out the musical programme of the club, having had a slight dissension with some of the older and less hilarious members, broke away from the Deutscher Club altogether, and assembled at the Hamburg Hotel, where they were heartily welcomed by "Father" Kopke. A set of rules having been drawn up and passed, Mr. Fritz Armbruster was elected President, and Mr. Schluter hon. secretary and librarian. The leadership was again undertaken by Herr Linger, and the members were:

First tenors, Messrs. Julius Eitzen, Nitsche, Reinhardt, and Schluter; second tenors, Messrs. Louis Maraun, Nettlebeck, and F. Wurm; first basses, Messrs. Oscar Ziegler, Braun, Schlemich, and Bielefeld; second basses, Messrs. F. Armbruster, Schierenbeck, and Eimer.

Thus in September, 1858, the Adelaide Liedertafel was founded; and from then on, under the conductorship of the beloved leader and under fresh and unrestrained conditions, was formed a new brotherhood. The words of the old "Waffenschmidt" express the personal reminiscences of the writer "Das war eine Kostlicke Zeit." Herr Spitzka, who joined about three years later, afterwards succeeded Herr Linger at leader, and occupied that position until his death through an accident.

It is hardly correct, however, to say that this was the first "Adelaide Liedertafel," as a society under that name used to meet in 1854 and 1855 at Messrs. Wiener & Fischer's Coffee Rooms, in Rundle street. Mr. Fischer was a very sweet tenor, and among other members one recalls the names of Messrs. von der Heide, Schomburg, Henry Wurm, Lellman, and Butefisch; also Mr. Schulze, whose death was announced in The Register recently. Herr Carl Linger was also leader of this society, and the writer recalls many happy evenings spent in their midst. This select little company, which comprised many prominent singers and talented musicians, broke up when Messrs. Wiener and Fischer left Adelaide for Tanunda.

ASSOCIATIONS (pre 1858 members): Carl Linger (conductor, leader); George Fischer (member); Robert Wiener (member); Gustav von der Heyde (member); Henry Wurm (member)

ASSOCIATIONS (1858 founding members): Adolph Schluter (secretary, librarian, tenor vocalist); Hermann Nettlebeck (tenor vocalist); Louis Frederick Wurm (tenor vocalist); Oskar Ziegler (bass vocalist); Frederick Armbruster (president, bass vocalist); Johann Wilhelm Schierenbeck (bass vocalist)

For one or more organisations operating before 1858, see Deutsche Liedertafel Adelaide (c. 1850-58)

Bibliography and resources:

"Adelaider Liedertafel 1858 . . .", Adelaide A-Z 

Adelaider Liedertafel 1858 is oldest continuing choir in South Australia, oldest continuing male choir in Australia and close to oldest choir of any type in Australia. An Adelaider Liedertafel formed in 1850-51 under the conductor Carl Linger, composer of "Song of Australia", rehearsed in Wiener-Fischer's cafe in Rundle Street, Adelaide, until disbanded 1855 when Robert Wiener and George Fischer left to operate Tanunda Hotel. The group merged with a choir rehearsing in Hotel Europe, also under Linger. Deutsche Liedertafel, founded at Hotel Hamburg in 1848-49, joined Adelaider Liedertafel in 1858, with Linger conductor (until he died in 1862) and J. W. Schierenbeck as president . . .

Adelaide Liedertafel, Wikipedia 

Adelaide Philharmonic Society

Adelaide, SA, c. 1840s; again by c. 1860 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Adelaide Regimental Band

Adelaide, SA, from c. 1863 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Adelaide Sacred Harmonic Society

Active Adelaide, SA, from 1857-60 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Albury Philharmonic Society (Albury, NSW)

Formed Albury, NSW, 1861; reformed 1873 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Allan and Wigley (printers, lithographers, Sydney, NSW)

Anglican churches (music in Anglican churches; Episcopalian churches) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Ararat (VIC)


"ARARAT (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT)", Mount Alexander Mail (16 October 1857), 4 

Having heard such glowing accounts of these newly discovered diggings "far away over the mountains," I could not resist the temptation of paying them a visit . . . At some of the public houses, Swiss, German, or Italian musicians are kept constantly in bar, at a salary of so much per week, with permission to supplement their incomes by begging. At the Golden Age Hotel, a Swiss family receive twenty pounds per week. They perform on various instruments, and give vocal accompaniments. Their playing is so very good that, of an evening, the bar is generally crowded to the door, and a stranger passing would naturally imagine that the Golden Age was driving a roaring trade. The proprietor could possibly tell a different tale; probably not a sixth of the visitors spend a single shilling. At the Duchess of Kent Hotel a large Hall or Theatre has been erected, in which performances are given every evening, and no expense spared in the engaging of artistic talent. A charge is made for admission. I visited this place twice, and was highly gratified with the performances. The celebrated German Brothers performed some of the most extraordinary acrobatic feats I ever witnessed. Hall and Davies, late of Rainer's Serenaders, sustained their well-earned reputation. A Miss Stewart sung; the American Picco performed in his usual style; and a comic singer, whose name I forget, sang ridiculous songs which he seemed to think comic. The house is capable of accommodating upwards of 300, but only about 80 were present. On a subsequent evening, when the famed Kobler [Kohler] Brothers gave specimens of their superior performances on various musical instruments, and when a crowded house was anticipated, the audience only numbered about 30. A lackadaisical waiter, at each interval in the performance, kept bawling out "any orders, gentlemen? now's your time, who'll have whisky hot?" His die-away persuasive eloquence was of no avail, no one seemed inclined to drink . . . The Royal Theatre is well attended. One of the very best Hotels on Ararat is situated in Oxford-street; it is named the Manchester Hotel, and is kept by Mr. Blair, from Forest Creek, it is only lately opened . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Neither a Hall nor a Davis were ever with Rainer's Serenaders (troupe); probably Eliza Stewart (vocalist); J. A. Picco (musician); Richard and John Wildblood Kohler (musicians)

[Advertisement], The Argus [Melbourne, VIC] (27 May 1858), 8 

"REMINISCENCES OF OLD ARARAT", Ararat Chronicle and Willaura and Lake Bolac Districts Recorder (19 January 1915), 3 

Argyle Rooms (Hobart Town) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Apollo Music Hall (at the Haymarket Theatre, Melbourne, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Art unions with music and musical instruments as prizes (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Ashton's Circus's+Circus (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Astley's Amphitheatre (from 1856 Royal Amphitheatre) (Melbourne, VIC)'s+Amphitheatre+Melbourne (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Astley's Amphithheatre, Spring Street, Melbourne

Astley's Amphitheatre, Melbourne (c. 1854-57); Spring Street (on site of later Princess Theatre) (DIGITISED)

Australian Dramatic and Musical Association (NSW)

Sydney, NSW, 1859 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Australian Harmonic Club (also occasionally Australian Harmonic Society)

Sydney, NSW, 1841-47 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Australian Harmonic Society

Sydney, NSW, 1833-34 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Australian musical bouquet (Sydney, NSW)

Sydney, NSW, 1860-63 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Australian Philharmonic Concerts

Sydney, 1844 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


Backus Minstrels (Sydney, NSW, 1855-56)

American serenader troupe

Arrived (1) Sydney, NSW, 23 October 1855 (per Audobon, from San Francisco, 9 August, and Honolulu, 8 September)
Departed (2) Sydney, NSW, 7 April 1856 (per What Cheer, for San Francisco)

Arrived (2) Melbourne, VIC, 10 August 1859 (per Mary Pleasants, from San Francisco, 1 June)
Departed (2) Melbourne, VIC, 18 June 1860 (per Malta, for Europe) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

PERSONNEL (1855-56): Charles Backus (member, leader); Sherwood Coan Campbell (member); W. M. Barker (member); Jerry Bryant (member); Neil Bryant (already in Australia, joined later); Charles D. Abbott (member); A. Morgan (member); William Alonzo Porter (member); Dorrel Fair Boley (member); Otto N. Burbank (member)

PERSONNEL (1859-60): Charles Backus (member, leader); Julia Backus (member); Charles Backus junior (member); John Ottis Pierce (member), and others

DISAMBIGUATION: No direct connection with a later local company, the Amateur Backus Minstrels, active in Sydney 1865-67


[Advertisement], Sacramento Daily Union [California, USA] (21 June 1855), 2 


[Advertisement], Daily Alta California [San Francisco, USA] (1 August 1855), 3 

Acting Manager - W. A. Porter.
Musical Director - C. D. Abbott.
Stage Manager - O. N. Burbank.
This (Wednesday) Evening, Aug. 1. 1853. BENEFIT FOR THE FAMILY OF THE LATE T. F. BRIGGS.
LAST APPEARANCE OF THE MINSTRELS prior to their departure for Australia.
The company consists of the following well known and talented Performers:

"SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE", Empire [Sydney, NSW] (24 October 1855), 4 

October 23. - Audubon, American ship, 531 tons, Captain Arthur, from San Francisco, August 9, and Honolulu September 8. Passengers . . . Messrs. C. Backus, Charles Abbott, W. Barker, D. F. Boley, S. C. Campbell, Bryant, Porter, Morgan, Bryant, Burbank, Ward, Blake, Crow, Cottam, Sandra, and 24 in the second cabin and steerage. Agents, Newell, Hooper, and Stevens.

[Advertisement], Empire (29 October 1855), 4 

ROYAL VICTORIA THEATRE. THIS EVENING, Monday, October 29th, 1865, the entertainments will commence with the unrivalled performances of the BACKUS MINSTRELS, Characters by Messrs. Charles Backus, S. C. Campbell, W. M. Parker [sic], Jerry Bryant, C. D. Abbott, A. Morgan, W. A. Porter, D. F. Boley, O. N. Burbank.

"THE BACKUS MINSTRELS" Empire (2 November 1855), 5 

This inimitable band of performers continue to attract a crowded house nightly at the Victoria Theatre, and, judging from the applause bestowed, their entertainments appear to give infinite satisfaction to the public. The beautiful ballad singing of Barker and Campbell, the eccentricities of Backus in his burlesque Chinese, the violin solos of Abbott, the characteristic "[REDACTED]" dancing of Bryant and Burbank, and, above all, tho ludicrous festival of "Old Bob Ridley," are each in themselves a positive treat, such as has rarely been provided. The programme, we understand, will be changed each week during the sojourn of the band in Sydney; previous to their departure it is to be hoped a night will be set apart exclusively for the juveniles, to whom the comic portion of the entertainment seems particularly pleasing, if we may judge by the peals of merry ringing laughter which has burst from the hundreds of little fellows who have been indulged with a visit to the theatre during the last four nights. The minstrels have announced their burlesque circus performance for this (Friday) evening.

"ROYAL VICTORIA THEATRE", Empire (5 November 1855), 5 

During the past week, the Backus minstrels have formed the principal attraction at the Victoria Theatre. By their ever-varying but constantly entertaining and amusing performances, they have night after night drawn crowded houses. The Backus minstrels possess talents of an order higher than might be inferred from the unpretending title by which they designate themselves. Their powers are remarkably versatile, and the resources they bring to bear in the entertainment of their audiences embrace excellent vocal and instrumental music, capital dancing, and most amusing pantomimic and burlesque stage performances. The interest of the house is never suffered to flag, and the audience is led irresistibly from the comic to the pathetic, from the sublime to the ridiculous, from the unaffectedly natural to the outrageously burlesque. To particularize any one member of this clever company would almost appear invidious; but we cannot help calling attention to the beautiful singing of Mr. S. C. Campbell, who possesses a voice of extraordinary compass and inflexibility [sic]; to the capital dancing of Jerry Bryant and Mr. O. N. Burbank; to the violin solos of Mr. C. D. Abbott, who is a performer of real ability; and to the burlesque acting of Mr. Backus, who is irresistibly comic, and in the piece called "Spirit rappings" drew tears of laughter from the audience. This latter gentleman, too, possesses a remarkable power of imitating by the voice the sounds of a musical instrument, and in particular is very happy in hitting off Miska Hauser's peculiar performances on the violin, giving his very tone and manner in a way not to be mistaken by any one who has seen and heard that gentleman. Mr. Campbell, too, possesses the same talent of imitation. On Friday and Saturday evenings a piece was produced by the minstrels under the title of the "Burlesque Circus," the effect of which must be seen to be understood. It consists in a ludicrous imitation of the pompous flourishes and pretentious preparations by which the conjurors and acrobats of the circus heighten the effect of their tricks and tours de force; and we should imagine it would scarcely be flattering to these gentlemen, as it tends to strip their performances of much of their effect by exposing their claptrap. The satire of the burlesque was keenly appreciated by the audience who evinced their enjoyment by continued bursts of laughter. The Backus Minstrels have deservedly gained a decided success . . .

Names and descriptions of passengers per Black Swan, from Melbourne, 27 December 1855, for Launceston; Public Record Office Victoria (DIGITISED)

Minstrels American // Mr. Backus / 28 // Mr. Boley / 30 // Mr. J. Bryant / 24 // Mr. N. Bryant / 28
Mr. Campbell / 30 // Mr. Burbank / 32 // Mr. Morgan / 34 / Mr. Barker / 31

List of the passengers arrived at Melbourne, 11 February 1856, from Launceston, on board the Clarence; Public Record Office Victoria (DIGITISED)

Backus Minstrels / Chas. Backus / 36 // S. Campbell / 32 // Jerry Bryant / 27 // W. Bryant / 24 //
D. Boley / 31 // W. Barker / 33 // W. Porter / 26 // O. N. Burbank / 21 // C. D. Abbott / 31 // A. Morgan / 20

"THE THEATRE", Geelong Advertiser and Intelligencer [VIC] (18 February 1856), 2 

[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (5 April 1856), 1

Grand Complimentary Benefit and Last Appearance of the Backus Minstrels . . .
April 5th, Farewell Concert . . .

"DEPARTURES", The Shipping Gazette and Sydney General Trade List (14 April 1856), 66 

April 7, - What Cheer, barque, 384 tons, Captain Baker, for San Francisco. Passengers - Messrs. C. Backus, F. Moran, A. Morgan, W. M. Barker, O. N. Burbank, T. R. Morgan, S. A. Campbell, J. Bryant, Abbott, W. Bryant, Hyman . . .

[Advertisement], San Joaquin Republican [CA, USA] (25 July 1856), 2 

[Manicule] Consisting of the following well known and favorite Artists: -

"CHARLEY BACKUS' MINSTRELS IN MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA, IN 1855", New York Clipper [NY, USA] (19 May 1877), 61 

An old professional contributes a bill of the above-named troupe, and we print a copy of it. Lola Montez died in this city [New York] Jan. 17, 1861; S. C. Campbell died in Chicago, Ill., Nov. 26, 1874; Jerry Bryant died in this city April 8, 1861; W. M. Barker died in San Francisco, Cal., Dec. 11, 1864; Charley Backus is co-manager of Birch, Wambold & Backus' San Francisco Minstrels, now on a tour of the country; D. F. Boley was drowned off the Cape of Good Hope in 1862; Neil Bryant is living in this city in temporary retirement; Geo. Coppin is now one of the managers of the Theatre Royal, Melbourne.

"MUMMER MEMOIRS. Mr. HARRY DANIELS, AN OLD-TIME MINSTRELSY - THE BACKUS TROUPE . . . No. 36 (By 'Hayseed')", Sydney Sportsman [NSW] (23 September 1908), 3 

Mr. Fred Hailes (Melbourne) forwards me the following highly-interesting letter from one of the few old-time mummers left, Mr. Harry Daniels . . . Mr. Harry Daniels says: - "Old-time Minstrelsy. - I will endeavor to give you a few of my early impressions and reminiscences. First and foremost it was about 1856 that Harry Lyons and myself sat in a dress-circle seat, the old style of bench, in the old Victoria Theatre, in Pitt-street, Sydney, witnessing the clever performances of the "Backus Minstrels." Never shall I forget what a grand display when the curtain rose on those artistes . . .
Yours, etc., Harry Daniels . . .

Bibliography and resources:

"COMIC OPERA AND MINSTRELSY . . . San Francisco's Palmy Days of Burnt Cork", Los Angeles Herald [California, USA] (26 March 1893), 4 

. . . But in my salad day in San Francisco, there was the golden age of minstrelry. The old troupe of Backus' minstrels, with Charley Backus, Jerry Bryant, Eph. Horn, Sam Wells and Alf Morgan, as funny men, and Charles Henry, William M. Barker (an illegitimate son of Hugh Maxwell), Sherwood Campbell (the greatest baritone that ever blacked his face), George Coes, Sam Wells and Charley Shattuck, as vocalists, held San Francisco from July, 1856, to January, 1859, while the Metropolitan theater played to empty benches . . .

It was not the secession of the Campbell into grand opera or the desertion of minstrelsy for Irish songs on the part of Dan Bryant, that gave minstrelsy the knockout blow. The men I knew in that business (for I went over to Sydney in 1855 as advance for the Backus party) are all dead, except it be Mr. Hooley and George Coes, who is living in Massachusetts somewhere, a tall, handsome old man, looking like the late emperor of Brazil, and teaching the young folks how to play the banjo. When the Backus party went to Sydney in 1855 they had two bassos, Bill Porter and Davis F. Boley, the latter of whom was drowned on the ill-fated steamer Eurolgi. You can imagine how old Bill Porter felt when I introduced myself to him on the dock in Auckland, five years ago next month. The white-bearded old man, with his music and his mind I almost gone together, grasped my hand and said: "You are the only man I have seen in 25 years who knew me in America." If he is still living Porter is the oldest living minstrel . . . - THE OLD 'UN.

Col. T. Allston Brown, "Early history of Negro minstrelsy," New York Clipper (25 May 1912), 10 

Charley Backus's Original Minstrels. Organized in San Francisco, Cal., in the summer of 1854 and appeared at San Francisco Hall, Washington Street, between Montgomery and Kearney Streets with C. D. Abbott, musical director; O. N. Burbank, stage manager; H. Donnelly, D. F. Boley, Backus, J. N. White, Morgan. They took a trip to Australia in 1855. Prior to their departure, a benefit was given them by the San Francisco Minstrels, August 3, at the Metropolitan Theatre. Mitchell and Burbank, the rival dancers, appeared. There appeared in the first part S. C. Campbell, Jerry Bryant, Stadtfeld, D. F. Boley, Eph Horn, and W. M. Barker, besides the instrumentalists, in the second part J. Collins, George Coes, C. Backus and Mrs. Julia Collins (Julia Gould). In July, 1856, the party returned to San Francisco and opened at San Francisco Hall, Sunday evening, July 6, 1856, a portion of the San Francisco Minstrels being added to the party, which then consisted of Billy Birch, E. Deaves, Max Zorer, Charles Henry, Napier Lothian, Sam Wells, M. Lewis, George Coes, S. C. Campbell, Charles Backus, W. D. Corrister, and Jerry Bryant . . .

Bagpipes (bagpipers) (generic) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Ballad singers; also Ballad sellers (generic) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"ORIGINAL POETRY. To the Editors of . . .", The Colonial Observer [Sydney, NSW] (28 October 1841), 26 

Sydney, 12th October, 1841.

GENTLEMEN - After reading your first number, which I assure you I did with great gusto, on the evening of Thursday last, I happened to throw myself down on a sofa to muse on the prospects of the Colony under the new Bill and the new Legislature which I understood, from some remarks of yours, we were speedily to obtain for this indifferently governed Colony. How I fell asleep while engaged in this way, with your paper in my hand, I do not well know; but such was the fact certainly, for the first thing of which I have any recollection was being in George-street, and hearing all the town bells ringing, and the guns at the Battery firing a feu de joie, because the new Bill was come at last. "Come along," said somebody near me, "and let us see the silly old Council break up!" and so I was hurried along towards the Council Chamber by way of Hunter-street. I had got as far as Pitt-street, when I observed a crowd of idle people standing round two rather elderly men (one of whom was remarkably like the Honorable Mr. -----) singing ballads, and selling them to the crowd at a halfpenny each, exactly as they used to do at home. I instinctively felt in my pocket, as I used to do also on such occasions, and grasping a solitary halfpenny, I purchased one of them, which I thought I could not do better than forward immediately for your next number, although I fear I am rather late for this week. See, here it is! -

I am, Gentlemen, your obedient servant



Pity the sorrows of some poor old men,
Whose trembling steps have led them to your door!
Who never can be Councillors again,
Nor wield the purse-strings of the country more!

The bill, by all desired these many years,
And now received with such prodigious fuss -
Alas! it realizes all our fears;
'Tis as ten sentences of death to us!

For who, of all the sons of little men,
The pleasing sweets of office e'er resigned,
And sunk to insignificance again,
Nor cast one longing lingering look behind!

O that this too, too solid flesh would melt,
In token of the grief our spirits feel!
O that this heartless Colony but feltv The pangs Ex-councillors can ne'er reveal!

Farewell to all our greatness! Wolsey said
When Harry pinned him helpless to the wall;
And so may we! - We had as lief be dead
As let rogues riot in our Council Hall.

Ballarat (VIC)


"PROFESSORS OF MUSIC", Ballarat and Ballarat district directory (1865), 183 (DIGITISED)

Ballarat Harmonic Society

Ballarat, VIC (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Ballarat Philharmonic Society

Ballarat, VIC (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"BALLARAT PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY", Armagh Guardian [Ireland] (17 September 1858), 8

The first two Concerts have been complete triumphs, and they have now established themselves as a society in every way worthy of the patronage and support of the Ballarat public. The music selected was Handel's Messiah. After the Overture to the Oratoria, exceedingly well played by the band under the direction of Mr. Turner, Mr. Williams, a gentleman amateur from Melbourne, sang the recitativ "Comfort ye my People," and the air "Every valley," in a style which gave good earnest of the excellent manner in which the solos were to performed. With a fine tenor voice, this gentleman possesses an excellent taste, and gives evidence of good and careful study. In the second part he sang the recitative "Thy rebuke," and the air "Behold and see," which drew down the well deserved plaudits of the house. Mrs. Hancock sang the solos entrusted to her in her usual correct and finished style. Her rendering of the air "O luce di quest anima," from the opera "Linda di Chamonni," made it one of the sweetest morceaux in the evening's entertainments. Mrs. Turner sang with great taste the airs "Oh thou that tellest," "Rejoice greatly," "He was despised," &c. Dr. Kupferberg has very fine baratune voice, and his exquisite rendering the recitative "For behold darkness," and the air "The people who walked in darkness," showed him to be a perfect master of the vocal art. Mrs. Moss's singing in "But thou didst not leave," it would impossible to speak too highly. It is exceedingly gratifying that we have in Ballarat lady who can sing admirably, and we anticipate having many more opportunities of hearing her sweet voice. Mr. Hancock sang well throughout, but "The trumpet shall sound," perhaps owing to the excellent Cornet obligato, played Mr. Labalestrier, was uuquestionably his best effort. Last, but not least, of the soloists, Mr. Oliver, the active secretary of the society, sang Handel's "Haste thee Nymph," in excellent style. The Cborusses throughout were admirably given, and grdat credit is due to the director Mr. Austin T. Turner, and to the leaders Messrs. Fleury, and Paltzer, for the complete manner in which the musical portion was conducted. We particularly noticed the admirable playing of the selections from Herolds's "Pre aux clercs," the Orchestra.

Ballarat Vocal Union

Founded Ballarat, VIC, 1864 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"THE VOCAL UNION. FIRST SOIREE", The Star [Ballarat, VIC] (4 June 1864), 3 

Ballarat Volunteer Rangers Band

Ballarat, VIC (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Bands of British regiments in Australia

See mainpage: 

Baptist churches (music in Baptist churches)

Barlow's Sable Minstrels

Active Melbourne, VIC, August to October 1853's+Sable+Minstrels (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Formed by Robert Barlow, from recent arrivals from New York on the ship Theoxena, John Swinerton (minstrel), James Brice (minstrel), Frederick Dixon (minstrel), and Charles Scott (minstrel); and, also recently arrived from Mauritius, the violinist Jacques Paltzer ("Signor Sivorini" = "little Sivori")


List of passengers per Theoxena, from New York, arrived at Melbourne, 14 August 1853; Public Record Office Victoria (DIGITISED)

. . . Fred'k Dixon / American // James and Mrs. Brice / Americans // . . .
John J. Swinerton / British . . . Chas. Scott / British . . . [others/]

[Advertisement], The Argus (9 September 1853), 5 

CONCERTS at Sandridge. - Barlow's Sable Minstrels, Saturday, Monday, und Tuesday, Sept. 10th, 12th, and 13th, 1853. Mr. R. W. Barlow wishes respectfully to return thanks to his numerous patrons during his engagement at Rowe's Circus, and at the Salle de Valentino, and begs leave to announce that he intends bringing before the public a newly arrived troupe of Sable Minstrels (direct from the United States, with the newest and most popular songs, etc., etc.), eight in number, whose equal has not appeared before in the colony, and for which purpose he has engaged Messrs. Walter and Co.'s large New Store, Marine-square, Nott-street, Sandridge, immediately behind Liardet's Hotel. Admission, 5s. and 2s. 6d. For particulars see Programmes.

[Advertisement], The Argus (17 September 1853), 8 

QUEEN'S THEATRE, Saturday Evening, 17th September, 1853.
Barlow's Sable Minstrels!
Mr. Barlow begs respectfully to announce that he intends giving a Concert at the above Theatre on Saturday evening next when he will introduce to the inhabitants of Melbourne a Troupe of Sable Minstrels, whose equal has not been heard before in the colony.
Signor Sivorini, Violin Primo, has been engaged as LEader, and will in the course of the evening perform some of his brilliant Solos.
Mr. Barlow will play some of his beautiful Solos on the Rock Harmonicon, and will sing his inimitable Song of the Blur Tail Fly, and will also in the course of the evening Dance Lucy Long, in Character.
Mr. Brice will appear in his Laughing Solos so celebrated in the United States.
Mr. Dixon will Sing the new and very popular Song of Poor Uncle Tom, founded on incidents in Mrs. Stowe's work of Uncle Tom's Cabin.
PROGRAMME: Part I. As Dandy Negroes of the North.
Overture - Fra Diavolo - Band
Opening Chorus - Hand Down the Banjo - Written expressly for this Band by Mr. Barlow, and now produced for the first time in Melbourne - Company.
Song - I See her at De Window - Barlow.
Song - Sweet Lilla Brown (New) - Swinerton.
Song - I'll Throw myself Away (New) - Brice.
Song - Jenny Lane - Dixon.
Song - Gal wid de Josey on - Scott.
Popular Local Song - Unlock the Lands - Barlow.
Song - Poor Uncle Tom (New) - Dixon.
The First Part to conclude with the Comic Chorus of Bow, Wow, Wow - Company.
Intermission of Ten Minutes.
Part II.
Solo on the Rock Harmonicon - Barlow.
Song - The Blue Tail Fly - Barlow.
Laughing Solo with French Concertina Accompaniment - Brice.
Part III. As Plantation Negroes.
Chorus - Happy are we, Darkies so gay - Company.
Song - Fire down Below - Swinerton.
Song - Young Flora (New) - Barlow.
Song - Ring, Ring de Banjo - Brice.
Song - Old Folks at Home - Dixon.
Song - Nancy Till - Scott.
Song - Oh! Lemuel - Brice.
Laughing Chorus - Stop dat Knocking - Company.
Violin Solo - Sig. Sivorini.
The whole to conclude with the cele[brated] Dance of Lucy Long.
Lucy Long - Barlow. Pink - Brice.
Doors open at half-past Six o'clock. Concert to commence at half-past Seven.
Prices of Admission - Boxes, 8s.; Pit, 5s.; Gallery, 3s.

[Advertisement], The Argus (27 September 1853), 8 

[Advertisement], The Argus (23 September 1853), 3 

BARLOW'S Sable Minstrels - Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday next, September 21st, 22nd, 23rd, and 24th. Mr. Barlow, begs respectfully to announce that he, accompanied by his unrivalled Troupe of Sable Minstrels, who were received at the Queen's Theatre, on Saturday evening last, with tremendous applause, intends giving a series of Concert Entertainments at Mr. Crowther's Rooms, the Terpsichorean Hall, top of Collins-street, between Russell and Stephen-streets, where Messrs. Barlow, Sivorini and Brice will perform some of their brilliant Solos . . .

"THE TERPSICHOREAN HALL", The Argus (24 September 1853), 5 

Barlow's Sable Minstrels succeed in their endeavors to please the public. The Hall has recently undergone renovation, and the place looks neat and comfortable. The performance of these Ethiopian Serenaders is well deserving of public patroniae, and the jokes cracked between the various songs are extremely good . . .

[Advertisement], The Argus (30 September 1853), 8 

Bathurst (NSW)


"PROFESSOR ANDERSON IN AUSTRALIA, on Things Theatrical at the Antipodes. TO THE EDITOR OF THE ERA", The Era [London, England] (14 August 1859), 10 (PAYWALL)

Sydney, New South Wales, June 1, 1859.
Dear Sir, - The last letter I sent you was descriptive of the theatres of Sydney and of theatrical affairs in this colony generally . . .

I was now advised by some to go to Goulburn, and by others to visit Bathurst, two widely different places, both about equi-distant from Sydney. I selected Bathurst, and started for a hundred and twenty miles' journey over the Blue Mountains. My first stopping-place was at Paramatta, where I played in an assembly-room redolent with the perfume of neighbouring orange blossoms. Thence I journeyed to Windsor, a small town on the Hawkesbury, where no better arena being available I converted the loft of a large brewery into an improvised theatre, and filled it for three nights with audiences at six shillings per head. While so employed I received intelligence from my agent, Mr. Hingston, that he had secured a hospital for me to perform in at Penrith, the next town on the route, and this intelligence was coupled with the agreeable information that the fever ward was being specially fitted up for my magic temple. On arriving I was pleased to find that neither the ward nor the hospital had ever been devoted to the purpose for which each was originally intended. When the good people of Penrith had completed the hospital they made the discovery they had no use for it - that there were no sick people to fill it, and that if it had been an hotel instead it would have been much more useful. So it stands with closed doors, an hospital in name only, and not de facto. There is some talk of turning it into a railway station, and selling it to Messrs. Peto, Brassey, and Betts, whose agents are about to cover New South Wales with the hoof-prints of the iron horse.

Were it not that your readers want theatrical information, and not descriptions of scenery, I would endeavour to describe the drive over the Blue Mountains from Penrith to Bathurst. But let me say this, that if there be any Sir Charles Coldstreams in London just now, who are so blase as not to know where to find a "new sensation," let them come out to Sydney, and start in the mail-cart for Bathurst. They will see scenery that will astonish them, sights that will be new, and a mode of travelling to which they are not accustomed. They will also feel a little embarrassed with the novelty of their position, and find a good substitute for Ironbrace in their dashing driver, who will haul them up mountains 3,000 feet high, whirl them down precipices 3,000 feet deep, bump them over rocks, shake them over logs and stones, flounce them into lagoons of slush, and probably turn them over in the bed of some pleasant river. Not caring to commit myself to the tender mercies of these mail contractors, I procured a travelling carriage and horses, and was my own Jehu over the hills. Whatever inconvenience you encounter on the way, is pretty well recompensed by the magnificent view which you obtain from the summit of Mount Victoria in the course of your drive. All the interior of the Australian continent appears to be within your ken, if your eyesight were but strong enough to enable you to see it, and the day were sufficiently clear. It is a combination of Switzerland, Scotland, and Cumberland, possessing features common to all three, with certain peculiarities intermixed.

Bathurst is the centre of the western gold fields of New South Wales. It is a straggling, scattered town, extending over a large quantity of ground, but with a sparcity of inhabitants. There are two theatres. One - The Prince of Wales - is just a little better than the Maitland one, which I have already described. It is in the possession of a gentleman, who rejoices in the soubriquet of "Scrammy Jack," and it is usually designated by the townsfolk, "Scrammy Jack's Theatre." The other is known as the Victoria, and is the one in which I appeared. You get to it by crossing a field, travelling down a long country road which they facetiously term Durham-street, and traversing a bridge over a creek, constructed in so fragile a manner that an old lady fell through it the other day; and I had to light its parapet with candles that the people might find their way to the theatre in the evening. Still the people came, paying their 7s. 6d. to the boxes, and 3s. to the pit.

It was in this out ot the way town that I saw Easter Monday in the Antipodes, and here that I offered my entertainment as the Easter piece for the holidays. I had opened a fortnight previously, but Passion-week intervened, and the population of Bathurst being in great part Roman Catholics, I had to close my doors during their Holy week. I gave a benefit towards furnishing a roof for the Catholic Cathedral some days afterwards, and had 120 in the house. Another benefit for the good of the Hospital, which I gave on the previous evening, realized nearly 130; and this in a theatre not half so commodious as the Bower Saloon, in Stangate! So that either the Bathurst people must be pretty spirited, or the spells of the Wizard must have been very potent in their operation.

From Bathurst I returned to Sydney . . .

See also Prince of Wales Theatre (Bathurst venue); Royal Victoria Theatre (Bathurst venue)

Bathurst Philharmonic Society

Founded 1859; refounded 1866 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"Philharmonic Society's Concert", Bathurst Free Press (17 April 1866), 3

This first concert of the Bathurst Philharmonic Society was a very successful affair, and we trust that it is but the first of a long series. We have frequently had reason to deplore the apathy with regard to musical matters existing in Bathurst, and an indifference manifested by the public toward first class music Mr. Cox and the members of the Bathurst Philharmonic Society are to be congratulated for their strenuous efforts to redeem our city from the reproaoh lately uttered by an eminent Sydney musician. The orchestra was composed as follows : - Mr. W. P. Cox, first violin and conductor; Messrs. Adams, Dowse and MacDougal, first violin; Messrs. Baldwin, Denis, Havenhand, Richardson and Smith, second violin; Mr. Dryden, viola; Mr. Hudson, violincello; Mr. Atkins, double bass; Messrs. Cope and Toovey, cornets. Valuable assistance was also rendered by Messrs. Code and Mills, who had come specially from Sydney, and who undertook respectively the flute and clarionet parts ...

Beechworth (music in Beechworth, VIC)
Beechworth Amateur Brass Band (Beechworth Amateur Band; Beechworth Brass Band)
Beechworth Philharmonic Society

Beechworth, VIC, 1857 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Beechworth Harmonic Society

See also Star Theatre (Beechworth venue)

Bells and bellringers (bell-ringers, change ringers) (generic)
Bellmen, bell-ringers, bellringers, criers, cryers (generic)

ASSOCIATIONS: Thomas Mears (bellman, Launceston, VDL/TAS, c. 1830); Robert Bainbridge (bellman, Launceston, c. 1840); Robert Short (bellman, Hobart, VDL/TAS, 1842-45)

Dickey Fletcher, bellman, Bridlington, c. 1825 (detail); by John Dempsey; Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery

"Dickey" Fletcher, bellman, Bridlington, England, c. 1825 (detail); watercolour and pencil by John Dempsey; Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, presented by C. Docker, 1956

Bendigo (VIC)




Melbourne, August 17, 1859.
Sir, - By the last mail but one I sent you a letter from Bendigo, descriptive of things theatrical here at the antipodes. As I have rambled over some ground since then, and am back again in Melbourne, I will now trouble you with another epistle, in which I will endeavour to chronicle a few of the events that have recently occurred, and describe some of the places in which I have lately been. Bendigo, where I performed two months since, has four places of amusement, the Haymarket Theatre, the Shamrock, Abbott's Lyceum, and the Victoria. The Haymarket was built by Mr. Coleman, a gentleman who once had an entertainment in England which he entitled "Masks and Faces." It is a wooden structure, and holds about 1,000 people. Like most of the theatres out here it is attached to an hotel, and both theatre and hotel were, at the time of my playing there, in the occupancy of Messrs. Howard[,] Vinson and T. P. Brower. The last named of these gentlemen is the brother of Mr. Brower, who was once one of my company at home, and has himself, for some time past, been the manager of the San Francisco Minstrels. Mr. Vinson is an American actor, whose wife (Miss Kate Ward) endeavours to take rank as a "star" in Australia. Mr. Howard is a Manchester man, not connected with the profession, but well acquainted with colonial life, and so sharply colonial in his dealings that he contrived to get possession of £10 of my money, which I could not see the justice of his possessing. They publish nightly at the theatre a thing called "The Curtain," in which they put what they like, without asking leave concerning anyone who may be at the theatre, and by-and-by send in an account which rather surprises you. The one presented to me was of this character, and as I demurred to paying it Mr. Howard coolly took possession of the amount from amongst the money in my money-taking box. They have a little sharp practice at home, but nothing to what they indulge in out here.

The second place of importance as a theatre on Bendigo is the Shamrock, where you get dancing and singing, as well as a "nobbler," for sixpence. Four or five years ago the proprietor, Mr. Heffernan, paid £140 per week salaries to performers, and charged nothing whatever for admission thereto. Abbott's Lyceum is a very nicely-fitted up place with a small stage in the rear of a large American bar. It has been recently occupied by Mrs. Butler, the widow of Samuel Butler, the tragedian. The Shaksperian Readings given by this lady proved utterly unattractive on Bendigo. To use an illustration which Mr. Farquharson Smith used the other day when telling me of his recent Indian adventures, "If you would but just throw a summersault over the piano they would be in extacies;" but then don't read Shakspere to the Bendigonians. Their fourth place of amusement, the Victoria, is below criticism, being merely a place for the delectation of the roughest of the strange assemblage congregated on Bendigo.

They call the township in which the places of amusement are situated by the name of Sandhurst, Bendigo being the title of the district. All around Sandhurst there are "gullies," as they are termed, or valleys, between the hills, burrowed everywhere by the goldseekers. Each of these gullies is a little township in itself, and has its distinct place of amusement in the shape of a large saloon attached to an hotel. There are Eagle-hawk Gully, Iron-bark Gully, California Gully, Dead-horse Gully, and I do not know how many else besides. Then there is Epsom, with its own little theatre at Kangaroo Flat with its concert saloon.

From Bendigo I went down to Castlemaine and played a fortnight at the Theatre Royal there . . .
Yours, most truly,
Wizard of the North.

ASSOCIATIONS: Henry Coleman (actor, manager); James Hetters Vinson (actor, manager); Thomas P. Brower (serenader, manager); San Francisco Minstrels (troupe); William Heffernan (manager); Joseph Henry Abbott (manager); Castlemaine (VIC counrty town); Handel Centenary (event)

Princess' Theatre (at the Criterion Hotel, Bendigo)

Active ? 1854-55


Bendigo Philharmonic Society

Bendigo, VIC, 1859-61 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Bendigo volunteer bands

Bianchi Minstrels (Bianchi Coloured Minstrels; Bianchi Coloured Opera Troupe)

Active Sydney, NSW, April 1862

In Sydney in April 1862, 3 months after Eugenio and Giovanna Bianchi finally left Australia, "several ladies and gentlemen . . . formed themselves into a company under the above name"

Bianchi Opera Troupe - see Italian Opera Company (1860-62)

Opera troupe headed by Eugenio and Giovanna Bianchi, active 1860-62

Blackface minstrelsy (blackface music and performers; black-face) (general)

Blythe Waterland Serenaders (Waterland and Reading Serenaders)

Originally all-English serenader troupe

Founded by Henry Burton, Sydney, NSW, March 1850
Disbanded Sydney, NSW, October 1850

PERSONNEL: Blythe Waterland (alias of Henry Burton); George B. Howard (alias of George B. Mason); Charles V. Howard (alias of Charles V. Mason); James W. Reading

Revised line-up, Sydney, from June 1850

PERSONNEL: Waterland/Burton; Reading; S. Walgrove (member); Lavater West (member) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Also (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Boley Minstrels (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Botanic Gardens (Melbourne, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Brisbane Choral Society

(1) Brisbane, NSW (QLD), 1859-1861 (from September 1861 Brisbane Philharmonic Society) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Brisbane Choral Society (2) formed c. 1881-83

Brisbane Philharmonic Society (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Broadwood pianos in Australia (subject) see main page Broadwood pianos in Australia

Brunswick Band (Brunswick Brass Band; Schrader's Brunswick Band; Schrader's Band)

Arrived Adelaide, SA, 7 September 1857 (per Peter Godeffroy, from Hamburg)  (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ORIGINAL MEMBERS: Heinrich Schrader (leader); Theodor and Fritz Heydecke (members)


"THE BRUNSWICK BAND", South Australian Register (2 November 1857), 3

[Advertisement], South Australian Register (6 December 1858), 1

THE BRUNSWICK BAND having fulfilled their engagement at the Theatre, will now be able to provide Brass or String Bands for Balls, Dinners, Picnics, &c. Apply to Mr. Shrader [Schrader], Pulteney-street; Mr. Heydecke, Rundle-street Kent Town; or R. White, Ward-street, North Adelaide.

"GRAND CONCERT AT THE GAWLER INSTITUTE", The South Australian Advertiser (14 December 1859), 3

"GAWLER INSTITUTE", South Australian Register (14 December 1859), 3

. . . At a later period in the evening the air [Song of Australia] was presented to the audience under other forms, as arranged by Herr Linger. These were a fantasia for the pianoforte, which was executed by Miss Rowe in as brilliant a style as could possibly be expected, seeing that the instrument was a cottage piano of second-rate tone, and which was evidently out of tune; and a somewhat novel arrangement for the full band of the national airs of various countries. The latter commenced with Old England's "God save the Queen" followed by the recognised national anthems of Prussia, Russia, France, Italy, Holstein, Austria, Holland, and Belgium, with our own, "There is a Land" as the finale. In the last, as in the first, the audience rose en masse and remained standing during its performance.

"TOPICS OF THE WEEK", South Australian Weekly Chronicle (8 December 1866), 4s

Buckley Minstrels

Active NSW, by 1862 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

PERSONNEL: Frederick Sharp (member)


"THE BUCKLEY'S MINSTRELS", Bell's Life in Sydney and Sporting Chronicle (4 January 1862), 3 

These talented artistes continue to draw capital houses at the Temperance Hall, and we wish their representations had the assistance of scenery and stage effects, for taking them as a company altogether, the singing, choruses, &c., are as good as any we have had the pleasure of hearing. The imitation of a popular Opera Singer, by Charley Walsh, the comic Irish vocalism of Tom Wilson, the dancing of Diamond, and the peculiarities of Collins, together with the instrumentation of Burton, Sharpe, and Buckley tend to render this performance one of the most pleasureable in Sydney, and we strongly advise all lovers of good music not to lose the opportunity of hearing them! We must not omit to mention Weller Heywood, whose clever performance on the champagne glasses is inimitable. We beg to call attention to Tuesday evening next when Sharpe and Burton take their benefit.

[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (7 January 1862), 1 

TEMPERANCE HALL-The Buckley Minstrels perform THIS EVENING (Tuesday).
TEMPERANCE HALL - Ce Soir Benefice de Mons. Grebet et Sharpe.
NOTICE. - In consequence of the Buckley Minstrels being engaged by Signor Bianchi in the Grand Opera, no performance by this celebrated troupe will take place on WEDNESDAY or THURSDAY.

Buffalo Gals (The Buffalo Gals; Buffalo Female Minstrels)

Active VIC, 1860-61 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Buninyong Philharmonic Society

Active Buninyong, VIC, 1848


"BUNINYONG {FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT]", Port Phillip Gazette and Settler's Journal (16 February 1848), 2 

. . . Since I wrote you last, a society has been established here, entitled "The Buninyong Philharmonic Society," having for its object the advancement of its members in the science of music, and the establishment of an instrumental band. Its members already number nine, and will, it is expected, be shortly doubled. Mr. Clarke of Melbourne has been treated with, and will sapply the society with instruments. Such a society in the bush tends to destroy the monotony of bush life, and bring into harmonizing union the different members of our fast increasing township. In connection with this subject, I have to make mention of the very handsoaio donation to the Society, by the Rev. Mr. Hastie, our resident and much esteemed pastor, of a dozen copies of the New Testament illustrated, with a considerable collection of psalm tunes bound up with each. Buninyong, Feb. 12, 1847.

ASSOCIATIONS: William Clarke

Burton's Band (Henry Burton's Circus Band)
Burton's Circus (Henry Burton's Circus)

Active by 1852 and until 1871


"MUDGEE", The Sydney Morning Herald (15 May 1852), 3

Mr. Burton's band ably performed their part as musicians, relieved occasionally by some of the ladies, who sung, and played upon the piano to admiration. Mr. Nathan, from Sydney, likewise played and sung to the great delight of the company.

"MOUNT BARKER: TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 4", South Australian Register (7 November 1856), 3

Jacob Young, Jacob Düne, Conrad Sander, Heinrich Rodenbout, Carl Leonhardt, Daniel Miller, and Christian Prothenback, known as "Burton's Band", appeared to answer the complaint of Mr. Henry Burton, for that they, having contracted to serve the said Henry Burton as musicians, and having entered into his service, did neglect and refuse to fulfil the same. Henry Burton, sworn, said the defendants, who had played for him in Victoria, were engaged by his agent to play for him in Adelaide and South Australia at £16 per week, their own terms (agreement put in and acknowledged). That the day before the Circus left Port Adelaide, after they had received their week's wages, £16 (receipt put in), they said they would not go into the country with witness, unless he paid them £3 per week extra . . .

"MOUNT BARKER: WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 5", South Australian Register (7 November 1856), 3

The same persons appeared to answer another charge preferred against them by Mr. Burton, for having, on the night of the 4th instant been guilty of gross misconduct in the execution of their duty, and for having, on the morning of the 5th, refused to obey the orders of Mr. Burton. It appeared that immediately after the decision of yesterday, they had broken the music-stands, and at the night performance had played most unsuitable, inferior, and discordant music, and had resorted to every possible means of annoyance, and that this morning they had refused to come from their inn to the stables to take their seats in the van for the purpose of proceeding to Macclesfield, whither the establishment is removing. The charge was clearly proved against them, and the Bench ordered them to be committed to Gaol for a month. Mr. Burton told the Bench he was dis posed to try them again if they would apologize to him for their improper conduct, and again promise attention to their duties, but the Bench thought they could listen to no proposal for compromise after the evident contumacy of the defendants. A warrant of commitment was therefore made out and signed, and the refractory musicians were forthwith sent off to Gaol in charge of a police-trooper.


Bush piano (subject, also Rustic piano) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


Camplell Minstrels (Campbell Minstrels)

Active by 1863 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Captain Piper's band of music (Captain Piper's Band; Piper's Band)

Sydney, NSW, and Bathurst, NSW, c.1823-47's+Band (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Canterbury Music Hall (Melbourne, VIC)

From 1863 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Castlemaine (VIC)



Melbourne, August 17, 1859.
Sir, - By the last mail but one I sent you a letter from Bendigo, descriptive of things theatrical here at the antipodes. As I have rambled over some ground since then, and am back again in Melbourne, I will now trouble you with another epistle, in which I will endeavour to chronicle a few of the events that have recently occurred, and describe some of the places in which I have lately been. Bendigo, where I performed two months since, has four places of amusement, the Haymarket Theatre, the Shamrock, Abbott's Lyceum, and the Victoria . . .

From Bendigo I went down to Castlemaine and played a fortnight at the Theatre Royal there, which, together with the hotel adjoining, belongs to Messrs. Gyngell and Rainer. The theatre is substantially built of brick, holds about 1,500 persons, has a good stage, and was opened not many months ago by Miss Mary Provost, a Californian tragedienne, who has achieved popularity in the colonies. After running my magic here for ten nights to very crowded houses, I gave Rob Roy in an entirely new form. There was no company, and I therefore had recourse to my own family in order to place the piece on the stage. It was impossible to play it in its entirety, so we made selections from the various scenes. I "doubled " for Rob Roy and the Baillie, and you will wonder how I managed to do that, but done it was. My son played Rashleigh Osbaldistone and Capt. Thornton; my eldest daughter impersonated Mattie, Francis Osbaldistone, Diana Vernon, and Helen McGregor; while a relative of mine, Mr. Robertson, was the Dougal. There was a very crowded house, and the performance appeared to give the greatest satisfaction.

From Castlemaine I drove down the road as far as Tarradale . . .
Yours, most truly,
Wizard of the North.

Castlemaine Glee Club

Castlemaine, VIC, 1856 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Castlemaine Philharmonic Society

Castlemaine, VIC, 1857 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Caxton Printing Office (Sydney, NSW)

Musical, theatrical, sporting printer and publisher, general printer

Established Sydney, NSW, 1859

ASSOCIATIONS: Edmond William Goggin (founder, proprietor, 1859-71)


[Advertisement], Bell's Life in Sydney and Sporting Reviewer [NSW] (25 June 1859), 3 

PRINCE OF WALES THEATRE. Lessee and Manager, Mr. Charles Poole . . .
Librettos of the opera are now published, and can be had at the "Caxton" Printing Office, 317 George-street . . .

[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (6 August 1859), 1 

BENEFIT for the FAMILY of the late L. H. LAVENU, Esq. -
Charles Poole has kindly offered the gratuitous use of the Prince of Wales Theatre on FRIDAY EVENING next . . .
The proprietor of "The Caxton Printing Office" (Mr. Goggin), George-street, has likewise, in the most liberal manner, undertaken the entire printing, gratuitously.
J. R. CLARKE, honorary treasurer.
HENRY N. MONTAGU, honorary secretary.

[Advertisement], Empire [Sydney, NSW] (1 October 1859), 8 

FRA DIAVOLO. - Books of the Opera - price one shilling - to be had at the CAXTON PRINTING OFFICE, and of Messrs. MOSS and CLARKE, Musicsellers.
AUBER'S MASTERPIECE. - Words of the Songs and Dialogue in the books of FRA DIAVOLO. Price, One Shilling. - Publishing Office, CAXTON PRINTING OFFICE, 317, George-street.

[Review], Empire (28 June 1860), 5 

The style of a composer and the tendency of his musical taste and feeling may be exemplified in trifles, though it would require a work of greater compass whereby to test his true merits. The former are certainly exhibited in a very pleasing little Polka-Mazurka, by Signor Cesare Cutolo, and just issued from the "Caxton Press." It is dedicated to his pupil, Master Henry Denison, and is consequently intended for juvenile fingers, which will, notwithstanding the unpretentious character of the piece, nevertheless require some little practice and exercise in order to enable them to overcome the difficulties of a few brilliant passages which will be played by adults with much satisfaction. In a Polka-Mazurka there can be no novelty, and the present one only has claim to originality in the sparkling mode and elegance of its treatment. To say that it is musically correct, as a composition, is of course superfluous. Signor Cutolo is, we believe, about to publish several pieces within the powers of an amateur; though we hope to see something more indicative of his talents as a composer.

"NEW MUSIC", Empire (18 September 1860), 4 

Two publications have during the past week enriched the Sydney album of music, in each case of considerable value. The first is a song by Signor Cesare Cutolo, the genial and talented Italian musician and composer, who has now become a settled resident amongst us. The song is entitled "God bless you, Farewell" - the words by Mr. E. Reeve . . . We cannot omit adverting to the very elegant manner in which this music is got up; the first piece, issued by the Caxton Press, almost outshines any London publication . . .

"REMEMEBRANCES OF THE PYRAMIDS", Empire (18 January 1861), 4 

Musical prints:

An English version of Auber's Fra Diavolo, an opera in three acts, arranged for the Prince of Wales Theatre (Sydney: Caxton Printing Office, 1859) 

An English Version of Il Trovatore; or, The gipsy's vengeance, a grand opera in four parts, written and adapted by Charles Jeffreys; to the music composed by Verdi; arranged expressly for this theatre by M. Lavenu (Sydney: Caxton Printing Office, 1859) 

Ernani, a grand opera seria, in four acts, produced under the direction of Monsieur Lavenu, Prince of Wales Theatre (Sydney: Caxton Printing Office, 1859) 

ASSOCIATIONS: Lewis Henry Lavenu (conductor); Prince of Wales Theatre (Sydney venue)

Donizetti's opera of Lucrezia Borgia, in three acts, produced under the direction of Mr. Charles Packer, Prince of Wales Theatre, lessee and manager - Mr. Charles Poole [libretto] (Sydney: Caxton Printing Office, 1859) (DIGITISED)

ASSOCIATIONS: Charles Poole (manager); Charles Sandys Packer (conductor)

God bless you, farewell!, a song written by Edward Reeve, esq., the music being composed in an easy style and adapted for all voices with accompaniment for piano or harmonium, by Cesare Cutolo (Sydney: Lewis Moss; Melbourne: Joseph Wilkie; Adelaide; Platts, [1860]); "Caxton Printing Office" (DIGITISED)

Remembrances of the Pyramids, nocturne for the pianoforte, dedicated to Mrs. George Wigram Allen by Cesare Cutolo (Sydney: Lewis Moss, J. R. Clarke; Melbourne: Joseph Wilkie; Adelaide: Charles Platts, [1860]); "Caxton Printing Office" (DIGITISED) (DIGITISED)

ASSOCIATIONS: Cesare Cutolo (composer); Marian Boyce Allen (dedicatee, ? pianist)

Long live Victoria, a national anthem, for voice and chorus, with full orchestral accompaniments; poetry by W. A. Duncan, esq., composed and most respectfully dedictaed to the representative of our gracious queen, his excellency the right honorable Sir John Young, Bart., K.C.B., Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of New South Wales, and Vice-Admiral of the same, &c., &c., &c., by I. Nathan . . . (Sydney: Published for the composer by J. R. Clarke, [1861]); "The Caxton Printing Office" (DIGITISED)

ASSOCIATIONS: Isaac Nathan (composer; Nathan himself set the music using his own type); Jacob Richard Clarke (musicseller, publisher)

The Gocup polka mazurka composed and dedicated to Mrs. Archer Broughton, by Miss E. C. Wilson (Sydney: Lewis Moss, [1861]) (DIGITISED)

ASSOCIATIONS: E. C. Wilson (composer); Lewis Moss (musicseller, publisher); Isabel Bingham (Mrs. John Archer Broughton) lived at Gocup, near Tumut, NSW, in 1861

Bibliography and resources:

Prue Neidorf, A guide to dating music published in Sydney and Melbourne, 1800-1899 (M.A. thesis, University of Wollongong, 1999), 144 (DIGITISED)

Cecilian Harmonic Society (Launceston, TAS)

Launceston, TAS, 1861-62 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Cecilian Society

Sydney, NSW, 1838-42 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Charivari (rough music) (general)


"SYDNEY", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (15 May 1803), 2 

On the evening of Saturday the 7th instant a Celebration of Nuptials took place on the Rocks, at which a numerous group of congratulants assembled to greet the enamoured TOUCHSTONE and his beloved AUDREY. - Compliments at an end, the circling planet of the board was briskly courted, and a fidler with his merry crowd, received a universal welcome: the merry dance commenced, and the fair bride led down the Country Bumpkin, which was performed in character. The Cheshire rounds and Irish trot were also gone through with equal success, after which a contest for the BREECHES ensued, but was determined in favour of Madam Beatrice, and the ladies at parting, withdrew in triumph. On Monday evening a grand serenade of CULINARY instruments waited on the new-married pair, which in harmony came little short of marrow-bones and cleavers. The musicians demanded a fee, imposed by custom, and which being complied with, the YOUNG couple were left to their domestic QUIET.

ASSSOCIATIONS: See "MARRIED", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (15 May 1803), 4 

MARRIED. Yesterday se'nnight, by the Rev. Mr. Dixon, of the Church of Rome, Henry Simpson, shipwright, to Catharine Rourke, of the Rocks, Widow.

MUSIC: See also entry Nuptials on the Rocks (Chronicle 1803)

"DENILIQUIN [FROM OUR OWN CORRESRPONDENT] NEW YEAR'S EVE", Wagga Wagga Express and Murrumbidgee District Advertiser (15 January 1859), 2 

About fifty of the inhabitants of South Deniliquin sat down to a splendid dinner at the Highlander's Inn, provided by Mr. F. Burrows free, and it really did the host and hostess great credit, both in the beautiful style it was got up and the quiet comfortable way it passed over. Dancing was kept up until morning. About eleven o'clock a rather discordant noise was heard in distance, but on its approaching nearer it was found to be no less a personage than Mr. T. Taylor, of the Royal Hotel, acting as commander-in-chief over about thirty blackfellows and ten or twelve whites, with all sorts of instruments from the violin to lids of saucepans, clashing them together to create a sound; and marching down the township on leaving the Royal Hotel, they went to the Highlanders Inn, and the, whole set up a kind of dancing and shouting, finishing with three cheers for Mr. and Mrs. Burrows. Bottled porter and ale was passed round by Mr. Burrows with a very liberal hand. After that the chief took his sable friends down and around the township, dancing and singing at nearly every house, wishing them all a happy new year. On his return home, an immense deal of dancing was performed in front of Mr. Burrows's, and the blacks and whites at the commencement of 1859 quietly dispersed to their camps and beds. We are happy to say that the police sheet has not had one charge of drunkenness during the holidays, which certainly shows a much better system in the police force than in 1857.

"MARRIAGE A LA MODE", The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (7 May 1861), 4 

On Thursday evening the Albury Flat was illuminated by bon-fires and blazing tar barrels, and enlivened with the rough music of marrow-bones, cleavers, tin pots, and other instruments. On enquiring the occasion of these festivities, we gathered that a widow, some forty years of age, who had buried three husbands, and was possessed of a large family of children, had just been led to the hymeanial altar by a blushing youth in his teens. The bride, we understand, has a son older than the bridegroom, and this undutiful youth threatened to wollop his new father-in-law for presuming to enter into wedlock with the widow. The serenade was kept up till a late hour, the children of the lady being amongst the most demonstrative on the occasion. - Border Post, April 27.

Charlie Napier Hotel (Charlie Napier Theatre, concert room) (Ballarat, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: Robert Underwood (proprietor, d. 1861); John Gibbs (proprietor)

Charlie Napier Theatre, Ballarat, 1857; Ballarat Historical Society Photograph Collection

Charlie Napier Theatre 1857; "Charlie Napier Theatre, Main Road, Opened November 1854, Burnt Down 1861, Rebuilt In Brick December 1861, And Finally Pulled Down 1880"; Ballarat Historical Society Photograph Collection (DIGITISED)


"BALLAARAT (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT), 16th October, 1855", The Argus (22 October 1855), 5 

The Charlie Napier continues to maintain its high character. On Monday a benefit for the Hospital was given with complete success. Among the long list of performers were the well known names of the inimitable Barlow and Miss Julia Mathews. The house was crowded in every part, and the entertainment passed off with the greatest eclat. This room is magnificent in the extreme, being 81 feet by 52 and 27 high, with boxes all round. It is decorated in a most superb manner, and brilliantly lighted with gas, manufactured upon the premises . . .

Chinese music in colonial Australia (subject) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"AMUSEMENTS", The Age [Melbourne, VIC] (24 November 1860), 6 

A troupe of Chinese artistes have been performing ing at the Prince of Wales, but, as might be expected, their reign has been short. For a few nights, the European residents visited the theatre out of curiosity, but this being satisfied, the building and the entertainment was abandoned to the Chinese, who, it must be allowed, proved good patrons to their countrymen. The entertainment consisted of a sort of opera, intermingled with acrobatic feats of a by no means elegant character. The music was all sung at a very high pitch, and resembled what we would call recitative. The orchestra consisted of a species of violin without a sound-board, a bagpipe, cymbals, drums, and other instruments for which we cannot find names in our vocabulary. The performers on these were ranged against the scene (which by the way was never shrifted during the whole evening), and kept up an indescribable din during the four long hours the performance lasted. The costumes were truly gorgeous, and realised the must elaborate Chinese painting which ever came under our notice.

ASSOCIATIONS: Prince of Wales Theatre (Melbourne venue)

Christy's minstrels companies (1860s)
Christy's Minstrels (Anthony Nish's company, 1863-67)

Arrived Melbourne, VIC, 23 January 1863 (per Coonanbara, from London via the Cape of Good Hope)'s+Minstrels+Nish+1863-67 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

PERSONNEL: Anthony Nish (minstrel); James Haddock Melvyn (minstrel); Joe Brown (minstrel); W. Norton (minstrel); C. Stewart (minstrel); C. Steele (minstrel); Thomas Rainford (minstrel)

Christy's Minstrels (Smith, Brown, and Collins's company, 1865-66) = Smith, Brown, and Collins's Original Christy's Minstrels

City Band (Sydney, NSW, 1840s)

Sydney, NSW, from 1842 (bandmaster George HUDSON; ? formerly "Town Band") (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

City Band (Sydney, NSW, 1880s)

Sydney, inagurated 1883

Sebastian HODGE (bandmaster)


"Music and the Drama", Australian Town and Country Journal (28 April 1883), 13

The City Band was formally inaugurated on Wednesday by the Mayor of Sydney, in the Exhibition Building, Prince Alfred Park. The baud is composed of the following gentlemen, who are all more or less distinguished as soloists and orchestral players:- Bandmaster, Mr. Sebastian Hodge; first clarionets, B, A, and C, Messrs. Choville and Vassie; second clarionets, Drager, Roffey, and Burton; third ditto, Mills and Drager; E flat clarionet, Kearns; piccolo and flute, Farrell and Martin; first cornets, Sweetman and McMahon; second ditto, James and Hogg; trumpets, Taylor and Crook; alto horn, Kopff and J. Hogg; E flat horns, Miller, Wolf, Crook, and Freeman; euphonium, White; trombone, Parkes, Morcombe, and Shapter; bass, Bibb and Shuck; side drum, Cobden; bass drum, Mahony; triangle, S. White; and first bassoon, T. Andrejewec. Most of these performers are masters of other instruments, so that the band can perform either as a brass and reed band as it did on Wednesday, or as an orchestra when circumstances require it to do so.

There were 700 or 800 persons present at the Exhibition Building, including our chief citizen, his Worship the Mayor. Mr. Hodge conducted. The concert was commenced with the well-known strain of the "National Anthem," and then followed a march from "Preciosa," the overture to the "Black Domino," a selection from "Fra Diavolo" including a bit of the overture, "On Yonder Rook Reclining," "Young Agnes, Beauteous Flower," "Proudly and Wide," and other airs; the "Snowdrop Polka" with cornet solo, charmingly played by Mr. Sweetman, and encored; a trombone solo finely executed by Mr. Parkes; a selection from the "Grand Duchess" and several othor pieces. The playing was very good, but was rather powerful for those who were seated near the performers. The performance of the band in the open air will be magnicent. Owing to the absenco of several reed and tenor performers, the bass slightly predominated in the performance . . .

City of London Glee and Madrigal Union (Melbourne, 1852-53)

Arrived (4 members) Melbourne, VIC, 25 November 1852 (per Lady Eveline, from London, 29 June) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

PERSONNEL: William Charles Lyon (vocalist, director); Edgar Ray (vocalist); Mary Ellen and Edward Hancock (vocalists);

ASSOCIATIONS: Harriet Cawse Fiddes (vocalist)

City Theatre (Royal City Theatre, Sydney, NSW)

Opened 20 May 1843 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (17 May 1843), 2 

The Public is most respectfully informed, that every arrangement connected with this establishment being completed,
the Proprietors have the honour to announce their OPENING NIGHT for SATURDAY, the 20th May.
Alter the National Anthem, which will be sung by the whole of the Corps Dramatique . . .
The Orchestral Selections for the evening which will be performed previous to the several Pieces, and between the Acts, include
Haydn's Symphony, No 2, Mozarts Overture to L'Irato ; Rossini's Overture to Il Barbiere di Seviglia; and Brilliant Arrangements of Strauss' Valses.
The Band comprises the following instrumental Performers: -
Mr. S. Wallace, Mr. Leggatt, Mr. Walton, Mr. Wallace, senior;
Mr. Portbury, Mr. Walker, Mr. Adams, Mr. Wright, Monsieur Gautrot, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Strong, and Mr. Andrews . . .
Leader of the Band, Mr. Wallace. Conductor, Mr. Leggatt.
The Mechanical Department under the direction of Mr. Belmore . . .
Managing Director, Mr. J. SIMMONS.
Stage Manager, Mr. KNOWLES.

ASSOCIATIONS: Joseph Simmons (actor, proprietor); James Belmore (machinist, proprietor); Spencer Wellington Wallace (leader, violin); Thomas Leggatt (conductor, oboe, clarinet); Humphrey Walton (musician); Spencer Wallace (senior) (musician); Benjamin Portbury (musician); Robert Adam (musician); Mr. Wright (musician); Joseph Gautrot (violin); George Strong (violin); Mr. Andrews (musician); Conrad Knowles (actor, stage manager); Royal City Theatre (Sydney venue); on Simmons' and Belmore's partnership, see [Editorial] "SIMMONS AND HIS IMPUDENCE", Empire (22 August 1851), 2 

"NEW INSOLVENTS", The Sydney Morning Herald (21 July 1843), 2 

Joseph Simmons and James Belmore, co-partners in trade, Market-street, Sydney: £879 1s.: assets - landed property, £300; personal property, £300; balance deficiency, £279 1s.

David Burn, journal, Sydney, 19 August 1844, State Library of New South Wales, MS B 190/2 (DIGITISED) (TRANSCRIPT)

. . . In the evening Mr. Klein and I attended a Public Meeting at the City Theatre, a very pretty little house, in Market Street. It contains a pit, gallery, and one tier, or rather half tier, of boxes and is brilliantly illuminated by a central chandelier of a dozen burners. As in most other places, theatricals are, now, at a low ebb in Sydney, there being insufficient encouragement for even one house to keep open . . .

Civil Service Musical Society (Sydney, NSW)

Founded c. 1866 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Clarson, Massina, and Co.
Clarson, Shallard, and Co.

Music printers and publishers (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Clown Hotel (Pitt-street, Sydney, NSW

Active 1843-45 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Collingwood Harmonic Society

Active Collingwood, VIC, 1857-59 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Collingwood Rifles Band (Band of the Collingwood Volunteer Rifles)

Active Collingwood, VIC, from 1860 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Concert rooms (hotel concert rooms, generic)


"THE FREE CONCERT ROOM", Melbourne Punch [VIC] (19 March 1857), 58 (DIGITISED)

Congregational churches (music in Congregational churches) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Convicts (convict transported from Britian and Ireland to Australia)

TO NSW: George Carr (arrived, 1791)

TO VDL/TAS: Henry James Witton (arrived, [1] 1833);

TO NORFOLK ISLAND: Henry James Witton (arrived, [2] 1839); Charles Sandys Packer (arrived, 1840)

TO WA (Western Australia): Arnold Gerber (arrived 1855, wood turner, ? musician)

See also members of convict establishments: Frederick Augustus Hely (superintendent of convicts, NSW); Alexander Maconochie (commandant, Norfolk Island); James Aquinas Reid (assistant surgeon, Norfolk Island)

Coppin's Olympic (Olympic Theatre, Melbourne, VIC; later Argyle Rooms)

Opened Melbourne, VIC, 1855's+Olympic+Melbourne (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: George Coppin (proprietor)

Coppin's Olympic Theatre; pen and ink skecth, Charles Bennett, 1885; State Library of Victoria (DIGITISED)


"AN EXTENSIVE THEATRICAL ENGAGEMENT. - G. V. BROOKE AND MR. COPPIN, THE AUSTRALASIAN MANAGER", Geelong Advertiser and Intelligencer (10 November 1854), 7 

We learn from positive authority that Mr. G. V. Brooke has made an engagement with Mr. G. Coppin, through Mr. J. H. Wilton. to proceed to the colonies and act 200 nights, Mr. Coppin securing to him ten thousand pounds, in addition to the expanse of himself and four. Miss Fanny Cathcart accompanies the eminent tragedian . . . And a contract has been entered into with Messrs. Fox and Henderson for the construction of an iron theatre, 120 by 41, which will sail with G. V. Brooke, complete in every way; it will cost about £5,000. This certainly looks like business. Mr. Brooke, Mrs. Brooke, Miss Cathcart, Mr. W. N. Lyons [sic], accompanied by Mr. Wilton, will sail in the new steamer Pacific on 4th October. - Atlas.

ASSOCIATIONS: Gustavus Vaughan Brooke (actor, manager); John Hall Wilton (agent); Fanny Cathcart (actor)

"PROFESSOR ANDERSON IN AUSTRALIA. TO THE EDITOR OF THE ERA", The Era [London, England] (12 September 1858), 10 (PAYWALL)

Theatre Royal, Melbourne, July 10th, 1858.
Sir, - A letter from your old friend, the Wizard, sent from the other end of the world, may not be unacceptable.
. . . Passing [the Princess's Theatre], and turning down Lonsdale-street to the left, you come to Mr. Coppin's Olympic Theatre, built of iron by the Messrs. Bellhouse, and decorated internally with medallions representing Mr. G. V. Brooke in his chief characters. It is very clean and pretty, and is now used as a dancing room, under the name of "The Argyle Rooms," the nightly admission being 2s. 6d . . .

Cornwall Assembly Rooms (Cornwall Hotel, Launceston, TAS) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Cornwall Hotel, Cameron Street, Launceston, c. 1890

Cornwall Hotel, Cameron Street, Launceston, c. 1890 (DIGITISED)

Court Minstrels (Court Minstrels)

First appeared Melbourne, VIC, August 1862 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], The Argus (16 August 1862), 8 

COPPIN'S APOLLO MUSIC HALL. Lessee and Manager, Mr. James Simmonds
NOVELTY TO-NIGHT, And every Evening till further notice,
The COURT MINSTRELS Will appear in the costume of King George II
Negro Ballads, Songs, Choruses, Breakdowns, Burlesques, &c.
ENGLISH, IRISH, and SCOTCH BALLADS, By Madame Carandini, Miss Chalker,
The Misses Royal, Mr. Small, And Mr. Sherwin.
Part I.
Grand Introductory overture (Instrumental) - Court Minstrels.
Opening Chorus - "Let's be gay" (operatic) - Company.
"Let me kiss him for his mother" - Percival.
"Kiss me quick and go" - Burgess.
"Ellen Bayne" - Pearson.
"Gone to Alabama State" - Harry Leslie.
"The Virgininia Rosebud" (Cheval de Bronze.) - Morgan.
"Come where my love lies dreaming" - Percival.
"Arrival of Picayune Butler" - Burgess.
Finale - "Railway Galop" - Leathwood and Company . . .
Part 3.
Ballad - Percival.
Solo, Song, and Dance (comic) - J. J. Burgess.
Duett - Pearson and Percival.
Comic Duett, Introducing the Madagascar Fiddle - F. Leathwood and Harry Leslie.
The two Dromies - Harry Leslie and J. J Burgess.
Rattlesnake Jig - J. J. Burgess . . .
Musical Director - Mr. George Loder . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Court Minstrels (troupe), consisting of Charles F. Percival (minstrel); Johnny Burgess (minstrel); Harry Leslie (minstrel) J. W. Morgan (minstrel); Frank Leathwood (minstrel); A. Pearson (minstrel)

ASSOCIATIONS (other): Maria Carandini (vocalist); Marie Chalker (vocalist); Kate and Lizzie Royal (vocalists); Joe Small (vocalist); Walter Sherwin (vocalist); George Loder (venue musical director); James Simmonds (manager, actor); Apollo Music Hall (Melbourne venue)

Cremorne Gardens (Richmond [Burnley], Melbourne, VIC)

Established by February 1853; first opened to the public September 1853; official opening 10 December 1853 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: James Ellis (founder, proprietor); George Coppin (proprietor); Cremorne Gardens (London)

Cremorne Gardens, 1854 (detail); State Library of Victoria

Cremorne Gardens, 1854 (detail); on the Yarra River at Richmond/Burnley; the rotunda, where the musical entertainments and dances were held; Campbell & Fergusson, lithographers, 1855; State Library of Victoria (DIGITISED)


"ORIGINAL CORRESPONDENCE. 'BUSHMEN' versus 'TOWNSMEN' . . . To the Editor of . . .", The Argus (9 January 1851), 2 

. . . Are Australians made of such different materials, that they cannot enjoy themselves as the thousands do who, in London, throng to the Surrey, and Cremorne gardens, the Grecian Saloon, Standard Tea Gardens, White Conduit House, Belvidere, &c.? Everything must have a beginning. I do not expect a Cremorne Garden to start up at once, but a Standard Tea Garden may, and its amusements be equally as well appreciated as its prototype on the other side of the ocean, where a shilling entrance money entitles the visitor to witness the amusements and receive half of it back in refreshment. Of any over-scrupulous individual I would ask, which is the best; sitting in a pot-house, or visiting a place of amusement where he can drink if he will and be entertained besides? But to settle all selfishly moral questions, I say, let the "Bushman" choose for himself, and I feel assured that he will prefer "A little of baith." In the "Bush," sir, books are read with avidity; and were a more cordial feeling shown towards "Bushmen," credit given them for the same tastes and desires as their more fortunate brethren, their welfare more studied, and a little less desire shown to plunder them us soon as they make their appearance in town, there would not be quite so many instances of drunkenness laid to their charge, and if their names occasionally appeared in print, it would not be always in the columns of the Police Report. With regard to what I have said respecting the theatre, I would observe that it has only recently come under the management of Messrs. Young and King, therefore I allude to the complaints I have so frequently heard from bushmen up to that period, few of whom have been in Melbourne since it has passed into other hands. There is certainly a reading-room at the Mechanics' Hall, there is (or was a few days ago) a panorama, and Hore's Saxe Horn Band play once a-week in the long days on the Eastern Hill, but what of that? . . . Trusting that my " bolt" has not been shot in vain, though I fear I have missed the " bull's-eye,"
I am, sir, yours obediently,

ASSOCIATIONS: Benjamin Farre (correspondent); Charles Young (actor, manager); Morton King (actor, manager); Joseph Hore and sons (musicians); Queen's Theatre (Nelbourne venue); Mechanics' Institution (Melbourne venue)


The celebrated Mr. Ellis, the well-known caterer for public amusement at Cremorne Gardens, the Flora Gardens, and other popular places of amusement, has just sailed from Plymouth in the Coldstream, for Port Philip. Mr. Ellis takes with him scenery, properties, and the necessary adjuncts for a portable theatre, to be erected at the diggings, a complete band of musicians, and a Thespian company. Mr. Ellis was the originator of casinos in the metropolis, and proposes to introduce them into Geelong and Melbourne, and thus combine pleasure with gold-seeking.

[Advertisement], The Argus (24 September 1853), 8 

CREMORNE GARDENS, Richmond. - These magnificent Grounds are open Daily for Promenade and Refreshment - no charge for admission.
Due notice will be given for the Entertainment Season commencing.

[Advertisement], The Argus (10 September 1853), 2 

TO Carpenters and Joiners. - Wanted, Tenders for the construction of an Orchestra at Cremorne Gardens, Richmond according to plans and specifications. Knight and Kemp, Architects, 29, Collins-street, west.

"CREMORNE GARDENS", The Argus (29 October 1853), 5 

Cremorne Gardens, Richmond, are at present known chiefly by name, and that comparatively to few of the inhabitants of Melbourne and its vicinity. They are not only beautiful and pleasant, but, if well conducted, must prove to the general public of this crowded city a means of hasttful and rational enjoyment. We deem it our duty to describe them at some length. Mr. Ellis, formerly of the Cremorne Gardens near London, is the proprietor, and it is only justice to say that the formation of the new gardens bears simple testimony of mature taste, experience, and well-directed enterprise. The gardens cover twelve acres of ground. They are situated on the north side of the Yarra Yarra river, are distant from Melbourne about one mile, and about 250 yards from the Botanical Gardens, - the nearest and most direct route to them being aross the Government Paddock. But very speedily gondola steamers will convey passengers from Princes Bridge up the river direct to the gardens. The site of the gardens and house in their centre was the former residence of Mr. Ginn, lately Colonial architect. Their position is naturally exceedingly beautiful, having on their front or south side across the river, a view of as beautiful range of hills, on which are to be seen the residences and grounds of Mr. Ogilvie, Major Davidson, and others, and in the distance, the abodes of Messrs. Turnbull, Colonel Anderson, &c. The scenery around the gardens cannot easily be surpassed.

The gardens are in the form of a horse-shoe, and on their south side slope gently towards a lagoon, which lies between the gardens and the river. Entering the grounds from the river, we meet a new metal road across the lagoon, of about one hundred yards in length, which has been constructed entirely by Mr. Ellis. Passing along this road and entering the gardens on their south side, there is a handsome arch, now in course of erection. When complete, this will span a wide path or walk, which traverses the grounds. The path will be, at a future day, covered and arched with evergreens of various kinds. Near the arch, and on the west side of the gardens, a small pagoda is being erected, which (except in size) will be in all respects like a larger one on the east side, to be described hereafter. Proceeding along the west side we meet the main entrance rom Melbourne by land, where there is a large brick cottage with a verandah around it; attached to it and the premises (the whole being connected with the gardens) there is stabling for thirty horses, and a coach-house and other accommodation for omnibuses and vehicles of all kinds. Extending from the western entrance just mentioned along the north and eastern sides of the gardens and to almost their extreme south-eastern side, is a range of tables and seats, each of which it is proposed in due time to cover, to form hundreds of arbors where three thousand persons can be accommodated. About one hundred of these arbors are larger than the others, and are covered with Venetian blinds. The larger arbors are capable of accommodating a party of twenty persons in each. On the north side of the grounds and in the rear of the main building, two brick buildings in the course of erection are designed for bars, from which confectionery, pastry, and other refreshments will be supplied to the visitors in the arbors.

Passing on eastward the next object which attracts attention is a lofty, but not upright tree, around which a Swiss staircase has been erected. At its top is a large square arbor, from which a fine view of the gardens and surrounding country is obtained. From one side of the arbor there will be a rope, blocks, pulleys, and a basket, by means of which those who choose may ascend or descend without trouble of going up and down the staircase. From this arbor, when the grounds are lit up at night, there will be a full view of a fairy-like scene, or place of enchantment. At the base, and in the hollow formed by the tree and staircase, is another bar for the supply of refreshments at that portion of the gardens. Proceeding south-westerly a pretty little artificial grotto is perceptible, over the top of which is a rustic bridge. In and about this grotto there will be some miniature water-works, by means of which water will be constantly passing in and out, and in its centre will be a figure representing Eve at a fountain in the garden of Eden. The rocks around the grotto are decorated with fragments of sea-weed, coral, shells, &c. In various parts of the ground seats are placed around the larger trees, for the accommodation of visitors. At the extreme south-eastern portion of the ground, and close to the river and end of the lagoon, is a large and handsome kitchen garden, so arranged that around the end of the lagoon a supply of wateress may be obtained.

A short distance north west of this place is a handsome circular pagoda, with a richly carved and ornamental dome top. The pagoda is twenty-four feet in diameter, and was brought here by Captain Vinall, of the ship Roeckland, from New York. The carved work, its deigns, style, and general appearance surpasses any thing of the kind we have before seen either here or elsewhere. It is intended for an orchestra, and has around it a circular boarded platform, with an elastic floor, three hundred feet in circumference, which is designed for the use of those who love the gay and merry dance. The ornaments of this splendid pagoda are of the Grecian, Gothic, Chinese, and other orders; in fact, it it truly the pagoda of all nations, and evince a very great taste. A light fencing is being placed around the base of the pagoda to protect its ornaments. From the pagoda, a short distance westward, there is a large sofa to sit on. It is one of Dame Nature's manufacture, and is composed of green-sward. On either side of this natural sofa, and at no great distance, are a small grotto and fountain in rustic style, and in its front a sun-dial.

Leaving the sofa, and walking across the beautiful parterre of flowers, we approach the front of the main building. It it built of brick, and is one one story high. The frontage is one hundred and twenty feet by sixty feet deep, around the whole of which is a wide and handsome verandan, protected from the sun by Venetian blinds, furnished with tables and chairs, and capable of dining three hundred persons. At night it is illuminated with colored lamps of every hue. This verandah is surrounded by and in the midst of the flower-garden formed by Mr. Ginn with great care, where flowers and trees from every clime are to be seen. Among the English trees may be mentioned the ash, oak, poplar, laburnum and horse chestnut, all of which flourish there. The flowers consist of and immense collection of the most choice kinds, and of nearly all the exotics which can be procured. They are distributed about in beds of every imaginable devise and shape, and the sides of the path are decorated with hundreds of Chinese vases designed for seats.

Leaving the verandah and entering the house, we have from the right and left of a spacious hall a large dining-room. Beyond these a handsome and well-arranged bar. Still farther back the dwelling apartments for Mr. Ellis, his family and servants, and in connection with them the pantry and other offices, embracing store room, &c. On the left is the kitchen, scullery, &c., and attached to the kitchen a large oven. Processing in a north-easterly direction is stabling and coach-houses, and at the back of them the poultry yard; and at no great distance are the workshops of the pyrotechnist, where the cases for the different kinds of fire-works are made and prepared. They are filled, and the ingredients prepared at the Magazine, a short distance from the gardens. A prominent feature of the Gardens, will be to give a pyrotechnic display every evening.

Mr. Ellis has already expended in the preparation and fitting up of the gardens and premises about £10,000, and the whole has been done under the superintendence of Mr. Turnbull. It is saying but little to assert, that the entire arrangements reflect the highest credit on his taste and ability, as well as on the perseverance and energy of the proprietor. The gardens are now open for promenade and refreshment daily, but they will not be formally opened to the public until the first Saturday in December, on which day the gross amount of profits will be handed over by Mr. Ellis, to the Melbourne Hospital for its benefit. After that day, the public will not be admitted without the payment of a small sum for admission.

[Advertisement], The Argus (7 December 1853), 10 

[Advertisement], The Argus [Melbourne, VIC], (9 December 1854), 8 

CREMORNE GARDENS. - Grand Gala and Nocturnal Fete. To-night, Saturday, entire change of Entertainments.
Engagement of the Celebrated Herr Veit Rahm, the Tyrolese Singer and performer on the New Instrument, the Zither, in his national costume, as performed before Her Majesty.
Mr. J. O. Pierce, the Renowned soloist on the Concertino and Flutina, will also have the honor of appearing.
Mr. James Shaw, the admired Comic Vocalist, from the Theatre Royal, Liverpool, is also engaged, and will appear on Monday, and every evening during next week, together with Mr. Barsham, the popular Vocalist . . .
Admission, One Shilling.
Cremorne can now to reached by road and river. Illuminated Gondola to Melbourne, after the entertainments have concluded . . .
James Ellis, proprietor.

ASSOCIATIONS: Veit Rahm (zither); John Ottis Pierce (musician); James Shaw (vocalist); Albert George Barsham (vocalist)

Playbill, Cremorne Gardens, 22 November 1856

Playbill, Cremorne Gardens, 22 November 1856; State Library of Victoria

Several favorite Overtures, Marches and Operatic Pieces will be introduced by the
will commencce the
Will introduce the following Dances on the
La Tyrolienne, Pas de Chasse, and a Sailor's Hornpipe.
will give a GRAND SELECTION from the
7 feet 6 inches high,
Mr. PRESCOTT will give a
Consisting of Waterpieces, Rockets, Shells, Balloons, and Set Devices, concluding by
Illuminating MOUNT VESUVIUS with Colored Fires!
after which,
Dancing will take place on the Rotunda.
It is the intention of the Manager to give a GRAND JUVENILE NIGHT every Saturday Evening during the Season.
GALA NIGHTS - Monday, Wednesday, and Friday,
Upon which occasion the ERUPTION of MOUNT VESUVIUS will take place.
Charlewood & Son, Printers, 7, Bourke-street, East.

See also [Advertisement], The Age (22 November 1856), 1 

ASSOCIATIONS: Anna Dalle Case (acrobat, dancer); Felix Lalanne (acrobat, dancer); English Opera Company (troupe); Arthur Charlwood and son (printers)

Bibliography and resources:

"Coppin's Cremorne. Richmond in the 'Fifties. By J. Alex. Allan", The Argus (8 April 1833), 6 

ASSOCIATIONS: James Alexander Allan (historian, writer)

Cremorne Gardens (reconstruction Hardiman 2020)

Allister Hardiman, "Illustrated and reconstructed map of Mr. Ellis and Mr. Coppin's Cremorne Gardens - a bird's eye view" (Melbourne: Author, 2020); reproduced above with the auhtor's kind permission

Cremorne Gardens (Cremorne, Sydney) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Criterion Concert Hall (Ballarat, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: John William Emery (proprietor)

Criterion Hall (Castlemaine, VIS) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Criterion Hall (Criterion Hotel, Melbourne, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Criterion Theatre (Bendigo, VIC; later renamed Haymarket Theatre)

Opened February 1856 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: Henry Coleman (foudning proprietor, actor, manager)


[Advertisement], Bendigo Advertiser (16 February 1856), 3 

MR. COLEMAN'S BENEFIT . . . in Buckstone's admired drama of the WRECK ASHORE;
And the burlesque of BOMBASTES FURIOSO, Assiated by Madame Sara Flower, and the Ladies of the Corps Dramatique . . .

"COLEMAN'S CRITERION THEATRE", Bendigo Advertiser (26 February 1856), 2 

On the 14th of this month we stated that in a week or two we should have a Theatre in Sandhurst, not in name, but in reality. The thing has now become "an accomplished fact." The theatre has been completed, in all its details, in a style which fully justifies the laudatory anticipations we expressed in its favor. We are fastidious in these matters, and do not feel disposed to degrade the drama by an endeavor, through a figure of rhetoric, to convert a barn, or any other "makeshift," into a Temple of the Muses. It is, however, no hyperbole to say that the Criterion is a theatre worthy the representation of the legitimate drama . . .


De Gruchy and Leigh (Melbourne, VIC)

Printers, lithographers

Active Melbourne, VIC, by c. 1859

ASSOCIATIONS: Henry De Gruchy (partner); Stephen Thomas Leigh (partner)

Del Sarte's Rooms (Hobart, TAS)

Deutsche Liedertafel (Adelaide) (German Chorus; German Glee Club; German Amateur Chorus)

One or more organisations active Adelaide, SA, c. 1850-58 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: Adelaide Liedertafel (founded 1858, and still extant, as "Adelaider Liedertafel 1858", but also frequently documentated as "Deutsche Liedertafel")


"THE ADELAIDE LIEDERTAFEL", The Register (22 September 1908), 6 

. . . Thus in September, 1858, the Adelaide Liedertafel was founded . . . It is hardly correct, however, to say that this was the first "Adelaide Liedertafel," as a society under that name used to meet in 1854 and 1855 at Messrs. Wiener & Fischer's Coffee Rooms, in Rundle street. Mr. Fischer was a very sweet tenor, and among other members one recalls the names of Messrs. von der Heide, Schomburg, Henry Wurm, Lellman, and Butefisch; also Mr. Schulze, whose death was announced in The Register recently. Herr Carl Linger was also leader of this society, and the writer recalls many happy evenings spent in their midst. This select little company, which comprised many prominent singers and talented musicians, broke up when Messrs. Wiener and Fischer left Adelaide for Tanunda.

ASSOCIATIONS (pre 1858 members): Carl Linger (conductor, leader); George Fischer (member); Robert Wiener (member); Gustav von der Heyde (member); Henry Wurm (member)

Diggings (music on the diggings; music on the goldfields)

Active NSW, VIC, from 1851


"HEROINE AT THE DIGGINGS", The Goulburn Herald (4 June 1853), 1

The DUBLIN COMMERCIAL JOURNAL publishes a letter of quite a romantic chlaracter lately received by lady of Dublin from a young female friend, and former school fellow of hers, now at the Australian diggings. It appears from her narrative that she and her brother were suddenly left orphans, with three hundred pounds for their necessities, and all the fancies and niceties which life in prosperous circumstances is wont to include.

"He had passed through college with credit, and could write poetry, and ride up to the hounds as well as any huntsman who ever hunted the Golden Vale; while I, on my part, could play polkas, sing ballads, speak French and a little German, was a capital horsewoman (only I had no horse), and once in my life had composed a waltz, and written sixteen chapters of a novel, which broke down from my not knowing how to get my heroine out of a terrible scrape. But alas, my dear friend, all these things might have done well enough "once upon a time;" but the real battle of life was now to be fought by two utterly inexperienced raw recruits, and the question was, how our time and means were to be profitably rather than pleasantly spent. Fortunately we were both young, strong, active, and hearty."

After much nervous consultation over the 300l., they determined to emigrate to Australia. On reaching Melbourne, they found that they could not encounter worse inconveniences at the diggings . . .

"Cake of various kinds I manufacture, thanks to old Betsy D. for teaching me; and as for liquor, we sometimes have a little wine, brandy, or arrack, and sometimes not. And then we dance to the music of a German flute, played by a real German, or we sing glees and quartetts, or talk of Moore, Byron, Burns, Goethe, Shakspeare, and the musical glasses, &c. until midnight, and sometimes long after it. As to suitors, I have them in plenty, and not despicable ones either, I assure you."

See as reproduced at, Samuel Mossman (ed.), Emigrants' letters from Australia, selected, with critical and explanatory remarks (London: Addey and Co., 1853) (DIGITISED)

Dilletanti Society (Sydney)

Active Sydney, NSW, 1840 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Diyari (Dieri; Dieyerie; Kunari) song and dance

Indigenous people, Cooper's Creek delta, SA (Wikipedia)

Bibliography and resources:

Samuel Gason (ed. George Isaacs), "The Dieyerie tribe of Australian Aborigines", in J. D. Woods (ed.), Native tribes of South Australia (Adelaide: E. S. Wigg & Son, 1874), 253–307; and repaginated offprint, 1-51 (OFFPRINT DIGITISED)

INCLUDES: Specific information collected by Samuel Gason (1845-1897), a police trooper, 1865-74;
description of song composition by a young woman as part of a ceremony (20);
a detailed description of song and dance associated with "Mindarie" (festival to invoke peace) (20-21);
description of a song sung to make wild fowl lay eggs ("but it is too obscene to be translated here") (25);
"The iguana song" with transliteration ("Pa-pa-pa kirra-a lulpara-na . . .") and translation (26);
a reportedly secret men's song sung while making bags in which to collect red ochre with transliteration and free translation (27);
and vocabulary has various words for song and singing - Wimma - Song; Wimmawonkuna - Singing; Wirrtie - Song; Wonka - Sing; Wonkana - Singing; Wonkunaori - Has sung; Wonkunawonthie - Had sung; Wonkamullana - Singing together; Wonkulauni - Will sing (49)

ASSOCIATIONS: Samuel Gason (reporter, author); George Isaacs (editor)

A. W. Howitt, "The Dieri and other kindred tribes of central Australia", The journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 20 (1891), 30-104 (PAYWALL)

INCLUDES: Some further song and dance information sourced from Gason and by Howitt himself


East Torrens Institute (SA) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Emerald Hill Philharmonic Society (South Melbourne, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Empire Minstrels (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Empire Serenaders (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Eridutio Musica (Sydney, c.1856) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: William Henry Paling (convenor)

English Opera Company (1856-60)

Arrived Melbourne, VIC, 27 June 1856; Sydney, NSW, 30 June 1856 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

"THEATRICAL", The Argus (27 June 1856), 5 

By the James Baines the following members of the musical and theatrical professions have arrived: - Miss Julia Harland, soprano; Mr. Walter Sherwin, tenor; and Mr. Robert Farquharson, bass. Mr. Linley Inman has accompanied these artistes as musical director and conductor, and they bring with them a repertory of thirty operas, with dresses and personal appointments complete. Mr. Hoskins, a light comedian of ability, formerly attached to the Sadler's Wells Theatre, also forms part of the troupe, and will proceed forthwith to Sydney, where they are under engagement for the present.


June 27 - James Baines, R.M, ship, 2315 tons, C. McDonald, from Liverpool 6th April . . .

"THEATRICAL AND MUSICAL", The Age (28 June 1856), 3 

"SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE", The Age (28 June 1856), 2 

JUNE 30. -London (s.), 700 tons, Captain Watts, from Melbourne 28th instant. Passengers . . . Miss Harland, Mrs. Farquharson . . . Messrs. . . . Norman, Hoskins, Sherwin, Farquharson . . .

ORIGINAL MEMBERSHIP: Julia Harland (soprano, Mrs. William Hoskins); Walter Sherwin (tenor); Robert Farquharson (bass); Linly Norman (pianist, conductor); William Hoskins (manager)

Ethiopian Serenaders (VDL (TAS), 1848-49) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (13 June 1849), 647 

To be followed by the ETHIOPIAN SERENADERS.
introducing the negro melodies of "Old Dan Tucker," "Buffalo Girls," and "Boatmen Dance;" by Messrs. Lee, Holloway, Hubbard, Chappel and Reuben.

[Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (4 August 1849), 773 

RADFORD'S ROYAL AMPHITHEATRE . . . First appearance in these colonies of Mr. A. Howson, who has kindly offered his services, for this night only . . . FOR THE BENEFIT OF MR. KEBBLE . . . The Interlude will consist of a daring act of HORSEMANSHIP, by Mr. Mills. After which, the Ethiopian Serenaders will display their instrumental and vocal talent in the following negro melodies: - "Buffalo Gals," "De Boatmen Dance," and "Goodmorning, ladies &c." - by Messrs. KEBBLE, HOWSON, HOLLOWAY, HUBBARD, and CHAPPEL . . .

Ethiopian Serenaders (Sydney, NSW, August 1850) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

The original Ethiopian Serenaders, Pel, Harrington, White, Stanwood, and Germon, New York, USA, c. 1845

The "original" Ethiopian Serenaders, Pel, Harrington, White, Stanwood, and Germon, New York, USA, c. 1845 (DIGITISED)


An unidentifiable band of Ethiopian Serenaders announced that their first and only advertised Sydney performance was to take place at John Sparke's Royal Hotel on 7 August 1850. They gave their names as "PELL, HANWOOD, GERMAN, and WHITE", and claimed to have arrived via New Bedford (Massachusetts, USA), apparently attempting (if only half-heartedly) to masquerade as the original US troupe, the Ethiopian Serenaders (Pell, Stanwood, Harrington, Germon, and White), who had played for several highly successful seasons at London's St. James's Theatre, and in provincial tours, in the later 1840s.

Curiously, there was also another group in England in the early 1850s attempting to pass themselves off as the original troupe. And whether the originals or the imposters, a quartet billed as "PELL, HARRINGTON, STANWOOD, and GERMON" advertised to appear in Newry, Ireland, in September 1850, only a month after the advertised Sydney appearance of "PELL, HANWOOD, GERMAN, and WHITE".

We can be reasonaly sure that they are not to be confused with minstrel troupes active in Sydney earlier that year, Waterland and Reading's troupe, and the Howard brothers' troupe, both of which were out of Sydney in August 1850.

In the absence of positive identficiations, we can speculate that the Sydney "imposters" most likely members of the Victoria Theatre company taking the oppotunity of a night off to perform elsewhere under pseudonyms. If so, the likely contenders as leaders of the group were perhaps John Proctor Hydes and Frank Howson.


[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (6 August 1850), 1

MESSRS. PELL, HANWOOD, GERMAN, and WHITE, beg respectfully to acquaint the gentry and inhabitants of Sydney that they have arrived here via New Bedford, and purpose giving a series of these popular and fashionable entertainments, the first of which will take place at the Royal Hotel on Wednesday, August 7th, when the most favourite Vocal and Instrumental Songs and Solos will be introduced.
For further particulars see bills. Tickets to be obtained at Mr. Sparke's, Royal Hotel, and Mr. Ducro's, Music Saloon, 28, Hunter-street.

ASSOCIATIONS: John Sparke (publican); John Henry Ducros (music seller)

"SERENADERS", Bathurst Free Press (10 August 1850), 6 

A fresh company of Ethiopian Serenaders have arrived in Sydney from South America, who will, we are informed, appear in the course of the week, at the Royal Hotel. We believe, from information received, that the present company will far eclipse all their predecessors. - Sydney Pickwick.

Other references and resources:

[Advertisement], Newry Telegraph [Ireland] (28 September 1850), 1 (PAYWALL)

FASHIONABLE ENTERATINMENTS, IN THE Assembly-Room, Savings'-Bank, Newry, ON WEDNESDAY AND THURSDAY EVENINGS, October 2d and 3d, 1850.
THE Re-Union of the Celebrated and Original ETHIOPIAN SERENADERS, (From St. James's),
The Celebrated and ORIGINAL SERENADERS (from St. James's), intend taking a Tour through Ireland, previous to their re-appearance in London. During the Entertainment, they will Sing Selections from their celebrated Programme, including many Original Songs and Pieces brought them from the United States of America;
which Songs and Pieces, being copyrights, can be Sung by no other Artistes . . .


Last week Mr. Carter, printer, of Dunmow, received a printed form of order, posted at Epping, and purporting to come from "the original Ethiopian Serenaders from St. James's" - Messrs. Pell, Harrington, White, Stanwood, and Germon - requesting him to print and post the neighbourhood with bills, engage the largest room in the place, and make all necessary arrangements for their intended concert. Mr. Carter fulfilled his instructions to the letter. On the appointed evening three, instead of five, performers made their appearance, and liberally patronized the good cheer of the Star Inn. The audience was not very numerous, and at the close of the performance they were pressed for payment, but evaded doing so by promising faithfully for the next morning. However, by the morning's dawn it was found that they had made use of their bed clothes as descending ropes, and bid a hasty farewell to their confiding friends at Dunmow, which town (it is hinted) has before been victimised by one of the same party.

"THE ORIGINAL ETHIOPIANS", The Era [London, England] (21 December 1851), 12 (PAYWALL)

Mr. Editor, - Sir,- I perceive by your paper of Sunday last, a paragraph stating that a party in the country, calling themselves Pell, Harrington, White, Stanwood, and Jermon, are deceiving the public to a shameful extent, I beg most respectfully to state, in contradiction to that assertion, that I, G. W. Pell, am the only one of the party left in London, and strictly deny ever having been in the part of the country stated in your columns. This being calculated to throw a great stain upon my character, you will greatly oblige me by inserting this, or contradicting the statement made.
Yours truly, G. W. PELL, the Original Bones.
[The company in their anounce bills stated they were "the original, from the St. James's." - ED.]

[Advertisement], Elgin Courier [Scotland] (30 December 1853), 1 (PAYWALL)

Reunion of the Celebrated and Original Ethiopian Serenaders, from St. James's, London. Messrs PELL, HARRINGTON, WHITE, STANWOOD, AND GERMON. THE Original Ethiopian Serenaders, who have had the distinguished honour of performing three times before her Most Gracious Majesty and suite, viz. -
at Arundel Castle, at St. James's Theatre, and lastly, on the occasion of his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales' birthday, at Buckingham Palace, intend making their first Professional Tour through Scotland, previous to their re-appearance in London.
During the Entertainment, they will Sing Selections from their celebrated Programme (estensively circulated in the locality), including many original Songs and Pieces brought by them from the United States of America, which Songs and Pieces being Copyrights, can be sung by no other Artistes. UNDER THE DIRECTION OF Wm. ALBAIN . . .

"ETHIOPIAN SERENADERS", Hereford Times [England] (26 May 1855), 7 (PAYWALL)

On the evening of Friday, Messrs. Pell, Harrington, White, Hanwood, and Germon, gave their very pleasing entertainment in the Assembly room, Oxford Arms Hotel, in this town, to a very full and highly respectable audience.

Edward Le Roy Rice, Monarchs of minstrelsy from "Daddy" Rice to date (New York: Kenny Publishing Company, 1911), 24 (Francis Germon), 30-31 (George A. Harrington), 48 (Gilbert W. Pell) (DIGITISED)

Ethiopian Serenaders (1846-48) [Francis Germon, George Harrington Gilbert W. Pell, Moody Stanwood, W. White], The JUBA project 

Ethiopian Serenaders (1856-57)

Active Sydney and NSW, 1856-57 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"PRINCE OF WALES THEATRE", The People's Advocate and New South Wales Vindicator (7 June 1856), 3 

European Band (Ballarat, VIC)

Active Ballarat, VIC, by 1858

European Band (Sydney, NSW; also "The English European Band"; see also London Quadrille Band)

Active Sydney, NSW, from July 1857, to early 1862 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], Empire (23 July 1857), 1 

EUROPEAN BAND. - A superior English Brass or String Band can be engaged for balls, pic-nic parties, excursions, and dinner partios, &c., &c. Address EUROPEAN BAND, Vine Inn, 75, George-street North.

ASSOCIATIONS: At least some of the original members appear to have arrived in Sydney onboard the steamship European in June 1857; see George Sutch (member, leader); see also J. Bishop (member); George Arnold (member, leader); London Quadrille Band

European Hotel (European Music Hall; Collingwood, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Exchange Hall (Sydney, NSW) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

The Exchange, Bridge-street, Sydney

The Exchange, Bridge-street, Sydney (DIGITISED)

Exchange Rooms (Neales' Exchange Rooms, Adelaide, SA)

Opened King William-street (corner of Hindley-street), Adelaide, SA, 1846 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: John Bentham Neales (venue proprietor)

Exhibition Building (Old Exhibition Building, 1854); Melbourne, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

The Melbourne Exhibition Building of 1854, in William Street

The Melbourne Exhibition Building of 1854 ("our own Crystal Palace"), in William-street


Female American Serenaders (1856)

Active Sydney, NSW, 1856 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Foreign Operatic Company 1842

Active Sydney, NSW, 1842 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Free and easy (type of event)

Relevance, 1850s (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Freemasons Hall (Freemasons' Hall; York-street, Sydney, NSW) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

French Operatic Company 1839

Active Sydney, NSW, 1839 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


Garden Palace (Sydney, NSW, 1879-1882) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Garrison theatricals (theatrical performances by British military and naval forces serving in colonial Australia) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Gawler Institute (Gawler, SA)

Founded 1857 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Gawler Prize (1859)


"GAWLER INSTITUTE", South Australian Register (18 November 1857), 2 

The inaugural address and concert of this Institute was given on Monday last in the newly erected building belonging to the Society, in Murray-street, Gawler . . . At the termination of the address the audience were treated with a vocal and instrumental concert, in which Miss Petman and the two Misses Tozer, assisted by Mr. Edwards, won the complete suffrage of their hearers, and the Brunswick Band reaped a harvest of applause. The attendance was more numerous than was expected, or the room would hold. Upwards of 250 persons were crowded together, and many others could not get admittance.

ASSOCIATIONS: Mary Ann Pettman (vocalist); Caroline and Elizabeth Tozer (vocalists); Solomon Nicholas Edwards (vocalist); Brunswick Band (Adelaide)

Geelong Juvenile Choral Society

Active Geelong, NSW (VIC), 1849 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Geelong Philharmonic Society

Active Geelong, VIC (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Geelong Recreative Society

Active Geelong, VIC (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Geelong Sacred Harmonic Society (also Geelong Amateur Harmonic Society; and Geelong Harmonic Society)

Geelong Amateur Harmonic Society, active 1850-51; Geelong Harmonic Society active from 1853 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], Geelong Advertiser (28 November 1850), 2 

OBJECT. FIRSTLY, to awaken the latent taste for harmonics in the rising generation.
Secondly, to foster, and encourage the active taste and incite it to a proper appreciation of the beautiful creations of our divine composers.
Thirdly. And as a natural sequence, by the soothing influence of music to modify and correct what is gross in nature by infusing into the soul a love of all that is good and ennobling in man.
A meeting of gentlemen, amateur performers, is convened for Friday evening, at the private residence of G. T. Lloyd, Esq., Ryrie-street, at half-past seven o'clock, when the attendance of all persons favorable to the project is respectfully invited.
W. H. ESTALL, Sec. pro tem.

[Advertisement], Geelong Advertiser and Intelligencer (30 April 1853), 2 

THE growing importance of Music as a feature in the Intellectual cultivation of all classes, both at Home and in the Colonies, has led to the establishment of the above Institution, by which it is hoped to rear a
in which the productions of the great masters, both
may be so rendered, as to kindle a rooted love of the science, and induce habits of study, combined with mastery of execution, calculated, at no remote period, to give birth to -
worthy of comparison with those of Europe.
To do this, funds are indispensably necessary for the purchase of the materiel, and Mr. Coppin having liberally offered the proceeds of the evening, the projectors have therefore determined to thus appeal to the public for its support, in aid of the formation of
LEADER OF THE ORCHESTRA - Mr. THOM, assisted by one Member of the Geelong Harmonic Society.
Second Violins - Mr. SAYERS, with two Members of the G. H. S.
VIOLONCELLOS - Two Members of the G.H.S.
TENORS; - Mr. F. COPPIN, with one Member of the G.H.S.
FLUTES - Mr. ROYAL, with two Members of the G.H.S.
Overtetre, "Caliph of Bagdad" - The Band.
Glee, "Hail Smiling Morn" - Members of the G.H.S.
Song, "Simon the Cellarman" - Member of the G.H.S.
Waltz, "Geelong," (composed, arranged, and dedicated, to the G.H.S., by Mr. Witty) - The Band.
Tyrolean Air - Gentleman Amateur.
Solo Violin, "Mayseder," (45 air) - Mr. Thom.
Song - Mr. Sayers.
Quartette German, "The Chapel" - German Amateur.
Overture, "Guy Mannering" - The Band
Tyrolean Air - Gentleman Amateur
Solo Flute - Mr. Royal.
Song - Mr. Sayers.
Quartette German, "The Bill of Fare," German Amateur
Duet (Cornet a Piston,) from the Opera of Norma - Mr. F. Coppin and Mr. Harward.
Catch, "Chairs to Mend" - Members of the G.H.S.
Quadrille, "Ireland," - The Band.
"God Save the Queen."
Tickets to be had of Mr. Coppin, or the Members of the Geelong Harmonic Society.

Geelong Volunteer Artillery Band (Royal Victoria Volunteer Artillery Band; R.V.V.A.B.) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Geelong Volunteer Rifle Band (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

German bands (subject) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

German Glee Club (Sydney, NSW)

German Liederkranz Ballarat

Active Ballarat, VIC, by 1857 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

German Quartette (German Quartette Soirees, Melbourne, VIC) (c. 1849-53)

Active Melbourne, NSW (VIC), by late 1849 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

PERSONNEL: Frederick and Theodore Kawerau (vocalists); Julius Buddee (? vocalist, associate artist)

Gibbs, Shallard, and Co. (firm)

General and music printers and publishers

Active from 1863 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Glee clubs (Harmonic clubs, Orpheus clubs) (generic)

Gold rush (music of the gold rushes)

Victoria and NSW, from 1851


"Song of the Diggings", Bell's Life in Sydney and Sporting Reviewer (28 June 1851), 3 

Goulburn Philharmonic Society

Goulburn, NSW, early 1860s (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


Handel Centenary (event)

1859 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)



Melbourne, August 17, 1859.
Sir, - By the last mail but one I sent you a letter from Bendigo, descriptive of things theatrical here at the antipodes . . . From Gisborne I came down to Melbourne, where, at the Olympic Theatre, Mr. Coppin has lately been giving a series of performances for the benefit of the charities at that place . . .

We have had a Handel Festival in Melbourne. It came off at the Exhibition Building. On the first night there were selections from Sampson, Judas Maccabaeus, and Israel in Egypt, and on the second night from the Messiah. The great star of the evening was Mr. Farquharson Smith, who has returned from his trip to Calcutta with his pockets overladen with golden mohurs, and his fine voice considerably improved. He talks about visiting England. Should he go there he will make a sensation, for he is twenty times a better singer than when he left . . .
Yours, most truly,
Wizard of the North.

Harmonic societies (also Sacred harmonic societies) (generic)

Harpsichord (? harpsichords in colonial Australia; ? very old pianofortes) (generic) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


It is unlikely that either of these instruments was really a harpsichord; more likely that they were pianos, as suggested by the description of the Bent instrument as "well suited for hot climates". For another reported instrument, see Quidnunc


[Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (21 October 1815), 1 

BY MR. BEVAN, On the Premises, on Monday the 30th Instant, at Ten precisely,
THE very valuable HOUSHOLD FURNITURE, the Property of ELLIS BENT, Esq. -
Also, an elegant Chariot, Horses, and Harness complete;
a very superior fashionable Harpsichord, by Broderip, well suited for hot climates -
Likewise, a quantity of Law Books, with a great variety of others. Prompt payment in sterling money.

ASOCIATIONS: Ellis and Eliza Bent (vendors)

[Advertisement], The Tasmanian (22 June 1838), 2 

Sales by Auction.
General Sale. BY MR. T. Y. LOWES, At the Exchange, on Monday next, the 25th instant, at 11 o'Clock.
ONE Case and Four Casks Damaged Ironmongery, &c., &c., &c.
A few casks Irish Butter
American and Sydney candles . . .
43 Reams Post and Foolscap Paper
A Harpsichord
Furniture, and a variety of Sundries.
Terms for the damaged goods, Cash, for the rest, above £20, three months credit, on approved endorsed bills.

Haymarket Theatre (Bendigo, VIC)

Bendigo, VIC, 1850s (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Haymarket Theatre (Bourke-street, Melbourne, VIC)

Opened September 1862 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

See also, on the premises, Coppin's Apollo Music Hall 


"THE NEW HAYMARKET THEATRE", The Argus [Melbourne, VIC] (5 August 1864), 7 

The extensive improvements in the reconstruction and decoration of this theatre are now all but completed, and the house will be quite ready for the opening night tomorrow, when Lady Don makes her first appearance since her return from Europe . . . Lady Don will be supported by the following company: - Mr. Hoskins (the manager) . . . The orchestra - so important a component part of a theatre with the future specialty of the Haymarket - is well selected, and will consist of the following performers: -
First violins, Mr. F. Coppin and M. Zeplin; second violin, Mr. Bentley; violoncello, Mr. F. Howson, jun.; flute, Mr. Creed Royal; cornet, Mr. Richardson; viola, Mr. J. Howson, jun.; double bass, Mr. Gover; clarionet, Herr Faure; trombone, Mr. S. Hore; tympanes, Mr. Gorman; leader, Mr. Fred. Coppin; operatic conductor, Mr. Frank Howson, jun. . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Emily Don (actor, vocalist); William Hoskins (manager); Frederick Coppin (violin, leader); one of the Zeplin family (violinist); Edwin Bentley (violin); Frank Alfred Howson (cello); Creed Royal (flute); James William Richardson (cornet); John Jerome Howson (viola); Henry Barman Gover (double bass); Gustave Faure (clarinet); Samuel Hore (trombone); Haymarket Theatre (Melbourne venue)

Head-Quarters Band (Melbourne, VIC)

Formed by late 1863 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[News], The Argus [Melbourne, VIC] (30 December 1863), 4 

"THE NEWS OF THE DAY", The Age (30 December 1863), 4 

A return issued from the Volunteer office yesterday, shows the strength of the head-quarters band, and drum and fife corps, of the local force: - General band master, Mr. Siede; leader, Mr. Johnson; professional performers, 19; volunteer performers, under Sergeant Hartigan, 23; drum and fife corps, under Drum-major Canna, 65; total, 109. The above performers are now equipped and provided with the best instruments, stands, &c., for which the property of the former volunteer band, under Mr. Johnson, and of the Collingwood band, have been made available. They are organised as follows: -
1st. For parade purposes, the whole of the above strength, when required, form one band.
2nd. The band, not including drums and fifes, divides into two complete military bands, under Messrs Siede and Hartigan respectively.
3rd. The drums and fifes divide into several complete detachments.
A detachment of drums and fifes is always obtainable by officers commanding corps on application to the Volunteer office. The payment of the professional portion of the band, and all other expenses, will partly be defrayed by Government; the rest of the money required will be raised by subscription. The band will perform twice every week for the benefit of the public, and arrangements are in course to establish a drive and promenade at the Prince's bridge reserve, and to provide seats both there and at Fitzroy Gardens, within an enclosure to be reserved for subscribers only . . .

[News], The Herald (30 December 1863), 2 

The head-quarters band and drum and fife corps of our local Volunteer Corps are progressing favourably. The head-quarters band numbers 44 members, 19 professional performers, 23 VoIunteers, with the general bandmaster, Mr. Siede, and leader, Mr. Johnson. The drum and fife corps muster 65. They are now-equipped and provided with the best instruments, stands, etc., for which the property of the former Volunteer band, under Mr. Johnson, and of the Collingwood band, have been made available. The bands are organised, as follows: - 1. For parade purposes the whole of the above strength, when required, form one band. 2. The band, not including drums and fifes, divides into two complete military bands, under Messrs. Siede and Hartigan respectively. 3. The drums and fifes divide into several complete detachments. A detachment of drums and fifes is always obtainable by officers commanding corps on application to this office. The payment of the professional portion of the band, and all other expenses, will partly be defrayed by Government, the rest of the money required raised by subscription. The band will perform twice every week for the benefit of the public, and arrangements are in progress to establish a drive and promenade at the Prince's Bridge Reserve, and to provide seats both there and at Fitzroy Gardens, within an enclosure to be reserved for subscribers only. Major Hall, Major Sturt, and Captain Burton have been requested to take charge of the collection of funds and act as a committee until further orders. A comparatively small sum is required from the public to maintain the excellent band now organised, and to establish a promenade and place of meeting for the inhabitants. Subscriptions in the shape of crossed cheques are received at the volunteer office.

"THE NEWS OF THE DAY", The Age (9 January 1864), 4 

The head-quarter band, under the leadership of Mr. Siede, will perform at the gardens to-day, at four o'clock. The following pieces of music have been selected: - 1. Overture to Stabat Mater, Rossini; 2, Orphee Aux Enfers, quadrille, Strauss; 3. Selection, Marino Faliero, Donizetti; 4. Overture, The Merry Wives of Windsor, Nicolai; 5. Waltz, The Dream of the Ocean, Gungl; 6. Selection, Maria Padilla, Donizetti; 7. Grand Exhibition March, Auber.

Hindmarsh Sacred Choral Society (Hindmarsh Choral Society)

Hindmarsh, SA, from 1861 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Hobart - Venues and theatres

Court House (Hobart Town, VDL [TAS])

Used as a concert venue c. 1827-32

Mechanics' Institute (Hobart, VDL [TAS])
Theatre Argyle Rooms
Theatre Freemasons' Tavern

Hobart Town Choral Society

Hobart, VDL (TAS), c. 1844-50 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


Rules and regulations of the Hobart Town Choral Society, established at Hobart Town, January 1843 (Hobart: Printed at the Advertiser Office, 1844) (DIGITISED)

PRESIDENT. The Right Rev. Francis Russell Nixon, D.D., Lord Bishop of Tasmania.
VICE PRESIDENTS, Rev. W. Bedford, D.D., & J. Hone, Esq.
TREASURER, Mr. John Marshall.
SECRETARY, Mr. John C. Hall.
DIRECTOR, Mr. Richard Curtis.
CONDUCTOR, Mr. A. Philip Duly.
LEADER, Mr. William Russell.
LIBRARIAN, Mr. Henry Elliott.
COLLECTOR, Mr. William Holdship.
AUDITORS, Messrs. J. Hall & J. A. Thomson.
TRUSTEES, Wm Watchorn & Wm. Carter, Esqs.
COMMITTEE, Messrs. Creswell, Dyne, Degraves, Harbottle, Milward, McGregor, Reichenberg, Vautin.

The Lord Bishop of Tasmania; Rev. W. Bedford, D. D.; Rev. J. P. Gell; Rev. J. J. Therry; J. Hone, Esq.; A. F. Kemp, Esq.; R. Kerr, Esq.; W. Watchorn Esq.; E. S. P. Bedford, Esq.; John Abbott, Esq.; W. Carter, Esq.; Messrs. Allen; J. Aldridge; C. Abbott; Blyth; H. Barrett; F. Barrett; D. Barclay; Beamont; R. Burn; J. K. Buscombe; Boot; T. Brown; Creswell; Curtis; Cleburne; Cowle; S. Crisp; T. Capon; H. J. Chapman; Clinch; Creswell, jun; Curtis, jun. Duly; B. Duterreau; Donnelan; Dossiter; H. Degraves; Doolan; Dyne; J. Dixon; J. Duncan; Edwards; Elliott; D. Fisher; Freeman; Gilbert; Gatehouse; T. Giblin; Harbottle; D. Heckscher; J. Hall; J. C. Hall; C. W. Hall; Insley; T. Johnson; J. Johnson; C. Lovett; J. Livingston; D. Lewis; Lindsay; H. Murray; J. Milward; J. McGreqor; Martin; Marshall; Maddox; McKaig; W. A. Mackay; J. McLoughlin; R. Nichol; T. Nicholson; L. Nathan; O'Meagher; Pycroft; Phillips; L. Pearson; E. Ross; Rothwell; Robe; W. Robertson; Reichenberg; Singer; C. J. Simmons; G. J. Smith; Satllard; J. A. Thomson; Vautin; G. C. Wilson; W. Williamson; R. Wynne; J. Wilson; J. Wilkinson; R. Westbrook; C. Williams; J. C. Walker; Wilson; J. Wright; T. Young;
Mrs. Nixon; Mrs. Elliott; Mrs. J. Cook; Mrs. A. Fraser.

[Advertisement], Colonial Times (15 March 1845), 2 

THE Committee of this Society, in addition to their printed Annual Report, beg further to explain to the public its views and objects which they are induced to do from a belief that the intentions of the Institution has not been sufficiently understood.
As stated in that Report the Society was established in January 1843, by a few individuals (chiefly amateurs) for the practice of Sacred Music, and more particularly the works of those great masters whose noble compositions of Oratorial Music have shed such lustre on the science.
Its further objects were the creating and fostering in the youth of the colony a taste for that branch of Music. With such views it was intended to establish Schools under competent professional teachers, to instruct the Members and their families, both in the Vocal and Instrumental parts.
Notwithstanding the very flattering support the Society hns experienced, the Committee, after the most careful investigation, find they are not enabled out of their present funds to pay sufficient salaries to competent teachers; they will therefore be compelled (on the establishment of the school) to charge a small extra subscription from each pupil, such subscription not at present to exceed 10s. per quarter.
A Lady of talent and respectability (viz. Mrs. Elliott) has been engaged to teach the treble voices, which will be composed of Ladies, Girls, and Boys, all of whom must be Members of the Society, or relatives of Members.
It is likewise intended to engage one or more professional gentlemen to teach the other voices and the instruments.
It will be expected (as a matter of course) that all the Pupils, either Vocal or Instrumental, shall attend regularly the Society's Practice Rehearsals, and Oratorios (the primary object of the Society being to encourage and improve amateur talent in this branch of music.)
The Committee, in further calculating the Society's resources, find that it must be some time ere they will be in condition to appropriate any of the Society's funds for any other purpose than that of the current and incidental expenses. The purchase of music and of instruments (including an organ), and to augment the funds for the purchase of those articles, it is intended to give one or more extra Oratorios. The Tickets to be paid for by those attending.
The Committee further beg to announce that they have completed arrangements with the Managing Committee of the Mechanics' Institute for the joint occupancy of their Lecture Hall in Melville-street, where practice is held every Tuesday evening.
In thus laying before the public the intentions of the founders of the "Choral Society," they beg to state that every economy has, and will be observed in their finances; in proof of which, up to this time, the only salaried officer of the Society is their Leader.
In conclusion, the Committee beg to call upon the public (but especially upon the musical amateur portion) in aid and furtherance of the objects of this Society; and, at the same time, to return their grateful acknowledgments to those professional Ladies and Gentlemen who have at all times kindly lent their powerful aid to support the Institution.
President - The Right Rev. Francis Russell Nixon, D.D., Lord Bishop of Tasmania.
Vice-Presidents - Rev. W. Bedford, D.D., and J. Hone, Esq.
Treasurer - Mr. John Marshall,
Secretary - Mr. John C. Hall.
Director - Mr. Richard Curtis.
Conductor - Mr. A. P. Duly.
Leader - Mons. Gautrot.
Librarian - Mr. Henry Elliott.
Collector - Mr. William Holdship.
Auditors - Messrs. J. Hall & J. A. Thomson.
Trustees W. Watchorn & W. Carter, Esqrs.
COMMITTEE: Messrs. Creswell, Dyne, Degraves, Harbottle, Milward, McGregor, Reichenberg, Vautin.
That the Officers of the Society shall consist of one President, two Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, Secretary, Director, Conductor, Leader, Librarian, two Auditors, two Trustees, and eight Committee-men. All these Officers must be Members of the Institution, and are to be elected annually.
The Committee of Management shall consist of the before-mentioned Officers, to whom the government of the Society shall be confided.
Every Member must contribute One Guinea annually to the funds of the Society - Payment to be made in January of each year.
(Any person joining the Society after the 30th July to be liable for the payment of Ten Shillings and Six-pence only as his subscription for that year.)
A Donation of the value of Ten Pounds in Music, Instruments, of Money, shall constitute the Donor a Member for life.
Candidates for admission are to be nominated by two Members of Committee, and at their subsequent meeting the propriety of his or her admission will he settled hy a majority of the Committee then present. No new Member to enjoy any of the privileges of the Society until his Subscription be paid.
No Money shall be paid out of the funds of the Society but by order of the Committee of Management, such order to be made in writing, signed by the Chairman, and countersigned by the Secretary.
That a General Meeting of the Subscribers shall be held annually on the first Tuesday in January, or on such other day as the Committee may appoint.
That thereupon the Annual Report of the Committee of Management shall be read, together with the Treasurer's audited Account for the post year, and the Officers for the ensuing year shall be elected.
The Committee of Management shall have the care, superintendence, and control of the Society.
No business, however, can he transacted in the Committee unless five of its Members are present.
That all the Funds and Property of the Society shall be vested in the Trustees on behalf of the Members jointly and severally.
The Practice Meetings will take place every Tuesday Evening at the Society's Hall at seven o'clock from April to October; and at eight o'clock from November to March inclusive.
Members with their families (except boys above fifteen years of age) will be admitted on the first Tuesday in each month, but on the other Nights of Practice none but Performers will be admitted.
The Public nights will be held quarterly - in January, April, July, and October.
No paid Officer of the Society shall be allowed to vote.
March 15, 1845.

[Advertisement], The Hobart Town Advertiser (18 April 1851), 3 

Sacred Music. MR. ELLISTON Is favoured with instructions to dispose of by Public Auction, without reserve, on
THURSDAY, the 24th April, at 12 o'clock precisely, at the
CITY MART, THE whole collection of GENUINE SACRED MUSIC, belonging to the Choral Society.
The collection contains the oratorios of the great masters, among them will be found the Creation, Messiah, Gardner's Judah, Solomon, &c. &c.
The whole will be particularized in Catalogues to be issued previous to the sale.
Terms - Cash.

Hobart Town Concerts

Hobart, VDL (TAS), 1826-27 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

See also mainpage: 

Hobart Town Glee Club

Hobart, TAS, c. 1860 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

[Advertisement], The Mercury (12 January 1861), 1 

Hobart Town Orchestral Union

Hobart, TAS, 1860s (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Hobart Town Philharmonic Society

Hobart, TAS, by c. 1860 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Hobart Volunteer Artillery Band (Hobart Town Volunteer Artillery Band)

Hobart, TAS, c. 1859-61 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Hockin's Rooms (Hockin's Assembly Rooms, Hockin's Hotel, Melbourne, VIC)'s+Rooms+Melbourne (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: William Hockin (proprietor)

Howard's Serenaders

Formed by the brothers Mason (alias Howard), Sydney, June 1850; active, with interruptions and changes of personnel, until 1855

PERSONNEL (1850): George B. Howard (alias of George B. Mason); Charles V. Howard (alias of Charles V. Mason); Charles A. Upson; Samuel T. Holmes's+Serenaders (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Hullah's system (in Australia)'s+system (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Huxtable and Deakin (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], The Tasmanian Daily News (3 July 1855), 4 

ON SALE, By the Undersigned -
Pianofortes, by Guessent, Kirkman, Holdernesse, Tompkinson, and other makers.
A very superior Harmonium, 13 stops, suitable for a private dwelling, or church, by Alexandre & Sons.
Just published, by Huxtable and Deakin, the following New Songs: -
"Old Haunts," words, by M. F. Tupper, music by F. Henslowe, Esq. Price 2s.
"The Sea hath its Pearls," from the German, translated by W. H. Longfellow, music by F. H. Henslowe. Price 2s.
"The Dying Soldier's Legacy," words by John Abbott, Esq., music by F. H. Henslowe; Esq. Price 3s.
"The Forget me Not Waltz," - by V. M. B. Price 1s.
A large supply of New and Popular Music, on hand.
ALSO Just received, a large supply of - Baby jumpers, Toys, Children's strong wheelbarrows, Swings, and carriages.
HUXTABLE AND DEAKIN, Murray-street. June 29, 1855.


Ipswich Choral Society (Moreton Bay district, NSW [QLD]) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Ipswich Harmonic Union (Moreton Bay district, NSW [QLD]) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Italian Opera Company (1860-61) - also Bianchi opera troupe (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Itinerant musicians (street musicians; wandering musicians) (general) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"DEATH OF A WELL-KNOWN SYDNEY BEGGAR", Empire [Sydney, NSW] (20 March 1861), 4 

. . . This man, whose name was Daniel Duggan, never saw this colony, although he had resided in it upwards of twenty six years; both he and Billy, the well-known fiddler, who "discourses sweet music" each night by the Post-office, and who is never deterred from doing so either by summer's heat or winter's withering blast, having been struck blind on board the vessels which brought them to these shores; the two men, strange to relate, arriving here about the same year . . .

"STREET PAUPERISM. TO THE EDITOR", South Australian Register (26 January 1880), 1 supplement

. . . He says nothing about the strong able-bodied foreigners who come to our shore and grind from morning up to 11 o'clock at night; nor does he say anything about the fiddlers and harp-players, who are also strong able-bodied men, who parade the streets from 9 in the morning till all hours at night, begging at every shop for a penny or more if they can get it, as well as from the people who happen to pass by; these also are foreigners. Then he says nothing about the German band, who are also from four to six strong able-bodied men, who go from house to house, and from shop to shop, and look very black if you do not give them something above a copper . . .



Kaurna (Indigenous people, language group, Adelaide Plains, SA) (Wikipedia)

MEMBERS: Kadlitpinna (leader, singer); Mullawirraburka (leader, singer)

ASSOCIATIONS: Christian Teichelmann (Lutheran clergyman, language recorder); Clamor Schurmann (Lutheran clergyman, language recorder); William Wyatt ("Protector of the Aborigines", SA; culture reporter)


William Wyatt, Some account of the manners and superstitions of the Adelaide and Encounter Bay Aboriginal tribes, with a vocabulary of their languages, names of persons and places, &c., principally extracted from his official reports by . . . (formerly Protector of the Aborigines, South Australia), in Native tribes of South Australia (Adelaide: Wigg & Son, 1879) (DIGITISED)

Bibliography and resources:

Rob Amery, Warraparna Kaurna! Reclaiming an Australian language (Adelaide: University of Adelaide Press, 2016), especially chapter 5, "Kaurna sources", 88, 91, 110, 118-21, 121-23, 123-25 (notes) (FREE DOWNLOAD) (FREE DOWNLOAD)

Rob Amery, "Kaurna language (Kaurna warra)", SA History Hub, History Trust of South Australia 

Kern and Mader (firm, Sydney, NSW) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Kyneton Choral Society (VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


Lancashire Bellringers (troupe, arrived 1863)

Arrived Melbourne, VIC, 8 February 1863 (per Royal Family, from Liverpool, 12 November 1862)


Names and descriptions of passengers per Royal Family from Liverpool, 8 November 1863, for Melbourne, February ; Public Record Office Victoria (DIGITISED)

. . . Joseph Eastwood / 40 // John wrigley / 44 // Peter Mills [? Wills] / 46 // John Whitaker / 44 //
Sam'l Murton / 48 // Geo. Harrison / 35 // Rob't Ogden / 28 // Wm. Stott / 44 . . .

"TOWN TALK", The Herald (7 March 1863), 5 

On Tuesday last, the 5th instant, three of the Ringers of this city, assisted by three of the Lancashire Hand Bell Ringers, rang on the bells of St. James's Cathedral, the full extent of changes in the Grandsire method, being the first scientific ringing ever rung in any of the Australian colonies. Great credit is due to the Lancashire Hand Bell Ringers for assisting them, and also to the Ringers of this city in accomplishing the same. The names of the performers were - George Harrison, treble; William Chrisfield, 2nd; John Whittaker, 3rd; Peter Wills, 4th; John Rose, 5th; James Cook, tenor. The peal was called, and conducted by William Chrisfield.

ASSOCIATIONS: William Chrisfield (bell captain); St. James's church (Melbourne)

Launceston (TAS)

Launceston - Theatres (TAS)

Theatre British Hotel (Launceston, VDL [TAS]) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Launceston Amateur Court Minstrels

Launceston, TAS, 1861-67 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Launceston Philharmonic Society

Launceston, VDL (TAS) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"REMINISCENCES", Launceston Examiner (12 November 1892), 2 

Launceston Harmonic Society (from 1860)

Launceston, VDL (TAS) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Launceston Choral Society (from 1860)

Launceston, VDL (TAS) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Launceston Musical Union (c. 1860s; c. 1880s) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Launceston Sacred Harmonic Society (c. 1840s; c. 1857-60)

Launceston, VDL (TAS), first formed 1840; second formed, 1857 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (9 December 1840), 1 

Sacred Harmonic Society.
THE above having been formed for the performance of Sacred Music, beg respectfully to invite the attention of those who would feel interested in becoming members, either active or honorary. Any information may be obtained from
Mr. James Ferguson.
York-street, Launceston,
December 6th, 1840.

ASSOCIATIONS: James Ferguson (founder, leader)

[Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (11 September 1841), 1 

[Advertisement], Launceston Courier (1 November 1841), 3 

"REMINISCENCES", Launceston Examiner (12 November 1892), 2 

. . . The Sacred Harmonic Society was a kind of offshoot from the Philharmonic, being organised and conducted by Mr. G. Pullen, who received his training as a conductor at the meetings of the Philharmonic. This society did some good work in the way of encouraging a taste for classical music. The first society which existed in the town for the practice of vocal sacred music was a small affair which used to meet in the Baptist Chapel for practice. It consisted of perhaps 12 or 15 members, prominent amongst whom were the late J. S. Waddell, John Tozer, James Bennell, our present esteemed citizen Alex. Webster, several ladies, and a few instrumentalists. Indeed I fancy that this society had something to do with launching the Sacred Harmonic, whose baton was successively wielded by Mr. Pullen and Mr. T. Sharp . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: George Pullen (conductor); Alexander Webster (member); Thomas Sharp (conductor)

"SACRED HARMONIC SOCIETY (W.S.)", Launceston Examiner (19 November 1892), 7 

Your correspondeont H.B. in his interesting reminiscences last Saturday desired to know something more of the above society. As its secretary from start to finish I am only too glad to supply what information I possess from memory. The old society after practising in the Baptist Chapel, York-street, was dissolved. I believe in 1854 a meeting was convened at the residence of the late Mr. R. Kenworthy, Cameron-street, and there the new society was formed. It was decided to practice in the Wycliffe Chapel, York-street, and there the meetings were regularly held. The first invitation rehearsal was held in Tamar-street church, the late Rev. C. Price becoming an honorary member and an ardent supporter until its close. All the officers were honorary, and the concerts were given in aid of local charitable objects. These were held in the Cornwall Assembly Rooms. At the time of the Indian mutiny the society united with the Philharmonic and produced the "Creation" in aid of the fund for the wounded, which was a great success, the tickets being 10s 6d and 7s 6d, and the proceeds upwards of £600. The leading parts were Miss Lucy Chambers, soprano; Mrs. Hamilton, contralto; Mr. Henslow, Hobart, tenor; Mr. Farquharson, bass; Mr. J. Adams, conductor; Rev. W. A. Brook, pianist. This society then numbered 100 members, but, like everything in this city, interest and attendance declined, and eventually the society was dissolved, the property sold, and the books, etc., placed in care of the Mechanics' Institute, where, I suppose, they might be perused on application to the librarian, Mr. Johnstone, who was one of the old members.

ASSOCIATIONS: "W.S." = William Stokes (member); Robert Kenworthy (member); Lucy Chambers (soprano); Francis Hartwell Henslowe (tenor); Robert Farquharson (bass); Warren Auber Brooke (piano); Alexander Johnston (member)

Theatre at the Steam Packet Tavern (1839-40) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Launceston Volunteer Artillery Band

Launceston, TAS, from c. 1860 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Lectures on music (lecture on music; lectures on various types and genres of music; lecturers) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Lee and Kaye (firm, musicsellers, Melbourne, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

FIRM: David Lee (partner); Samuel Kaye (partner)

London Quadrille Band ("late European Band")

Active Sydney and region, NSW, by late 1859, to early 1862 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: George Arnold (member, leader); European Band

Longford Philharmonic Society

Longford, VDL (TAS) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Lyceum Theatre (Bendigo)

Bendigo, VIC, from 1858 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"DEATH OF MR. J. H. ABBOTT, M.L.C.", Bendigo Advertiser (11 November 1904), 3 

. . . In 1858 he transformed a large store in Pall Mall into an hotel and theatre, and out of these sprang the famous Lyceum Theatre, which was noted for the presence at various intervals of all the stars that came to Australia. Mr. Abbott's theatrical venture was returning liberal profits when an exodus took place from Bendigo to the newly-discovered New Zealand goldfields, and matters grew so dull that the enterprise was abandoned. It was just at this period that Mr. Abbott started his public career . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Joseph Henry Abbott (founder proprietor)

Lyceum Theatre (Launceston, TAS)

Opened 1857 (in a former store in Cameron-street) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Lyceum Theatre (Queen-street, Melbourne) (Our Lyceum; Royal Lyceum)

Melbourne, VIC, from 1856 (formerly Queen's Theatre) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"THE THEATRES", The Age [Melbourne, VIC] (9 June 1856), 3 

Mr. Henry Coleman, the energetic and spirited builder and proprietor of more than one theatre on the gold-fields, this evening re-opens the original theatre of Melbourne under the name of the Lyceum. If any man deserves success by the means he takes to acquire it, that man is Mr. Coleman. He has entirely renovated and re-decorated the house, brilliantly lighted it with gas, and engaged a dramatic corps of tried excellence. It includes Mrs. Brougham, as stage directress, Mr. and Mrs. Charles Young, Miss Chambers, Madame Strebinger, and the Messrs. Chambers. The orchestra, which seems to us to be well selected, is placed under the able leadership of Mr. Megson . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Henry Coleman (actor, proprietor); Emma Brougham (actor, manager); Jane Young (actor); Therese Strebinger (dancer); Joseph Chambers and son and daughter (dancers); Joseph Megson (musician, violin, leader)

[Advertisement], The Age (30 September 1856), 1 

Lyceum Theatre (Sydney) (Our Lyceum; Royal Lyceum)

Sydney, NSW, from 1854 (formerly Malcom's Amphitheatre) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"PROFESSOR ANDERSON IN SYDNEY. TO THE EDITOR OF THE ERA", The Era [London, England] (17 April 1859), 6 (PAYWALL)

Prince of Wales Theatre, Sydney, New South Wales, Feb. 4th, 1859.
Dear Sir, - Of Melbourne theatres and Melbourne theatricals I told you in a letter some months ago. I now propose giving you some account of the profession, its standing, and its prospects in the capital of New South Wales. But as theatrical news is rather copious just now throughout the colonies, I shall not restrict myself to Sydney for matter to write about, but give you the chit-chat of the Australian Stage as I hear it every day.

I came here from Hobart-town, after a most successful season there, and after playing in one of the prettiest theatres I have seen to nightly overflowing houses. On arriving in Sydney I found that I had to contend with many difficulties, the nature of which I will presently explain. First, however, let me tell you how the Stage stands at present in New South Wales.

Sydney has three theatres, the first as well as the largest and most fashionable is the Prince of Wales, in Castlereagh-street; the second is the Victoria in Pitt-street; and the third the Lyceum in York-street. The relative position of each will be pretty well understood, if in the first instance you picture George-street, the chief thoroughfare in the city, as being a large and perfectly straight thoroughfare of about three miles in length, extending from the quays at its lower end to Newtown, at its upper termination. On your right hand as you go up George-street you have York-street running parallel, and in the rear of the houses to your left is Pitt-street, and beyond that again Castlereagh-street, both parallel also to the main artery of the metropolis. York-street, however, is on the un-fashionable, and Pitt and Castlereagh-streets, with their respective theatres, on the fashionable side of the city. The Prince of Wales theatre is at present leased by Mr. Charles Poole, the Victoria and Lyceum by Mr. James Simmonds. Sydney has no concert hall nor any other large building adapted for the purpose of public amusement. It had an Assembly Room once annexed to the Royal Hotel, but lately it has heen transformed into a drapery store; concerts have given way to calicoes; music has moved out to let muslin in; and the only terpsichorean efforts of the tenants is to "dance attendance" upon their customers . . .

The third theatre is the Lyceum, in York-street, originally opened by Mr. G. V. Brooke. Though small compared with the other two houses, it is, perhaps, the prettiest of the three, so far as the interior is concerned, its outward appearance being dull enough I admit. The situation is bad, standing as it does in an out-of-the way back street. Yet to this theatre there have been audiences attracted lately, more fashionable in their character, perhaps, than were ever gathered together by any public performer in the colony. The performance they were invited to see was my own magical entertainment, and I scarcely remember a place where it has been better patronised or more enthusiastically received . . .
You may rely on the truthfulness of the information, gleaned as it is on the spot by your self-constituted "special commissioner" and sincere well-wisher,
JOHN HENRY ANDERSON, Wizard of the North.

Lyster's Opera Companies (Royal Italian and English Opera Company)

Active Australia, from 1861


[Advertisement], The Argus (3 May 1864), 8 

Under the Patronage of His Excellency the Governor and Lady Darling.
Director, Mr. W. S. Lyster. The Director has the honour to announce that he has made arrangements to give a Farewell Season of 48 nights, at the above theatre, in which he has spared no expense to make the representations the most perfect ever given in Melbourne.
The following celebrated artistes are engaged:-


THE BAND. First Violins: Mr. F. Coppin, Herr Hermann, Mr. E. King, Mr. Levey; Second Violins: Mr. F. Benson, Mr. Jager. Viola: Herr Wederman; Contra Bassos: Mr. Brown, Mr. Gover; Cello: Mr. Hart; Flute: Mr. Creed Royal; Clarionettes: Herr Luneberg, Mr. Ford; Bassoon: Mr. McCoy; Oboe: Mr. Schott; Horns: Herr Kohler; Mr. Versoe; Cornet: Mr. Richardson; Trombone: Mr. S. Hore; Drums: Mr. Gorman. Musical Director and Conductor, Mr. G. LODER.

THE CHORUS: First Sopranos: Mrs. Andrews, Miss Watson, Mrs. Oldman, Miss Gregory; Second Sopranos: Mrs. Benham, Mrs. Gladstone; Altos: Mrs. Marks, Mrs. Younghusband; First Tenors: Mr. Baker, Mr. H. Beaumont, Mr. Benham, Herr Lulves; Second Tenors: Herr Sprinckham, Mr. Ramsden, Herr Bachrach. First Basses: Mr. Christen, Mr. Stockmeyer, Mr. Nathanson, Herr Hermes; Second Basses: Mr. H. Benham, Mr. Kaible, Signor Roncoveri, Mr. Levison; Scenic Artists: Messrs. Fry and Murphy; Machinist, Mr. Renno; Property Master, Mr. Dennis; Costumiere, Madame Jagar.

[Advertisement], South Australian Register (15 September 1865), 1

[Advertisement], The Argus (22 December 1865), 8  

"SHIPS' REPORTS", The Sydney Morning Herald (9 September 1868), 8 

The fine clipper ship Alexander Duthie took her departure for San Francisco on the 29th ultimo. The Lyster Opera troupe and other passengers, accompanied by a number of friends, were conveyed on board by the steamer Pearl . . . The following are the names of her passengers . . . Mr. and Mrs. W. S. Lyster and servant, Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd and 2 children, Mr. and Mrs. De Antoni, Madame Escott, Miss Warden, Mrs. Andrews, Mrs. King, Messrs. Squires, Beaumont, Symons, Sutcliffe, Baker, Habbe, Kitts, Bachrach, Nathanson, Swift, Timms, and 17 in the 2nd cabin.


Macauley Minstrel Troupe

Launceston, TAS, 1859 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Maitland (NSW)


"PROFESSOR ANDERSON IN AUSTRALIA, on Things Theatrical at the Antipodes. TO THE EDITOR OF THE ERA", The Era [London, England] (14 August 1859), 10 (PAYWALL)

Sydney, New South Wales, June 1, 1859.
Dear Sir, - The last letter I sent you was descriptive of the theatres of Sydney and of theatrical affairs in this colony generally . . .

I finished in Sydney and started for the provincial towns. The first I visited was Maitland, situated on the Hunter River, a hundred miles northward from Sydney. A steamer leaving the wharf at eleven at night lands you at Newcastle about seven next morning. You are then conveyed by "the Great Northern Railway" (at present about thirty miles long,) up to Maitland, a distance of twenty-two miles. On arriving there you find the town to be a long, straggling place consisting of one street only, having a very rural appearance, and abounding in stores of all descriptions, in any one of which you may purchase what you please, from a cart-wheel to a cake of honey-soap, or from a silkdress to a gallon of tar. It is a stirring, lively, little township - is going a head; and will one day be of importance. The best time of the day to see it is about five in the afternoon, at which hour every female in it turns out on horseback. The ladies equestrianize in fashionable riding-habits, while Biddy and Mary, the cook and housemaid grace the saddle attired in cotton gowns, with a bonnet or hood on the head instead of a hat and feathers.

I gave my entertainment in the School of Arts, a very substantial structure of rather restricted dimensions. It was crowded every evening. Maitland boasts of a theatre, and there was a company performing in it during my stay. But such a theatre! Built of tin plates and old boards patched together, as if a cobbler bad been employed to erect it, that singular symbolical structure - "The Temple of the Drama" was never, perhaps, more ignobly represented. The pit would be crowded with a hundred people in it, and the boxes are hardly equal in comfort and convenience to any gallery of the London theatres. Within the last few weeks, however, the company of the Prince of Wales's Theatre here in Sydney visited Maitland, and their success stimulated the Maitlanders to aim at something better in the way of theatrical accommodation. In a few days it was suggested, concocted, arranged, and decided that a new theatre should be built. Mr. Henry Edwards - the enfant gâte of Sydney playgoers - was intrusted with the important ceremonial of laying the first stone, and acquitted himself with becoming elocutionary skill, finishing a good speech in an allusion to the wretched theatre that is, and the good one that is to be, by quoting from a poem of Longfellow's, which had been published in New York only a few months before:
Nor deem the irrevocable past
As wholly wasted - wholly vain,
If, rising on its wrecks, at last
To something nobler we attain.
Here was an odd exemplification of Longfellow's popularity, and of intercommunicative speed in the present day. The "Ladder of St. Augustine" had been published in the capital of the United States some thirty or forty weeks previously. Scarcely was the supply of ink in the author's inkstand when he wrote it dried up and gone, before the poem had travelled to England, thence across sixteen thousand miles of sea to Australia, been committed to memory by a Sydney actor, and made portion of an inaugural address on the occasion of commencing a new theatre in almost an unknown town of New South Wales. America should be proud of Longfellow.

From Maitland I returned to Newcastle, and played there in the theatre attached to the Commercial Hotel, a wooden structure, not by any means equal to a concert-room in any Lancashire town. The inhabitants of the district are chiefly miners; they dig coal at Newcastle on the Hunter here as they do at Newcastle on the Tyne at home. And just as the Tyneside colliers supported me when amongst them, so did their Australian representatives on the present occasion: only that every man and woman paid five shillings to see me here, and not a shilling, as at "The Royal" in "canny Newcastle" far away . . .

Maitland and Morpeth Volunteer Band (Band of the East Maitland and Morpeth Volunteer Rifles)

East Maitland, NSW, founded 1860 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

See also West Maitland Volunteer Band

Maitland Philharmonic Institute (Maitland Philharmonic Institution; Maitland Philharmonic Society)

Maitland, NSW, founded 1857 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"MAITLAND PHILHARMONIC INSTITUTE", Northern Times (7 April 1858), 2 

Malcom's Amphitheatre (Sydney)'s+Amphitheatre+Sydney (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Malmsbury Glee Club (Malmsbury, VIC)

Formed 1860 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: John Tyson (conductor)

Masonic Hall (Sydney, NSW) = Freemasons Hall

Mechanics' Insitution, Melbourne (on site of Athenaeum, Collins-street)

Melbourne, NSW (VIC), first founded 1839; building erected, 1842; refounded 1846 (Wikipedia)

Mechanics' Insitution music class (Melbourne, 1848-53) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Mechanics School of Arts (Sydney, NSW)

Founded Sydney, NSW, 1833'+School+of+Arts (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)'_School_of_Arts (Wikipedia)

Melbourne Amateur Concerts

Melbourne, NSW (VIC), 1840-41 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Melbourne Centennial Exhibition Orchestra (Centennial Orchestra)

Active July 1888-January 1889 (February 1889) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Go to main Music at the Centennial Exhibition 1888

Melbourne Coal Hole (concert room, 1853)

Active Melbourne, VIC, 1853 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Melbourne Glee Club (concerts, 1851)

Active Melbourne, VIC, 1851


[Advertisement], The Argus (30 October 1851), 4 

PRINCIPAL PERFORMERS already engaged:-
Mrs. Testar, Soprano.
Mr. J. Wallace, Alto.
Mr. H. F. Hemy, Tenore and Pianist.
Mr. Wheeler, Basso and Cornetto.
Mr. Cooze, Buffo and Flautist.
Mr. Woodward, Violin.
Mr. Wilson, Violoncello. &c., &c.
Full particulars in future advertisement.

ASSOCIATIONS: Elizabeth Testar (vocalist); Henry Frederick Hemy (vocalist, pianist, conductor); Stephen Thomas Wheeler (cornet, vocalist); William Joseph Cooze (vocalist, flute); Mr. Woodward (violin); Mr. Wilson (cellist)

Melbourne Glee and Madrigal Society

Melbourne, VIC, from 1859 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Melbourne Harmonic Society

Active Melbourne, NSW (VIC), c. 1840-42 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


Kerr's Melbourne almanac and Port Phillip directory for 1842 (Melbourne: Kerr and Thompson, 30 April 1842), 333 

Leader - Mr. Charles Beswicke.
Conductor - Mr. William Clarke.
Treasurer - Mr. John Jones Peers.
Secretaries - Messrs. Benjamin Heape and William Dredge.
The Harmonic Society meets every Thursday evening, in the Wesleyan Chapel, Collins-street.

ASSOCIATIONS: Charles Beswicke (amateur); William Clarke (musician); John Jones Peers (amateur); Benjamin Heape (amateur); William Gilpin Dredge (amateur);
and see also "THE CHRONICLES OF EARLY MELBOURNE . . . by Garryowen [ = Edmund Finn]", The Herald [Melbourne, VIC] (23 June 1883), 3 

In 1841 was established the first musical combination, viz: - The Melbourne Harmonic Society, with the following office-holders - Leader, Mr. Charles Beswicke; Conductor, Mr. William Clarke; Treasurer, Mr. John Jones Peers; Secretaries, Messrs. Benjamin Heape, and William Dredge. They met every Thursday evening, in the Wesleyan Chapel, Collins street, and their role was select sacred music performances, or rather private rehearsals, but the effort did not come to much.

And see also The chronicles of early Melbourne, 1835 to 1851, by Garryowen (Melbourne: Fergusson and Mitchell, 1888), 488 (DIGITISED)

Melbourne Liedertafel (Melbourne German Liedertafel; Melbourne Deustche Liedertafel) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Various manifestations c. 1850s early 1860s; refounded as Melbourne Deutsche Liedertafel, 1868

Melbourne Philharmonic Society c. 1843-48

Active Melbourne, NSW (VIC), c. 1843-48 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"THE CHRONICLES OF EARLY MELBOURNE . . . by Garryowen [ = Edmund Finn]", The Herald [Melbourne, VIC] (23 June 1883), 3 

According to Alexander Sutherland, Victoria and its metropolis (1888), I, 198:

The first musical society was inaugurated on the 10th of July 1840, and styled itself the "Philharmonic," but it was not until the end of 1845 that it was able to furnish the community with a concert of high class music . . .

Melbourne Philharmonic Society (originally briefly "Melbourne Choral Society")

Founded Melbourne, VIC, 1853-54  (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], The Argus (5 October 1853), 8

Melbourne, September 28, 1853.
SIR, - Having the fullest confidence in your qualifications, talents, and experiences, we respectfully invite you to become the Director and Conductor of a Musical Society in this city, to be called the Melbourne Choral Society.
We are persuaded that there are many individuals in this place, unknown to us and each other, who lament the loss of opportunities formerly delighted in, of not only improving their vocal or instrumental abilities, but of cultivating a pure and correct taste for the sublime compositions of those Masters whose works will never decay, until
"The trumpet shall be heard on high,
And music shall untune the sky."
Should you accede to our request, we engage to afford you our hearty support and co-operation.
We have the honor to be, Sir, Your obedient Servants,
(Signed upwards of Twenty Amateurs).
To John Russell, Esq., Great Collins-street.

Collins-street. October 4, 1853.
Gentlemen, - In reply to your kind communication I beg to say, that my services are at your disposal in any way in which I can promote the objects contemplated.
Gentltmen, your obedient Servent,

A General Meeting of Amateurs of Choral Music, who can take a part therein, either vocal or instrumental, will be held at one of the Committee Rooms, Mechanics' Institute, on Saturday evening next, the 8th inst, chair to be taken at seven o'clock.

[Advertisement], The Argus (14 October 1853), 7 

MELBOURNE CHORAL SOCIETY. - At a meeting convened by advertisement and attended by upward of fifty persons, held in the Mechanics' Hall on Saturday, 8th October, 1853.
Chares Vaughan, Esq., J. P., in the chair; the following Resolutions were passed unanimously:-
1. That the meeting constitute itself an Association for the cultivation of Choral Music, Sacred and Secular, to be called the "Melbourne Choral Society."
2. That new members be admitted on the following conditions:-
A written recommendation signed by two members.
Ability (if a vocalist) to sing correctly a part in a plain Psalm tune; if an instrumentalist) to perform "part music" readily.
Engagement to observe the Rules of this Society.
3. That the following gentlemen be appointed a Committee to frame Rules for the government of the Society:
- Messrs. Goold, Russell, W. G. Dredge, Ewart, Walker, Henry Smith, and John Matthew Smith, with a request that they submit the same to a meeting of members now present, to be held in the Mechanics' Institution, on Saturday, 15th inst., at eight o'clock p.m.
(Signed) CHARLES VAUGHAN, Chairman.
Mr. Vaughan having been moved from the chair, and Mr. Russell voted thereto, the cordial thanks if the meeting were presented to the former gentleman for his kindness in presiding on the occasion.

ASSOCIATIONS: John Russell (member, conductor); Charles Vaughan (member); Thomas Green Goold (members); William Gilpin Dredge (member); Thomas Ewart (member); Henry Smith (member); John Matthew Smith (member)

[Advertisement], The Argus (28 November 1853), 8 

PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY - Mechanics' Institution On Saturday Evening, the 24th December, (Christmas Eve) Handel's Great Oratorio THE MESSIAH Will be performed by the Members of the Society . . .

"PHILHARMONIC CONCERT", The Argus (15 March 1854), 5 

The second concert of the Philharmonic Society, held last evening, at the Mechanics' Institution, was very fairly attended. The choir was numerous, and was assisted by Mrs. Testar, Miss Martin ce devant, and Miss Edwards. Mr. Russell conducted the proceedings, and Mr. Gould presided at the piano; both gentlemen performed during the evening on the new organ, which fully bears out our praises awarded to it prospectively. Instrumental accompaniment was not applied to the madrigals which were performed, as in good taste they should always be in their simplicity. Vocal music which depends for its effect on the harmony of voices is marred by the intervention of instrumental music. The whole performance was very creditable to the amateur choir; several of the pieces were encored, and all afforded pleasure to the audience. The professional ladies assisted by some of the gentlemen, one of whom contributed a capital bass, varied the entertainment with some favorite songs and glees. The whole affair went off well, and the next concert will doubtless be looked forward to with pleasure.

ASSOCIATIONS: Elizabeth Testar (vocalist); Charlotte Martin Quain (vocalist); Miss Edwards (vocalist)

"THE ORATORIO", The Argus (17 April 1856), 5

Had Messrs. G. Holmes and Co. contracted to remove the Pyramids and to re-erect them upon Batman's swamp we should scarcely have anticipated a more doubtful success for the undertaking than we did for the performance of Spohr's Oratorio The Last Judgment by the Philharmonic Society. The proper rendering of this oratorio requires a power of orchestra and chorus far beyond the ability of this society to furnish, and, exaggerated as the comparative case of difficulty which we have set up may at first appear, the hyperbole is not so extravagant when the peculiar requirements of Spohr's great work are considered. The subtle harmonies and elaborately-constructed orchestration relied upon by the composer to give the descriptive effects which his subject demands, can only be completely realised by an orchestra perfect in every department, and the choral pieces demand an equal completeness in each of the vocal divisions. Whatever may be the general opinion as to the intrinsic merit of the work as one of high musical art, or of the success of the composer in the illustrations he has given of his awful subject, there can be but one upon the absolute necessity, in order to give the faintest idea of the character of this extraordinary composition, of rendering it with the full effect demanded by the score. If the Melbourne Philharmonic Society have failed where the Sacred Harmonic Society of London have seldom or never triumphed, the former can hardly be accused of their ambition being greatly in excess of their merit . . .

Other sources:

Rules of the Melbourne Philharmonic Society (Melbourne: W. H. Williams, 1854) (DIGITISED)

Bibliography and resources:

W. A. Carne, A century of harmony: the official centenary history of the Royal Melbourne Philharmonic Society (Melbourne: Royal Melbourne Philharmonic Society, 1954)  (DOWNLOAD PDF TRANSCRIPT FROM PANDORA)

Melbourne Town Band (Melbourne, NSW [VIC])

Active by early 1840s (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


THE CHRONICLES OF EARLY MELBOURNE . . . NEW SERIES. BY GARRYOWEN [ = Edmund Finn]. CHAPTER XVIII . . . OLD TOWN BANDS", The Herald [Melbourne, VIC] (23 June 1883), 3 

The first Town Band in Melbourne was formed in 1839, and consisted of about a dozen players, the names and instruments of some of them being Milstead, bass trombone; Oliver, tenor trombone; Browne, bassoon; Griffiths and Tickel, key bugles (cornets being then unknown); Picknell and Smith, clarionets; Drane, picolo; Holley and Wilkinson, flutes; Anderson (a man of color, y'clept, "Black Jack"), big drum; Hamilton, side-drum; and Samuel, triangle. One or two of the men are still alive. George Tickel, a plasterer by trade, was the leader, and he arranged all the music required by the band with the sole aid of his key-bugle, on which he was a splendid performer, and indeed could play any instrument in the band. Some old colonists will remember his achievements at many of the early land sales, and as liquors of all descriptions were provided by the auctioneers, poor Tickel acquired a habit of drinking which shortened his days. The band made its first public appearance on the streets of Melbourne late on Christmas Eve, when it paraded the town accompanied by as large a turn out of the roving populace as could be mustered Starting from the Golden Fleece, an hotel of dubious belongings in Bourke street near Kirk's Bazaar, they proceeded westward to William street turning down Lonsdale-street, at that time the chosen locus for private residences, and where there were half-a-dozen comfortable cottage villas erected. One of these was occupied by Mr. H. N. Carrington, a then well-known attorney, who, as the bandsmen passed, gave them an acceptable greeting by rolling out a cask of wine into the street, and the welcome Christmas-box was quickly tapped and disposed of. Resuming their promenade, on they went into Spencer street, adjoining which, on what was known as "the Government block," was a stockade of convicts, then employed on street-making and other public works. Those fellows, not knowing what was up, sallied forth in a rather undress condition, and, dashing by the half drunk, sleepy sentry or two supposed to be on guard, struck in with the moving assemblage, and added a new feature to the procession. The line of march was continued southward to Little Flinders street, then a locality of importance, when halt was called at the Ship Inn, kept by a jolly-faced, free-handed boniface named Lee, and here after a promiscuous liquoring up, and making other festive calls of a like kind, a noisy dispersion wound up the serenading. The music usually discoursed by this band consisted principally of marches from Puritani and Somnambula, "Duke of York's March," "Copenhagen Waltz," and they almost invariably wound up with the fine old English glee, Dame Durdon. Tickty's band as it was termed obtained many engagements at balls, dinners, races, regattas, and municipal elections etc. Some of the band had employment at the Pavilion and Queen's Theatre, and after a few year's life it gave up the ghost. A second and more select band was organised in 1841, of which the Messrs. Middlemiss, Mr. Stainsby and Mr. Roberts of a well-known firm Roberts and Fergusson were members, but though less eventful than Tickle's, it came to an end by the removal of members to the country and other causes. There were besides two Temperance bands established some account of which will be given in a future chapter . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: John Tickell (musician); Mr. Middlemiss (musician); Robert Stainsby (musician); George Roberts (musician); one of the temperance bands was that connected with St. Francis's church (Melbourne); see also the above reproduced, The chronicles of early Melbourne, 1835 to 1851, by Garryowen (Melbourne: Fergusson and Mitchell, 1888), 489 (DIGITISED)

Melbourne volunteer forces bands (Melbourne, VIC)

Active by c. 1855



The grand ball given by the Victoria Volunteer Rifle Corps in aid of the Patriotic Fund was attended by the most numerous and fashionable assembly that we have ever seen gathered together upon any previous occasion. About 2000 persons were present. Carriages containing visitors continued to arrive at the doors in unbroken succession till nearly eleven o'clock. By this time the scene within the Exhibition Building was truly imposing . . . Of the music provided on this occasion we must speak in terms of the highest commendation. It was very good - indeed, how could it be otherwise, when the bunds of the 12th and 40th Regiments were both present, besides that of the Volunteer Rifle Corps. The last named consisted of nine wind instruments, mostly brass; the different parts were excellently well balanced and beautifully mellowed in tone. Herr Wackeldine conducted very skilfully. Our old friends, Messrs. McCalla [sic, Callan] and Johnson, wielded the baton for their respective orchestras, with that uniform spirit and good judgment which imp obtained for them universal approval. Besides being a first-rate military band the gentlemen forming the corps musicale of the Volunteers displayed their versatile ability by taking in band instruments of another kind, thereby forming a most excellent stringed orchestra. The bands all played by turns . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Conrad Wackeldine (musician)

Mineng (also Minang; Indigenous people, south west WA) (Wikipedia)

Minstrels of the West (group, Perth, WA, from 1868))

Perth, WA, from 1868 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Minstrelsy of the West (publication, Perth, WA, 1864) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Melbourne Exhbition 1854 (Melbourne, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Montezuma Theatre (Ballarat, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Moreton Bay Amateur Musical Society

Founded Brisbane, NSW (QLD), 1851 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Music copying, music copyists (general) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Bibliography and resources:

Reminiscences by J. B. M. (being a reprint from the Camden Times, 1883) (Camden: A. J. Doust, 1884), 40 (DIGITISED)

. . . The amusements of the Sydneyites [c. late 1830s early 1840s] were confined to small family parties; and a few fiddlers found steady employment by hiring out for the evening. Pianos were rarely heard, and Ellard's was the only music shop; but the daily playing of the military bands compensated for the deficiency. Ladies obtained their best music through the officers, and bandsmen earned a good deal by copying it . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: John Benson Martin (memoirist); Francis Ellard (musicseller); see also "Reminiscences. THE CAMDEN DISTRICT. FIFTY YEARS AGO (By J. B. M.) (Concluded)", Australian Town and Country Journal (26 January 1895), 14 

Music for the million (movement) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Music halls (general)


"THE MELBOURNE MUSIC HALLS", Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle (5 March 1864), 2 

Music paper (printed music manuscript paper) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (8 July 1820), 2 

G. W. BARNARD has remaining on SALE, the undermentioned ARTICLES,
to which he invites Purchasers previous to his closing Sales; viz. . . .
Stationery; consisting of drawing, post, letter, wove, blotting, and music papers . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: George William Barnard (1791-1864, merchant)

[Advertisement], Hobart Town Gazette (6 August 1825), 1 

J. P. DEANE, Teacher of the Piano Forte, Violin, and Singing Master, begs to inform his Friends that he has on Sale, at Waterloo Store . . . a Quantity of Music Paper, the first engraved and printed in Van Diemen's Land . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: John Philip Deane (musician, musicseller)

[Advertisement], The Currency Lad (1 September 1832), 1 

Music Paper.
THE Undersigned having received from England a
REELING MACHINE [sic], is now enabled to offer
MUSIC PAPER for SALE, of a superior quality, at a reasonable price.
N. B. Books ruled to any pattern, and bound in a superior style, considerably cheaper than the English Account Books.
W. MOFFITT, Bookseller. No. 8, King-street, Sydney.

ASSOCIATIONS: William Moffitt (printer, engraver); later advertisements corrected to "RULING MACHINE"

Music on licensed premises (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Music on unlicensed premises (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"POLICE COURT . . . SHERMAN v. KEARNEY", Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal (16 April 1856), 2 

This was an information filed by the Chief Constable, against the landlord of the Railway Hotel, for having contrary to the Publican's Act permitted music and dancing in the public room without a written permission from the licensing magistrates.
Inspector Larkins sworn: On Friday evening last, about 6 o'clock, I saw two men, one playing a tambourine, the other a flute in the bar. Perry the blackfellow, was dancing with a woman of bad repute, at that time, and with another man when I went by again about 7 o'clock. Mr. Kearney was not there at that time. This evidence was corroborated by Inspector Finnerty.
Mr. M'Intosh, who appeared defendant, called Andrew Buchanan, who stated that at the time the dancing was going on, Mr. Kearney was away from home, and that upon Perry asking for money for the musicians, Mrs. Kearney said that she did not want him or the music in the house.
Mr. McIntosh then contended that Mr. K. not being at home at the time the Bench had no jurisdiction. Their Worships however took a different view of the case and fined the defendant £5 and 13s. 6d. costs.
Mr. McIntosh then gave notice of appeal.

Musical copyright (subject)


[Advertisement], The Argus [Melbourne, VIC] (14 May 1860), 8 

MESSRS. BOOSEY and SONS, of London, music publishers and sellers, hereby notify that they have the exclusive use of the
COPYRIGHT of the undermentioned MUSICAL WORKS, and that none are genuine except published by them, and sold through their authorized agents.
And all persons are hereby warned against selling any pirated or unauthorized editions of any or either of those works.
BOOSEY and SONS, by their attorneys, Klingender, Charsley, and Liddle, 91 Little Collins-street west, Melbourne.
The opera Satanella, by Balfe (all the songs and arrangements).
The opera Dinorah, by Meyerbeer (all the songs and arrangements).
Come into the Garden, Maud; Song, by Balfe.
Who shall be Fairest; Song, by Mori.
Phoebe, Dearest; Song, by Hatton.
Good Night, Beloved; Song, by Balfe.
The Maud Valse, by Laurent.
The Satanella Waltz, by Laurent.
The Satonella Quadrilles, by Laurent.
The Dinorah Valse, by Laurent.
The Dinorah Quadrilles, by Laurent.
The Ruvissantes Quadrille, by Nordmann.
Riflemen, Form; Song, by Balfe.
Nun's Prayer, by Nordmann.
Konigsberg Polka.
Enchantress Polka.

"MUSICAL COPYRIGHTS. TO THE EDITOR OF . . .", The Argus[Melbourne, VIC] (22 June 1863), 5 

Musical Union (Melbourne, VIC)

Founded Fitzroy, VIC, 1860

See also Orpheus Union, founded 1860


[Advertisement], The Argus (22 May 1861), 8

MUSICAL UNION. GRAND CONCERT, in aid of the Fund for Relief of the Widows and orphans of the Soldiers of the 40th Regiment who have fallen in New Zealand, will be given in the
Under the patronage of His Excellency Sir Henry Barkly, K.C.B., And Lady Barkly, Major-General Pratt, C.B., Colonel Pitt, Captain Hall, Captain Pitt, the Officers Commanding Corps, And the Victorian Volunteers.
Programme will consist of
Overture - "Ruy Blas" - Mendelssohn.
And Mr. Henry Leslie's JUDITH.
All for the first time In Victoria.
(The latter work composed expressly for, and performed at, the Birmingham Musical Festival, Sept. 1863.)
Principal Vocalists:
Principal Violin - Mr. A. J. LESLIE.
Conductor - Mr. G. R. G. PRINGLE.
First Violins. Messrs. Leslie, A. J., Edwards, Fischer, Levy, Peters, Strebinger, Smith, Zeplin.
Second Violins. Messrs. Ryder, Fredlein, Lewis, R. E., Lewis, Megson, Pringle, A., Putman, Spensley.
Violas. Messrs. Thomas, Cousins, Hines, Izard, Jolly.
Violoncellos. Messrs. Reed, Jones, Kent, Montague.
Double Basses, Messrs. Hardman, Gover, Peters, Thorne.
Flutes. Messrs. Johnson, F., Boom.
Oboes. Messrs. Hornidge, Mortimer.
Clarionets, Messrs. Johnson, Clark.
Bassoons. Messrs. Winterbottom, J., Hore.
Trumpets, Messrs. Richardson, Wallerstein.
Horns. Messrs. Kohler, Verso, Graner, Hore, J.
Trombones. Messrs. Hore, R., Huenerbein, Carrington.
Ophecleide. Mr. Hore.
Double Drums. Mr. Tolhurst.
Side Drum. Mr. Mullens.
Bass Drum. Mr. Lissignol.
Harp. Mr. Scabrooke.
Chorus of 100 Performers.
Tickets - Floor, 6s.; gallery, 2s. 8d. Which may be procured from all the music warehouses in the city, from the officers commanding Volunteer corps, the members of the Relief Fund Committee, the managers of the Musical Union, and Messrs. Jones and Co., ironmongers, Gertrude-street, Fitzroy.
Doors open at 7; Perfornance to commence at half past 7 o'clock precisely. Carriages may be ordered for 10 o'clock.
THOS. FORD, Hon. Sec.


Nash's Woolpack Inn (Parramatta, NSW)

National anthems (Australian anthems, colonial national anthems) (generic)

National Hotel Music Hall (Melbourne, VIC, 1856-57) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

New Haymarket Theatre (Melbourne, VIC, from 1864)


"THE NEW HAYMARKET THEATRE", The Argus (5 August 1864), 7

The extensive improvements in the reconstruction and decoration of this theatre are now all but completed, and the house will be quite ready for the opening night tomorrow, when Lady Don makes her first appearance since her return from Europe . . . The orchestra - so important a component part of a theatre with the future specialty of the Haymarket - is well selected, and will consist of the following performers: - First violins, Mr. F. Coppin and M. Zeplin; second violin, Mr. Bentley; violoncello, Mr. F. Howson, jun.; flute, Mr. Creed Royal; cornet, Mr. Richardson; viola, Mr. J. Howson, jun.; double bass, Mr. Gover; clarionet, Herr Faure; trombone, Mr. S. Hore; tympanes, Mr. Gorman; leader, Mr. Fred. Coppin; operatic conductor, Mr. Frank Howson, jun.

New Orleans Serenaders (1852)

2 American minstrel serenader combinations

Active Sydney, NSW, 1852 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

PERSONNEL (1852): W. (? F.) Harrington (minstrel); J. W. Sandford (minstrel); W. Newton (minstrel); G. Price and J. F. Price (minstrel); J. P. Hall (minstrel)

New Orleans Serenaders [2] (1857)

Active Sydney, NSW, July 1857
Arrived Brisbane, NSW (QLD), 3 August 1857 (per Yarra Yarra, from Sydney, 30 July) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

PERSONNEL (1857): D. F. Boley (minstrel); T. P. Brower (minstrel); Dave Carson (minstrel); J. M. Foans (minstrel); J. C. Battle (Sydney only); W. A. Porter (Sydney only)

New Queen's Theatre (Adelaide)

Opened 2 November 1846's+Theatre+Adelaide (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

See also the first Queen's Theatre (Adelaide venue, opened 1841-43)


[Advertisement], South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register (31 October 1846), 1 

NEW QUEEN'S THEATRE. Light-square, Adelaide.
OPENING NIGHT - Mr. Coppin most respectfully informs the ladies and gentlemen of Adelaide and its environs, that he has built (at a very considerable expense) a neat and elegant Theatre upon the premises of Mr. Solomon.
The plan (by Mr. Price, Architect) is superior to any Theatre in the colonies, and has been very ably and substantially executed by Messrs Sheppard & Lines. It is capable of holding 700 persons, and will be found sufficiently ventilated.
All the available talent in Adelaide has already been engaged, in addition to a very superior company from the neighbouring colonies . . .
On Monday Evening, November 2nd, 1846, The curtain will rise to the "National Anthem" which will be sung by the Gentlemen of the Philharmonic Society, who have kindly given their valuable services on this occasion.
To be followed by an admired Vaudeville, entitled the KING AND THE COMEDIAN; or, The Monarch and the Mimic.
Naval Hornpipe by Mr. Jacobs.
After which, the laughable Interlude called the SPECTRE BRIDEGROOM; or, A Ghost in Spite of Himself.
Comic Dance by Mr. Douglas.
The whole to conclude with the musical Farce of the TURNPIKE GATE.
The Band will be under the direction of Messrs. Bennett and Lee.
Prompter, Mr. Douglass. Doors open at 7 o'clock, to commence at half-past 7. Dress boxes, 4s; lower boxes, 3s; pit, Second price at half past 9—Dress boxes, 2s 6d; lower boxes, 1s 6d; pit, 1s.

ASSOCIATIONS: George Coppin (actor, manager); John Lewis Jacobs (dancer); James Augustus Douglass (actor, dancer); George Bennett (musician); Philip Lee (musician)

"NEW QUEEN'S THEATRE", South Australian (18 February 1848), 2

. . . The Orchestral Department will be considerably augmented, and consist of - Mr. Lee (leader), Mr. Richards (second violin), Mr. Thomson (violincello), Mr. Poltridge (cornet-a-piston), Mr. Hewitt (trombone), Mr. Swift (tenor), Mr. Kaebet (master of the German Band, flute)

Newtown Singing Class (Sydney, NSW)

Active from 1859 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (19 November 1859), 10

THE NEWTOWN SINGING CLASS, conducted by Mr. J. H. STEPHENS, meets every TUESDAY, at half-past seven in the evening, at the Baptist Chapel, Missenden Road, Newtown, for the practice of devotional psalmody.
Any persons wishing to become members may do so on application to the secretary, EDWARD SANDERS.

ASSOCIATIONS: J. H. Stephens (conductor)

New York Serenaders

Musicians, minstrel serenaders, originally an all-American company

Arrived (1) George Town, near Launceston, TAS, 26 February 1851 (per Spartan, from California, via Tahiti)
Departed (1) Fremantle, WA, 10 December 1851 (per Royal Saxon, for Calcutta)

Arrived (2) Melbourne, VIC, 2 May 1853 (per Marlborough, from Calcutta, 12 March)
Arrived Sydney, NSW, 16 May 1853 (per Mary and Ellen, from Melbourne)
Disbanded by January 1854
Reformed Adelaide, SA, October 1854, our of disbanded Totten's Harmoneons, for proposed tour
Departed (2) Fremantle, WA, 4 January 1855 (per Eleanor, for Port Louis, Mauritius) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

PERSONNEL (1851-53): Charles Cushing (returned to California September 1851); James Edward Kitts; J. C. Lee; J. P. Nash; J. O. Pierce; W. H. White (1851 tour only); James W. Reading (replaced Cushing, September 1851)


[Advertisement], The Perth Gazette and Independent Journal of Politics and News (29 December 1854), 2 

MOST POSITIVELY THE LAST NIGHT of this talented Company on PERTH, as they leave on Monday for the Mauritius.
Reduction in Prices. Front seats, 4s. Back ditto, 2s 6d.
By particular desire Mr. Baker will appear as MISS LUCY LONG.
An entirely new Programme of Songs, Choruses, Conundrums, &c, will be presented.
Cards of admission may be obtained of Mr. Cole, at the United Service Tavern, at the Freemason's Tavern, and at the door on the evening of performance.
J. E. KITTS, Manager.

"Shipping Intelligence . . . SAILED", The Perth Gazette and Independent Journal of Politics and News (12 January 1855), 2 

On the 4th instant, the barque Eleanor, Cook, master, for the Mauritius. Passengers - 6 New York Serenaders, and two others.

See also counterfeit troupes:
"New York Serenaders" (Adelaide, SA, 1853) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[2 advertisements], South Australian Register (12 September 1853), 2 

GRAND CONCERT, given by the NEW YORK SERENADERS, patronised by their Excellencies Sir Charles Fitz Roy, Sir William Denison, G. J. La Trobe, the Governor of the Sandwich Islands, &c.,
THIS EVENING (Monday), September 12.
The New York Serenaders beg to inform the Ladies and Gentlemen of Adelaide that a Grand Concert will be given This Evening (Monday), by the following gentlemen: -
1st Banjo, Mr. C. Lyons; Flutina, Mr. S. Nash; 2nd Banjo, Mr. J. Peirce; Flute, Mr. F. Lee; Triangles, Master Christie;
Bones, Mr. E. Buckingham; Tambourine, Mr. C. Ellis.
Oberture - Band
Darkies, Sing - C. Ellis
Old Palm Tree - C. Lyons
Uncle Ned - Master Christie
Lynchburg Town - C. Ellis
O.P.G. - E. Buckingham
Rosa Mae - J. Peirce
Solo on the Flute - F. Lee
Pretty Yaller Gal - C. Lyons
Stop dat Laffin - C. Ellis.
Hab you seen my Pretty Gal - C. Ellis
I'll be a Darkie - Master Christie
Mr. Coon - E. Buckingham
My Cynthy - C. Lyons
Solo on the Flutiua - S. Nash
Dixon's Horse - C. Ellis
Slave's Dream - Master Christie
Susanna - J. Peirce
Rosa Lee - C. Lyons
Ghost ob Dinah - C. Ellis.
Da ole to conclude wid de Railroad Locomotivesteamumex-pressumgoaheadumsqnashumexplodeumbustumboilerum!
Boxes, 5s.; Pit, 3s.; Gallery, 2s. Doors open at half-past 7; commence at 8.

Tuesday, September 13th, the performances will commence with the historical play, in three acts, entitled
"JACK SHEPPARD." - Jonathan Wild - Mr. Buckingham . . . Jack Sheppard - Troy Knight . . .
Overture - Caliph of Bagdad - Band
Darling Ould Stick - Mr. Newson
Trab, Trab - Mrs. Atkinson
Comic Dance - Mr. E. Buckingham . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Not the real New York Serenaders, including John Otis Pierce, who were performing in Bathurst (NSW) in the same week; see "THE NEW YORK SERENADERS", Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal (10 September 1853), 2

Norfolk Island (music and musicians on Norfolk Island convict settlement)

Active 1788-1855


"SYDNEY", Portland Guardian and Normanby General Advertiser (27 July 1859), 2 

An old man who had at one time been it musician of some note in England, and who afterwards achieved in Norfolk Island, notoriety sufficient to constitute him the hero of a well written poem, is said to have died at Sydney the other week respected and full of years.

North Adelaide Choral Society

Active North Adelaide, SA, from 1854 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

North Melbourne Choral Society

Active North Melbourne, VIC, c. 1858 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Norwood Philharmonic Society (Norwood, SA)

(1) Active Norwood, SA, 1861-62

(2) Active Norwood, SA, 1884-86


"NORWOOD PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY", The South Australian Advertiser (9 February 1861), 2

[Advertisement], The South Australian Advertiser (18 July 1861), 1

"THE NORWOOD PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY", The South Australian Advertiser (20 July 1861), 2

"NORWOOD PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY", South Australian Register (22 July 1861), 3

"NORWOOD PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY", The South Australian Advertiser (22 October 1861), 3

"NORWOOD PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY", South Australian Register (19 February 1862), 2

"NORWOOD PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY", South Australian Register (19 June 1884), 5

Associations (1): B. T. Finnis (president 1861), Chapman, C. H. Compton (conductors)


Ohio Serenaders (2)

Sydney, NSW, April 1850 (1 performance only, company of Royal Victoria Theatre); NSW, SA, 1851 (Reading and Howard company)

Melbourne, VIC, 1858 (Charles Reeves, Philip James Luntly, and [? Johnny] Burgess) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Old Court House (School room, Castlereagh-street, Sydney, NSW)

Olympic Theatre (Launceston, VDL [TAS]) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

London Family Hotel, Launceston

Olympic Theatre, in the London Family Hotel, corner of St John and Cameron-streets, Launceston, c. 1840-55

"EARLY LAUNCESTON", Launceston Examiner (8 July 1897), 2 

. . . Still following along St. John-street, we come to its intersection with Cameron-street, Post-office corner. Here stood the London Tavern, on the sign-board of which was at one time depicted a view of London and St. Paul's, but afterwards altered to the London Coat of Arms. The last landlord was F. B. Watson, who was at one time associated with the stage. On the top storey of the London was a comical little theatre, the Olympic I believe it was called, but it fell into disuse after the erection of the Theatre Royal in St. John-street, where the Bijou now stands . . .

Olympic Theatre (Maitland, NSW)

Opened August 1859 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Olympic Theatre (Hunter-street, Sydney, NSW)

Active c. 1842 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: Luigi Dalle Case (proprietor)


"Signor Dalle Case's Olympic Arena", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (22 January 1842), 2

Although we have paid frequent visits to this building, and have been watching with great interest and admiration its development into the elegant little amphitheatre now in Hunter-street, we have refrained from noticing it in our columns, until we could give our readers some correct information as to its pretensions, and claims upon their patronage. The erection is a spacious booth, enclosed within a stout pailing, and from its external appearance gives the beholder but little idea of the display of taste within. The interior is divided into a circus (for horsemanship, &c.), a stage, dress circle, and pit - there is no gallery. The fittings up are of the most modern English style, after the plans of the Olympic, the Prince's Theatre, and the late Astley's - and are without question superior to any thing of the kind on this side of the line. The Signor seems to be sparing no expense. Mr. Prout is the artist who has designed and is executing the paintings and scenery - and were any new proof of talent, or taste required to establish that gentleman's fame amongst us, this we say would suffice for there is a beauty of conception - corrections of execution, and finish in his work that many of our Australian friends have, we are sure, never witnessed in theatrical scenery, and that only of late years has been deemed requisite in that art at home. We have long, and sometimes loudly bewailed, the incorrectness of perspective, and poverty of efficient in the scenery of our Colonial theatre, and while there was no other to compare and compete with, and those that visited, were satisfied - we could scarcely blame the managers for their penury or want of taste; but we must now look for a change. Signor Dalle Case has by his spirited liberality commenced a new era in Australian theatricals, and we can safely predict, that in the powerful art of scenic effect, we are about to follow very closely upon the celebrated artists of the mother country. Scene painting has, of late, especially during the last five years, made considerable advances in England. Macready was the first to determine upon representing Shakspeare's plays with appropriate scenery, and his design was splendidly carried out by the magic brush of Stanfield. Many of us perhaps, only know this artist as the royal academician, and landscape painter; but to others we have only to whisper the names of Stanfield and Roberts to refresh upon their recollections some of the most magnificent scenic effects ever produced. May this beautiful branch of the fine arts, with us, so impelled by the invigorating words, "Advance Australia."
The panels of the dress circle are decorated with medallions, enriched with gold and imitation of trellis work - each presenting a beautiful painting; among these are several Italian landscapes, two Mazzeppas, one the passage through the forest, the other the death, and the centre panel is a representation of Ducrow in his celebrated character of the Russian Courier on eight fiery steeds. These are all beautifully executed, and when illuminated with gas from the several elegant brackets surrounding, will afford a coup d'oeil certainly never before witnessed in this colony. The design of the proscenium is without exception the most beautiful we have seen; it is taken from the Judgment Hall of the Alhambra - a celebrated palace of Granada and the richness of the Moorish architecture, with its splendid variety of colour, afford scope for the artists which Mr. Prout appears fully resolved to take every advantage of. The proscenium is to be surmounted by the Australian arms.
Signor Dalle Case in all he has undertaken, has been quite up to the taste of the day, and we do hope that his enterprising endeavours will be appreciated, and meet the reward they merit. At all events, he will do us a national good, and afford tasteful and harmless recreation to our townsmen and visitors. With the liberality that has characterised all his proceedings amongst us, he has presented a handsome silver cup as a prize for the Anniversary Regatta, on the day of which the Australian Olympic Arena is expected to open - and we foretell that it will be the arena of many an honorable contest for public approbation.

ASSOCIATIONS: John Skinner Prout (artist, recently arrived); Clarkson Frederick Stanfield (British artist); David Roberts (British artist)

[Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (5 February 1842), 3 

Australian Olympic Theatre, HUNTER-STREET.
SIGNOR DALLE CASE most respectfully informs his friends and the public generally (who have hitherto so liberally supported him) that, anxious to deserve their increasing patronage, he has formed engagements, for the ensuing season, with
and with MONS. CHARRIERE & MRS BROCK for the Ballet department and principal Dancers.
The above names, ridded to his company already engaged, will, he feels assured, be nasufficient guarantee for the nature of the various performances now in active preparation.
Signor Dalle Case also begs to announce that he is now in treaty with other parties of acknowledged talent, and that no exertion shall be wanting to render the entertainments at his establishment as perfect as his patrons can desire.
An Efficient Orchestra is now forming, which will be led by Mr. Deane, jun.
The Stage is rapidly undergoing great improvements, and will present, when complete, a depth of fifty feet, together with conveniences adapted to the production of the most effective Dramas.
A range of PRIVATE BOXES is being erected for the convenience of families and parties, and great care will be exercised in rendering that part of the house select.
The Scenery for the Stage will be of the first order, being executed by Mr. Prout, and under the his immediate superintendance.
The Stage Department will be under the sole management of Mr. Knowles, who will, Signor Dalle Case feels assured, prepare such Dramatic entertainments for the amusement of the public, as cannot fail to meet with general approval.
Several novelties are in a state of great forwardness, and will be presented in the course of the ensuing week, due notice of their performance will be given.

ASSOCIATIONS: Conrad and Harriet Knowles (actors); Eliza and Henry O'Flaherty (actors); Ann Ximenes (actor); Mary Ann Larra (actor); Mrs. Brock (dancer); John Deane (violinist, leader)

"THEATRICAL GOSSIP", The Sydney Herald (7 February 1842), 2

. . . According to the advertisement which appeared in Saturday's papers, we perceive that the Signor has engaged Mr. Knowles, undoubtedly the most clever performer in the colony, whether in tragedy or genteel comedy; Mrs. Knowles, who sings a little, dances a little, and plays a general round of characters, better than any actress in Sydney; Mrs. O'Flaherty, who, as Miss Winstanley, was always a favorite, and plays heavy characters, both in tragedy and melodrama very well; her sister Mrs. Ximines, who sings and plays comedy; Mrs. Larra, who, in the Malaprop line, is first rate; and Mr. O'Flaherty, of whom wo know nothing, except that report (report alway does speak highly of a new performer) speaks highly of him. In addition to these there are for ballet, M. Charriere, Mrs. Brock, and the Brazilian girls . . .

Olympic Circus (Castlereagh-street, Sydney, NSW)

Active c. 1853 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

LATER: Royal Marionette Theatre (1853); Royal Albert Theatre (1854)

Orpheonist Society (Sydney, NSW) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Orpheus Union (Melbourne, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Our Own Minstrels (formed Goulburn, NSW, 1860; NZ, 1863) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


Pantheon Assembly Rooms (Adelaide, SA)

Adelaide, SA, c. 1854-56 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"PROMENADE MUSICALE", Adelaide Times (5 April 1854), 4 

To a bumper "house," Mr. Eldin, to whom great credit is due for his praiseworthy efforts to introduce a novel species of entertainment for the denizens of Adelaide, held, last evening, the first of a series of Promenades Musicales he contemplates at his newly established and elegant Pantheon. It was not strictly speaking, a "promenade," for so attractive was the character of the evening's programme, that there was barely room to stir, or for friends to come in contact when once separated. The band, consisting of 3 violins, a piano, violincello, cornet-a-piston, and trombone, played a variety of pieces and fearfully-exciting polkas, to the manifest delight of the audience. The instrumental portion of the entertainment was diversified by interludes of vocal music, in which new adjuncts to the musical corps of Adelaide "assisted" most creditably. The whole affair was admirably conducted, and will doubtless be a popular resort if the subsequent soires be as judiciously conducted as the premier pas. Mr. Chapman led the band; Mr. Cobbin was first violin, and Mr. McCullagh's cornet-a-piston harmonised sweetly throughout.

Parramatta Harmonic Society (NSW)

Founded Parramatta, NSW, August 1861



The first concert of this society took place yesterday evening, in the hall of the King's School, which was crowded in every part. After several very successful performances of sacred and secular music, this society was founded in the latter end of August last; Mr. C. Chizlett's valuable services were permanently retained, and the members have since been diligently practising under his direction. The concert yesterday evening, comprehending as it did a more extensive programme of sacred music than any former one, was a complete success, the solo passages, as well as the choruses, being very ably sustained. The first part of the concert consisted of selections from Handel's Messiah, the recitatives and airs being performed by Mrs. Birch, two Misses Green, Miss Griffiths, and Mr. Crooks. The choruses, particularly "For unto us," and " Glory to God, were ably sustained and very effective. The secular portion commenced with the chorus "All among the Barley" by Stirling, and was followed by the duet "Syren and Friar," sung by Miss J. Green and Mr. Crook, which was enthusiastically encored. The piano solo, -"Massaniello" by Mrs. Birch, and the performance upon the flute by Mr. Baly of "The Swiss Boy," were brilliantly executed, showing the most perfect mastery of their respective instruments, and were loudly applauded. Mr. Baly was twice encored. The song "Where the bee sucks," by Miss J. Green, again called forth warm applause and was encored. The song, "No jewelled beauty," was given by Mr. Robinson, and was vociferously encored by the younger portion of the audience, who were evidently anxious for at comic song from Mr. Robinson, and Mr. R. gave them one accordingly. Their applause, however, was, on one or two occasions, carried to an extreme, and, at the termination of the first portion of the concert, when the choir had retired, a noisy manifestation of impatience was made, which was very properly checked. The concert terminated at about eleven o'clock, with the glee "Ye spotted snakes," and the audience separated, highly gratified with the success of the first concert of this excellent society.

[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (12 April 1862), 1 

PARRAMATTA HARMONIC SOCIETY. - Ladies and Gentlemen practising with this Society, are requested to attend at the
King's Schoolroom - junior classes at half-past 6, advanced class at 8 o'clock precisely - on MONDAY EVENING, April 14.
EDWARD BALY, hon, sec.

"PARRAMATTA HARMONIC SOCIETY", Empire (11 August 1862), 5 

Parramatta Lunatic Asylum (NSW)


"MUSIC HATH CHARMS", The Sydney Morning Herald (9 December 1850), 2

"MUSIC HATH CHARMS." - So says the poet, and truly never was this saying more clearly demonstrated than on Thuraday last at the Parramatta Lunatic Asylum. A respectable person, who is particularly skilful in playing the flutina, called to see the Superintendent, and the latter gentleman (from knowing well the habits and disposition of the lunatics) requested his friend to play them a few tunes. The music had an indescribably pleasing effect, and would have gladdened the least sensitive heart. It was first tried upon the male lunatics, who, one and all, were immediately softened and animated; some clapped their hands, others imitated the flute, the clarionet, the cymbals, and the tambourine; whilst some, in an ecstacy of joy, danced most manfully ; and what more than all proved the good effect of this procedure, no symptom of viciousness manifested itself. The amusement was next tried upon the females, and produced a similar effect; they sang for joy; there was one poor creature especially, who had been confined by a strait waistcoat, showed such an amount of pleasure that Mr. Statham had the waistcoat taken off, and she danced beautifully. The effect, without exception, was singularly good.

Pavilion Theatre (Royal Pavilion Theatre; Royal Victoria Theatre; Theatre Royal) (Melbourne, VIC)

Melbourne, NSW (VIC), 1841-45 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

NOTE: Eric Irvin (1985) identified this theatre as the Royal Pavilion, variously also the Pavilion, the Royal Victoria Theatre, and the Theatre Royal

Theatre and Eagle Tavern, Melbourne; Wilbraham Liardet; State Library of Victoria

Theatre and Eagle Tavern, Melbourne; Wilbraham Liardet; State Library of Victoria (DIGITISED)

ASSOCIATIONS: Wilbraham Liardet (artist)

Theatre Royal and Eagle Tavern, Melbourne; Wilbraham Liardet; State Library of Victoria

Theatre Royal and Eagle Tavern, Melbourne; Wilbraham Liardet; State Library of Victoria (DIGITISED)


"AMATEUR THEATRICALS", Port Phillip Gazette (23 February 1842), 3 

[Advertisement], Port Phillip Patriot and Melbourne Advertiser (24 February 1842), 3 

"AMATEUR THEATRICALS", Port Phillip Gazette (26 February 1842), 3 

Penitentiary church (old Trinity church) (Hobart Town, VDL [TAS])


"CHURCH MUSIC. TO THE EDITOR", The Argus (13 July 1859), 1

The church of the Foundling Hospital in London, and the Penitentiary Church, Hobart Town, may be adduced as well-known instances of the powerful attraction of music, being usually crowded, while the cathedrals are, in comparison, thinly attended. But these instances, striking as they are, would not bear out the recommendation of a church choir for mere concert or oratorio exhibition, and certainly not in any way calculated to increase devotional feelings when rendered lifeless or Ianguid from other causes.

Penman and Galbraith (Adelaide, SA)

Lithographers, printers (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: John Penman (partner); William Galbraith (partner)

People's Concerts (Melbourne)'s+Concerts+Melbourne (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

People's Concerts (Sydney)

Sydney, NSW, from 1859's+Concerts+Sydney (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (24 September 1859), 1

THE PEOPLES' CONCERT. - The first of a Series will be given in the
on MONDAY EVENING, 26TH instant, under the management of Mr. T. V. BRIDSON.
The following artists have already been engagod, viz.,
Madame Flora Harris, Mr. John Howson, Herr Sussmilch,
Mr. Banks, (Musical Director of St. Mary's Cathedral), and Mr. Richardson have, in the most handsome manner, signified their intention of rendering their services on this occasion . . .
Mr. Charles S. Packer will preside at the Grand Pianoforte.
The Committee of the N.S. Alliance beg to impress upon the public that their only object in giving these entertainments is for the moral and social improvement of the people, and to afford them an opportunity of an intellectual treat at such a charge for admission as will come within the reach of all. The Committee are sanguine that the attendance will be such as will induce professionals to co-operate in so laudable an undertaking.
R. RONALD, Secretary N.S.W. Alliance . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Thomas Vicary Bridson (conductor)

People's Singing Class (Sydney)

Sydney, NSW, 1850-52's+Singing+Class+Sydney (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

People's Vocal Music Association

Sydney, NSW, 1859-64's+Vocal+Music+Association (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Perth (WA)

Perth Amateur Theatricals

Active Perth, WA, from 1839 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Playbill] Perth Amateur Theatricals, 9 July 1839, Perth, WA; State Library of New South Wales (DIGITISED)

On TUESDAY, 9th July, will be performed, the Petite Comedy, in two Acts, ENTITLED
Capt. Seaford [Officer of the Imperial Lancers] - Mr. Collinson
Cornet Vesey [Officer of the Imperial Lancers] - Mr. Webb
Punker (an East Indian, father to Mary) - Mr. Durlacher
Samuel Grummett, Esq. - Mr. Sholl
Landlord - Mr. E. Souper
Mary (Punker's Daughter) - Mrs. Turner
Dorothea (Punker's Sister) - Mrs. Watson
Fanny (Lady's Maid to Mary) Miss E. Purkis.

The overtures of the "Lady of the Manor" and "Lodoiska" will be performed in the course of the evening;
in addition to which the following songs will be introduced: -
"Come Fill a Mighty Measure" - Opening Glee.
"Oh, say not Woman's Heart is Bought" - Mrs. Turner
"Norah, the Pride of Kildare" - Mr. Webb.
"Humours of a Playhouse," - Mr. Sholl.

A Prologue will be spoken by Mr. Collinson.

No person will be admitted whose name does not appear on the ticket.
Performance to commence at half-past eight precisely.
Printed by C. McFaull, at the Gazette Office, Perth, Western Australia. 1839.

"AMATEUR THEATRICALS", The Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal (13 July 1839), 111 

"AMATEUR THEATRICALS", Inquirer (7 September 1842), 3 

Perth Choral Society

Active Perth, WA (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Perth Philharmonic Society

Active Perth, WA (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Perth Metropolitan Volunteers Band (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Philharmonic societies (generic)

Philharmonic Society, Sydney (1833-37)

Philharmonic concerts

Active Sydney, NSW, 1833-37 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Pianoforte makers (also tuners and repairers) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

MAKERS: John Benham (active Sydney, NSW, 1833-45); John Williams (active Hobart, TAS, 1840-65); Alexander Emslie Fraser (active Adelaide, SA, by 1858)

Picton Choral Society

Active Picton NSW, 1860-63 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"PICTON", Empire (7 July 1860), 5

. . . The Episcopalian Church of Picton has for a few Sundays past been made the theatre of a very disgraceful performance - at least as far as the actors therein are concerned. The Picton Choral Society, a local institution (on which, by the way, I fear that the gods have bestowed the gift of music more liberally than that of good sense), have for some time been at variance with their clergyman on the subject of singing anthems in the church, the consequence of which is that the service on Sunday has become the ring where the rival parties test their strength. I understand there is something to be said on both aides; and would not notice it here, but most heartily leave the reverend and very irreverent disputants to say that something, were it not that numbers of people come a considerable distance, Sabbath after Sabbath, and find the "sanctuary defiled, God dishonoured, and the sacrifice made of none effect."

"TO THE EDITOR", Empire (14 July 1860), 5

"TO THE EDITOR", Empire (23 July 1860), 5

"PICTON CHURCH. TO THE EDITOR", The Sydney Morning Herald (25 July 1860), 3

[Advertisement], Empire (26 June 1861), 1

"PICTON CHORAL SOCIETY", Bell's Life in Sydney (2 May 1863), 3

"PICTON", Bell's Life in Sydney (18 July 1863), 3

Port Adelaide (SA)

Port Adelaide Sacred Choral Society

Port Adelaide, SA, founded 1860-61 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Port Adelaide Musical Society

Port Adelaide, SA, founded early 1860 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Port Theatre (Port Adelaide, SA)

Opened 1851 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Prahran (VIC)

Municiple district of greater Melbourne, first settled 1849


"THE EARLY DAYS OF PRAHRAN. BY JOSEPH CROOK. NO. III", The Prahran Telegraph (16 October 1897), 5 

. . . P.S. The only amusement we had up to 1851 was the natives used to meet once a month on the full moon in Fawkner Park, opposite the Fawkner hotel. The hotel lies between the Park and Millswyn-street, but there was no hotel, park, or streets there then, but all bush. There the blacks held their corrobboree, and I have seen the greater portion of the people of Melbourne and Prahran turn out and visit the camp on those occasions. We thought it grand fun and so did the natives, for while the dance was going on some of the old men used to go among the visitors with an old hat, and collect money, from the proceeds of which collection they would have some good feasts for three or four days, and a good old drink, to which they were unfortunately much addicted, generally winding up with a free fight, in which no one ever got much the worse of the batter. After that they would disperse until the next full moon. The other place of amusement was the Queen's Theatre which is still standing in Queen-street, though now used as a coach repository. It was only on rare occasions that the Prahranites indulged in theatre going, for it was no joke finding the road home in the dark, and we never attempted it unless four or five of us went together. Then it was only when the moon shone, and even then we would sometimes land among the swamps, from which Prahran was called by the Melbournites "Swampy Poor Ann" . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Joseph Thomas Crook junior (memoirist)

Prahran and St. Kilda Choral Society

Prahran, VIC, 1860-61 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Prahran Harmonic Society

Prahran, VIC, 1860-61 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Prahran Mechanics' Institute

Prahran, VIC, founed 1854 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)'_Institute (Wikipedia)

Prahran Philharmonic Society

Prahran, VIC, 1858-59 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Prahran Town Hall

Presbyterian churches (music in Presbyterian churches) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Prince of Wales Theatre, Bathurst

Bathurst, NSW, opened by 1854 

Prince of Wales Theatre, Melbourne

Melbourne, VIC, opened 1860 

Prince of Wales Theatre, Sydney (Prince of Wales Opera House)

Sydney, NSW, opened 12 March 1855 


"THE LYRIC DRAMA", The Sydney Morning Herald (15 May 1857), 3 

"PROFESSOR ANDERSON IN SYDNEY. TO THE EDITOR OF THE ERA", The Era [London, England] (17 April 1859), 6 (PAYWALL)

Prince of Wales Theatre, Sydney, New South Wales, Feb. 4th, 1859.
Dear Sir, - Of Melbourne theatres and Melbourne theatricals I told you in a letter some months ago. I now propose giving you some account of the profession, its standing, and its prospects in the capital of New South Wales. But as theatrical news is rather copious just now throughout the colonies, I shall not restrict myself to Sydney for matter to write about, but give you the chit-chat of the Australian Stage as I hear it every day.

I came here from Hobart-town, after a most successful season there, and after playing in one of the prettiest theatres I have seen to nightly overflowing houses. On arriving in Sydney I found that I had to contend with many difficulties, the nature of which I will presently explain. First, however, let me tell you how the Stage stands at present in New South Wales.

Sydney has three theatres, the first as well as the largest and most fashionable is the Prince of Wales, in Castlereagh-street; the second is the Victoria in Pitt-street; and the third the Lyceum in York-street. The relative position of each will be pretty well understood, if in the first instance you picture George-street, the chief thoroughfare in the city, as being a large and perfectly straight thoroughfare of about three miles in length, extending from the quays at its lower end to Newtown, at its upper termination. On your right hand as you go up George-street you have York-street running parallel, and in the rear of the houses to your left is Pitt-street, and beyond that again Castlereagh-street, both parallel also to the main artery of the metropolis. York-street, however, is on the un-fashionable, and Pitt and Castlereagh-streets, with their respective theatres, on the fashionable side of the city. The Prince of Wales theatre is at present leased by Mr. Charles Poole, the Victoria and Lyceum by Mr. James Simmonds. Sydney has no concert hall nor any other large building adapted for the purpose of public amusement. It had an Assembly Room once annexed to the Royal Hotel, but lately it has heen transformed into a drapery store; concerts have given way to calicoes; music has moved out to let muslin in; and the only terpsichorean efforts of the tenants is to "dance attendance" upon their customers.

Externally, the Prince of Wales Theatre is a large and imposing structure with a side wall to it longer than that of "the Lane" in Little Russell-street, at home. Architectural pretensions do not characterize it to any great extent, though it has a very neat portico to the box entrance, and is about to be graced with one of a larger size over the new pathway to the pit in King-street. It is at present owned by Mr. Alderman Neald, and was built originally by Mr. Whyatt [Wyatt], now the landlord of the tavern adjacent. This gentleman has shared the fate common to inventors and projectors. To him Sydney is indebted for its finest theatre, and to that theatre Mr. Whyatt attributes his losses of many thousand pounds. For him it was ordained to sow - for others to reap; nor does my friend ever forget to bemoan his fate whenever the building of the house is alluded to. He pours you out his losses with every nobbler, and makes every clean glass he hands you a lachrymatory for his unavailing tears. The disciples of Democritus who frequent the theatre, consequently shun this Heraclitus, and pay their devotions to Bacchus in others of the adjacent shrines. Nor need the Libyan deity be angry at the lack of either shrines or worshippers. Fancy the thermometer at 109 degs. this evening in the theatre, and at 138 degs. to-day in the sun; and no wonder that when the "first piece" is over there is a rush to "Cunningham's" for brandy and iced water, shandy-gaff, and nobblers of Old Tom; while, should Cunningham's be too full, there are "Fischer's," and "Fox's," and half-a-dozen more dispensatories of a similar kind all within a stone's throw. Sydney is essentially a bibulous city, and has an advantage over Melbourne in this respect. Its "nobblers" are threepence only while in the sister metropolis they are sixpence.

The interior of the Prince of Wales is spacious, and presents a grand appearance when the dress-boxes are filled with fair occupants. Elegance of decoration or profusion of ornament are not its characteristics, and in these respects it is far inferior to the Royal in Melbourne. The construction of the dress-boxes is very peculiar, the Governor's box in the centre being the highest, and those at each side descending in step-like fashion towards the stage. This arrangement was adopted to make room for very large pit accommodation, and to allow of the seats in the back of the pit being of much greater elevation than those near the orchestra. It is a grand pit, and would be so even in a London house. There were 1,560 people in it a night or two ago, on the occasion of my playing Rob Roy, and the rest of the house contained altogether about 1,000 more. The present prices of admission are four shillings to the dress circle and one shilling to the pit. In Melbourne, as I before told you, the pit is half-a-crown.

The next theatre in point of importance is the Victoria in Pitt-street. A nice, well-constructed, comfortably arranged house, but presenting outside many of the characteristics of its name-sake in the New Cut. Indeed, on a Saturday night the street in which the theatre is situated would probably remind a Cockney of the Lower Marsh, Lambeth, or of the neighbourhood of Shoreditch Church. There are the same ginger-beer fountains, the same stale-apples, the same suspicious-looking hot pies, the same throng, the same un-musical sounds, and the same unpleasant smells. The "Vic," as it is familiarly termed, is at present the theatre of the mobocracy. You will see rows of equipages and dozens of livened lackeys outside the door of the Prince of Wales; but a carriage and a pair of greys in front of the Victoria would be as strange a sight as they would be if seen in front of a penny show in Whitechapel. Yet there was a time when the Victoria ranked as the chief theatre of Sydney . . .

"PROFESSOR ANDERSON IN AUSTRALIA, on Things Theatrical at the Antipodes. TO THE EDITOR OF THE ERA", The Era [London, England] (14 August 1859), 10 (PAYWALL)

Sydney, New South Wales, June 1, 1859.
Dear Sir, - The last letter I sent you was descriptive of the theatres of Sydney and of theatrical affairs in this colony generally . . .
And now that I have brought my narrative back to Sydney affairs again, let me tell you what the Sydney theatres are doing. The Prince of Wales - the larger of the two, has undergone an entire metamorphosis. Six months ago, when I last described it in a letter to you, the entrance to the pit and gallery was down a dirty gateway in Castlereagh-street, while at the present moment it is beneath an illuminated portico in King-street. Six months since there was a piece of vacant land beside the theatre, on which the "Sydney ducks" - as the boys are called hereabouts - amused themselves by tossing coins and playing marbles. On that piece of ground now stand two magnificent hotels. The bar of one of them - "Tolano's," as it is called - is the pit entrance of the theatre; and a very splendid, well-furnished, spacious bar it is, radiant with gas-lights, mirrors, and attendant beauty, in the shape of sundry smiling Hebes. The interior of the house has been thoroughly re-decorated, and business for some time past has been very flourishing. The Nelsons have recently concluded a successful engagement, during which the burlesques of Atalanta, The King of the Peacocks, and Conrad the Corsair, have been produced in very superior style. Mdlle. Therese and M. Schmidt, formerly of Drury-lane, are now hourly expected, and an opera company, with Walter Sherwin for the tenor, John Gregg for basso, Madame Carandini for soprano, and Madame Sara Flower for contralto, open in three weeks hence. Apropos of the opera company, Mr. Farquharson, who came out with them from England, is on his way back from Calcutta to Melbourne. A letter from him to an Australian friend states that he has done great business during his stay in India, but finds the climate too warm at present to be agreeable.

The management of the Prince of Wales still remains with Mr. Charles Poole, and Mrs. Poole, as the leading lady, seems to gain daily greater favour with the public. She has recently appeared as Camille, and achieved in that character a considerable amount of success. Her Hester Grazebrook, in Tom Taylor's Unequal Match, has also won her the right to stand a step higher on the scala of colonial histrionic fame. She and Mr. Henry Edwards are the main props of the establishment, and work arduously to maintain the reputation of the theatre . . .
I am, dear sir, yours, very truly,
Wizard of the North.


Princess's Theatre (Princess Theatre; Melbourne, VIC)

Opened April 1857 


"MUSIC AND THE DRAMA . . . THE PRINCESS'S THEATRE", The Age [Melbourne, VIC] (13 April 1857), 5 

The Princess's Theatre, as the Amphitheatre - in Parliament place (late Spring street) has now been designated, is fast approaching to completion, and will decidedly be ready for use by Monday night, though the opera will not be opened till Thursday . . . The operatic corps includes Madame Anna Bishop, Madame Leon Naej, Madame Sara Flower, Mrs. Fiddes, Mons. Laglaise, Mr. Walter Sherwin, Mr. Norton, Mons. Del Sarte, Mr. Dickson, Mr. J. Pierce, Mons. Coulon, Mr. Farquharson, Mr. Gregg, Mr. Kitts, and Mr. Benham. The chorus will include no less than thirty well trained voices, nnd the band twenty-five performers, all carefully selected. Mr. Geo. Loder is to be conductor and musical director, and Mr. E. King, leader of the band. This will include the well known names of Mr. Chapman, (double bass); Mr. Johnson, (clarionet); and Mr. Usher, (violin). The whole has been under assiduous rehearsal for several days, and cannot fail in rendering the opera in a style surpassing any former attempt in Victoria . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Anna Bishop (vocalist); Madame Leon Naej (vocalist); Sara Flower (vocalist); Harriet Cawse Fiddes (vocalist); Jean-Baptiste Laglaise (vocalist); Walter Sherwin (vocalist); Mr. Norton (vocalist); Camille del Sarte (vocalist); John Ottis Pierce (vocalist); Emile Coulon (vocalist); Robert Farquharson (vocalist); John Gregg (vocalist); James Edward Kitts (vocalist); Henry Benham (vocalist); George Loder (conductor); Edward King (leader); Samuel Chapman (musician); Henry Johnson (musician); Alfred Usher (musician); Princess's Theatre (Melbourne venue), on site of former Astley's Amphitheatre

"THE COLONY OF VICTORIA", The Argus (20 May 1857), 5-6 

The screw steam-ship Great Britain has been taken up by the Government to supply the broken link in the line of the European and Australian Royal Mail Company, caused by the disaster to the Oneida. The Great Britain will leave this port to-morrow morning for Liverpool, with a fair prospect of making her destination in about sixty days, as she will sail in excellent time. Participating in the general confidence which this magnificent steamer and her commander, Captain Gray, have secured in the public mind, we gladly embrace an opportunity of continuing our monthly history of the progress of the colony . . .
The edifice formerly known as Astley's Amphitheatre has also undergone an internal renovation, and was opened for operatic performances on the 22nd ult., under the designation of the Princess's Theatre. Most of the [6] boxes in the dress circle have been let to season-ticket holders, and the attendance, on the whole, has been very good. Madame Anna Bishop is the prima donna of the company. Madame Sara Flower the contralto, M. Laglaise the tenor, and Herr Schluter the basso, while the orchestra (which is a very excellent one) is under the able conduct of Mr. George Loder. The operas hitherto produced have been "Norma," "Linda di Chamouni," "Lucrezia Borgia," "La Sonnambula," and "Robert le Diable;" and "Ernani" is to follow.

"PROFESSOR ANDERSON IN AUSTRALIA. TO THE EDITOR OF THE ERA", The Era [London, England] (12 September 1858), 10 (PAYWALL)

Theatre Royal, Melbourne, July 10th, 1858.
Sir, - A letter from your old friend, the Wizard, sent from the other end of the world, may not be unacceptable . . .
Pass up Bourke-street, and gaining the top of the hill, about a quarter of a mile from the Theatre Royal, and in front of the Parliament Houses, you come to a long, low, white building, with a very large drinking bar in front of it, and a very large corrugated iron roof on the top. There are the words "Astley's Amphitheatre" painted on the roof, but the building is now known as the Princess's Theatre, and is in the occupancy of Mr. John Black. It is the house which Mr. Lewis originally built for a circus; the house in which the Misses Gougenheim performed lately; and the house in which Miss Emma Stanley is giving her entertainment of "The Seven Ages of Woman" at the present time with well deserved success. Miss Stanley has become very popular in Melbourne. The theatre in which she appears is capacious, but by no means so large as the Royal. It is without a gallery, and has great breadth . . .

Professional and Vocal Union (Sydney)

Sydney, NSW, 1859-60 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Protestant Hall (Melbourne, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Pulteney Hotel (Sydney, NSW) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"To the editor", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (1 May 1834), 3

SIR, You, as well as the editor of the Monitor, who have witnessed the extraordinary exertions and struggles of poor Levey, in raising a theatre, which he has effected beyond the most sanguine expectations of all, have seen him through these efforts, brought to the very door of the gaol, yet, will interfere in the squabbles between him and his discarded servants, who have displayed more ingratitude than would have been permitted or even noticed by London Editors. What are those adventurers? mere strolling players, on their way to the next town, engaged to Mr. Dean (if the papers be correct), which Mr. Levey does not repine at.

I have never yet been to see a play at Sydney, having seen too many in London, to convince me that Mr. L. must be content to move by degrees with a willing and forbearing audience. Rome was not built in a day, and Messrs. Levey and Simmons must patiently wait for sometime before they can command performers of talented character. A few years will, no doubt, remedy this defect . . .

Being always delighted with a good concert, I attended the first given at the Pulteney Hotel, and regret that splendid building was not honoured with all the best vocal and musical talent in the colony, to give eclat to the thing. I believe Mrs. Taylor's attempt, at Hobart Town, was not successful in concert singing; her little ballads are very pretty, but only suited to the parts of the play, wherewith her science in music might answer as a second rate Opera singer. I recollect our worthy colonist, Mrs. Paul, favouring the Subscription Committee of 1826", with Angels ever bright and fair and The soldier tired, the music conducted by Mr. Edwards, whose manly songs, came somewhat near the mark. I believe a Mrs. Bird in this colony well calculated to sing at concerts. The audience was thinly attended, but rather respectable.
Remaining yours, CASTIGATOR, 24th April, 1834.

ASSOCIATIONS: Edward Smith Hall (editor, Monitor); Barnett Levey (theatre proprietor); Joseph Simmons (actor, manager); Maria Taylor (vocalist, actor); John Edwards (musician); Tempest Margaret Paul (vocalist, pianist); Isabella Tempest Bird (vocalist); Sydney Amateur Concerts (series, 1826-27); Theatre Royal (Sydney venue)


Queen's Arcade (Lonsdale Street, Melbourne, VIC)

Opened 26 September 1853's+Arcade+Melbourne (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"OPENING OF THE QUEEN'S ARCADE, LONSDALE STREET", The Banner (27 September 1853), 7 

Queen's Theatre (Adelaide)

Opened 11 January 1841; active until 1843's+Theatre+Adelaide (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

See also New Queen's Theatre (Adelaide venue, opened 1846)

Queen's Theatre, Adelaide; by C. W. Calvert (Adelaide: H. C. Jervis, 1842)

Queen's Theatre, Adelaide; by "C. W. C." (Adelaide: H. C. Jervis, 1842) (DIGITISED)

ASSOCIATIONS: C. W. C. (artist); Harry Cooper Jervis (printer, lithographer)


[Advertisement], South Australian Register (2 January 1841), 2 

THE Gentry and Public of Adelaide and its vicinity are most respectfully informed that the above elegant Theatre being now completed will open for the season,
ON MONDAY, JANUARY 11, 1841, Under the exclusive Direction of Mr. Lazar (late Manager of the Victoria, and Theatre Royal, Sydney) . . .
Leader of the Orchestra - Mr. Bennett . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: John Lazar (actor, manager); George Bennett (musician)

Queen's Theatre (Maitland, NSW)'s+Theatre+Maitland (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Queen's Theatre (Melbourne)'s+Theatre+Melbourne (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Dress Circle boxes Queens Theatre. Lucky Diggers in Melbourne. 1853. In the reign of J. T. Smith; watercolour sketch, S. T. Gill; State Library of Victoria

"Dress Circle boxes Queens Theatre. Lucky Diggers in Melbourne. 1853. In the reign of J. T. Smith"; watercolour sketch, S. T. Gill; State Library of Victoria (DIGITISED)

ASSOCIATIONS: Samuel Thomas Gill (artist)


"COLEMAN'S LYCEUM", The Age [Melbourne, VIC] (2 June 1856), 3 

Our readers will be glad to notice that Mr. Henry Coleman, who has lately distinguished himself as an able and enterprising theatrical manager and proprietor at Bendigo and Castlemaine, and whose company of artistes there is not second to any in the colony, has just become the lessee of the theatre in Queen street, which will henceforth be known as Coleman's Lyceum . . . The company will include Mrs. Charles Young, Madame Strebinger, Miss Chambers; Messrs. Charles Young, Miran, Chambers sen., and Chambers jun.; Signor Bonfiglia, the eminent Italian vocalist, and Signor Belletti, the Italian dancer . . .

"PROFESSOR ANDERSON IN AUSTRALIA. TO THE EDITOR OF THE ERA", The Era [London, England] (12 September 1858), 10 (PAYWALL)

Theatre Royal, Melbourne, July 10th, 1858.
Sir, - A letter from your old friend, the Wizard, sent from the other end of the world, may not be unacceptable . . . The first theatre erected here was in Queen-street, and is now Williams's Coach Factory. Its lessee was Mr. Charles Young, and it was where Miss Catherine Hayes achieved her Victorian victories in those golden days, when lucky diggers threw nuggets on the stage. It is only the Queen's - the coach-factory that is now - in which the actors were ever subjected to such insults. Nuggets behave themselves better now-a-days . . .


Radford's band (VIC 1855-71)

Mixed band under the direction of Sidney Radford's+band+VIC+1855-71 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Rainer's Serenaders (1852-55)

Originally all-American minstrel serenader troupe

Arrived Sydney, NSW, 19 September 1852 (per Speed, from San Francisco, 28 July)
Active NSW, ? until July 1855's+Serenaders (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

PERSONNEL (on arrival, 1852): John Cragin Rainer (minstrel); Thomas P. Brower (minstrel); M. W. White (minstrel, Bill White); Neil Bryant (minstrel); James Milton Foans (minstrel); Frank Moran (minstrel); Elbert Totten (agent)


"RAINER'S SERENADERS", Daily Alta California (25 July 1852), 2 

The American Theatre was well filled last evening, upon the occasion of the benefit of Messrs. Brower and Foans. This evening this excellent and popular band of Minstrels make their last appearance in California prior to the departure for the Australian colonies. Mr. J. C. Rainer, the leader of this famed troupe of serenaders, takes a benefit, and for which an unusually interesting programme is announced . . .

MR. WHITE'S BENEFIT. THE SERENADERS' PURSE", The Hobart Town Advertiser [TAS] (11 April 1853), 2 

Names and descriptions of passengers per Cleopatra, from Melbourne, 6 June 1853, for Sydney; Public Record Officer Victoria (DIGITISED)

Cabin // Mr. Rainer / 27 // Mr. Foans / 29 // Mr. Bryant / 33 // Mr. White / 39 / Mr. Moran / 41 // Mr. Brower / 47

Reading and Wellbank (Sydney, NSW)

General and music printers (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Redfern Singing Class (Sydney, NSW)

Active from 1855 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Redfern Choral Society (Sydney, NSW)

Active from 1866 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Red Hill Music Hall (Chewton, via Castlemaine, VIC)

Riley's Serenaders (TAS, 1855)'s+Serenaders (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


Rotunda (The rotunda; dancing saloon, Sydney, NSW, c. 1858-60) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Rowe's American Circus (Melbourne, VIC, 1852-54)

Circus and promenade concert venue's+American+Circus+Melbourne (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: Joseph Andrew Rowe (proprietor)

Royal Academy of Music (London, England; former pupils and members active in Australia)

Founded London, 1824 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: Nicholas Charles Bochsa (former professor); Anna Bishop (pupil); Margaret Rust (pupil); Henry James Witton (? pupil); Charles Sandys Packer (pupil); Lewis Henry Lavenu (pupil); Stephen Hale Marsh (pupil); James Henri Anderson (pupil); Alfred Anderson (pupil); Frederick Alexander Packer (pupil); Augusta Gow Packer (pupil); James Arthur Schott (pupil); Charlew William Harwood (pupil); Mary Ellen Hancock (instructor); William Charles Lyon (instructor); Charlotte Crofton Fatherley (pupil); Richard Baxter White (first Australian born pupil); John Hill (pupil)


[Advertisement], The Austral-Asiatic Review [Hobart Town, VDL (TAS)] (30 July 1833), 1 

Tuscan House Establishment, NEW TOWN ROAD.
MISS HODGKINSON begs to announce to the Public, that her arrangements are now so far completed, as to enable her to increase the number of her pupils.
To those Parents who may be desirous their children should be scientifically instructed in Music, but particularly in Singing, she would suggest that her Establishment holds out great inducements, as she is assisted in it by a Lady, who, having been a pupil at the Royal Academy of Music, London, employs the principles adopted by the professors there, and she flatters herself, with every encouraging success.
TERMS, For Board, and instruction in English, French, Music, Dancing, Geography, History, Writing, Arithmetic, with plain and ornamental Needle-work, Forty-five pounds per annum.
Day Boarders, Twenty-five pounds per annum.
Singing, Eight Guineas. Italian, Six Guineas. Drawing, Six Guineas.
N. B. - Previous to a Pupil being removed, three months notice will be required.


DISTINGUISHED FEMALE VOCALISTS . . . Misses . . . A. Riviere (now Mrs. Bishop) . . .

DISTINGUISHED MALE PIANISTS . . . L. Lavenu . . . E. White [sic, R. B. White]

HARPISTS . . . F. A. Packer, W. Packer . . .

DISTINGUISHED ORCHESTRAL PERFORMERS. Violins . . . E. White [sic, R. B. White] . . .
Violoncellos . . . L. Lavenu . . .
Oboes . . . J. Schott . . .

COMPOSERS . . . L. Lavenu . . .

Royal Adelaide Theatre (SA)

Opened 1846-68 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register (20 February 1847), 2 

ROYAL ADELAIDE THEATRE, Will Re-open for the Season, On MONDAY next, February 22nd, 1847.
Previous to the performances, "God Save the Queen," by the Company. Opening Address by Mr. Deering.
After which, will be represented a romantic melodrama, entitled THE PHANTOM BRIDE; or, The Castilian Bandit.
The Sable Cymbal Player, by Mr. Howard. Irish Jig. by Mr. Carrol.
The performances to conclude with the laughable farce of THE YOUNG WIDOW; or, A Lesson for Lovers.
Leader of the Band, Mr. Bennett. Acting Manager, Mr. Thompson. Stage Manager, Mr. Deering. Boxes, 2s.; Pit 1s. Doors open at 7. Curtain to rise at half-past.

[Advertisement], South Australian (12 March 1847), 3 

Royal Adelaide Theatre. BUSH CLUB HOUSE, FRANKLIN STREET . . .
ON Saturday evening, March 13th, 1847 . . .

Royal Albert Theatre (Albert Theatre) (Hobart, TAS) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Royal Albert Theatre (Sydney, NSW)

Active by 1854 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Royal Charter Music Hall (Royal Charter Hotel, Bourke-street, Melbourne, VIC)

Active 1861-63 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Royal City Theatre (Sydney)

Short opening season May-June 1843 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Royal Exchange Hotel (Melbourne, VIC; Royal Exchange Concert Rooms)

Royal Hotel, Sydney (site now 428 George Street)

Original building (opened March 1829; including original Theatre Royal, destroyed by fire, March 1840)

Musical, concert, and theatrical venue

ASSOCIATIONS: Barnett Levey (proprietor); George Sippe (proprietor); John Sparke (proprietor)

Royal Hotel, George Street, Sydney

Royal Hotel, George Street, Sydney; I. H. Berner, George Street, Sydney; drawn & engraved by W. Wilson; Australian almanack and Sydney directory, 1834; National Library of Australia (DIGITISED)

ASSOCIATIONS: William Wilson (engraver)

Documentation (old building):

Playbill, Theatre Royal Sydney, 26 December 1832; State Library of New South Wales (DIGITISED)

"THEATRE ROYAL, SYDNEY", The Sydney Herald (31 December 1832), 3 

On Wednesday evening the Comic Muse made her debut in this Colony with a good grace. The public had been long anxiously awaiting her appearance, and hailed her with unfeigned pleasure. It had been found impossible to prepare the large Theatre by the Christmas holidays, and, consequently, a tasty stage was fitted up in the saloon of the Royal Hotel, and a tier of boxes erected, with the necessary seats, in the pit. The whole arrangements had been carried into effect with a view to accommodate the public, who commenced coming until the house was crowded, to witness the nautical melo-drama, in three acts, of BLACK-EYED SUSAN, or, ALL IN THE DOWNS . . . The piece was announced for repetition by Mr. Levey amid the cheers of the house. The evening's entertainment concluded with the well known Comic Farce of "MONSIEUR TONSON," which kept the house in a roar of laughter from beginning to end . . . During the evening the band of the 17th Regiment, kindly lent by Colonel Despard, performed several beautiful pieces by Rossini and Mozart in a masterly manner . . .

"The Royal Hotel", The Sydney Monitor and Commercial Advertiser (20 March 1840), 2 

"DESTRUCTIVE FIRE", The Sydney Herald (20 March 1840), 2 

New building (erected 1841):

Musical and concert venue

ASSOCIATIONS: John Sparke (proprietor)

Royal Hotel, George Street, Sydney; Heads of the people (18 March 1848), 2

Royal Hotel, Sydney; in Heads of the people (18 March 1848), 2 (DIGITISED)

Documentation (new building):

"The New Royal Hotel", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (14 September 1841), 2 

"The New Royal Hotel", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (20 November 1841), 2 

"THE HOTEL KEEPER", Heads of the people (18 March 1848), frontispiece, 1-2 (Royal Hotel, above)

. . . Every man is not born to be a genius, nor is every one fitted to be an Hotel-keeper, but, there are few in this colony who possess more capabilities for the latter than Mr. John Sparkes, the well known and highly-esteemed head of the Royal Hotel in George-street, whose fortune, however, has not been equal to his merit. The original building of that name was erected by Mr. Barnet Levy, who transformed a large store attached to it into a theatre, and obtained a licence for dramatic performances from Sir Richard Bourke, who restricted him to the production of such pieces as had received the approval of the Lord Chamberlain in England. The first regular performance took place on the 26th December, 1832, in the Saloon of the Royal Hotel, when, to use a conventional phrase, "Black-eyed Susan" and "Monsieur Tonson" were received with unbounded applause, by a brilliant and fashionable audience. The company then consisted of Mr. and Mrs. Knowles, Mr. and Mrs. Mackay, Messrs. Meredith, Groves, Buckingham, Johnson, Peate, Dyball, and Barnet Levy. For two seasons the little theatre [2] was crowded to excess; and the great marks of encouragement which he received from the colonists induced the proprietor to prepare a larger arena for displaying the talents of his dramatic corps, and, in the latter end of 1833, he removed his whole force to his new temple of Thespis, which was called the "Theatre Royal, Sydney." The Royal Hotel then reverted to its original purposes, and in 1836 Mr. Sparkes took possession of, and continued in, it until 1840, when it was unluckily burnt down, together with the adjoining premises belonging to Mr. Blanch, an ironfounder, in whose stables the fire originated. The fee simple then belonged to Mr. Joseph Wyatt; from him it passed into the hands of Mr. John Terry Hughes, who erected the present magnificent structure upon the old site. The pecuniary embarrassments of this gentleman occasioned by the magnitude of his speculations, and the sudden depression of Colonial affairs have left the building incomplete at the present moment; but it is to be hoped, that the day is not far distant when Mr. Hughes’ difficulties will disappear, and the original design of the Royal Hotel be fully carried out. It will then contain upwards of 100 rooms, comprising from 70 to 80 sleeping apartments, a billiard-room, ball-room, and concert-room, and every convenience which the most fastidious public can require. As Mr. Sparkes has obligingly favored us with his head for this number of our work, we furnish our readers, by way of a tail-piece, with an engraving of the edifice over which he presides so praiseworthily. -

"H.E. Sir Charles Fitz Roy and suite visiting a fancy bazaar at the Royal Hotel, Sydney", in Australian picture pleasure book (Sydney: J. R. Clarke, 1857) (DIGITISED)

Royal Hotel, George Street, Sydney (photo: Henry King, Sydney, c. 1880-1900); Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences, Sydney (DIGITISED)

Royal Marionette Theatre (NSW)

Touring English troupe (active NSW, 1853) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: Albany Brown ("manager"); Henry Muriel (? local presenter, proprietor)


"THE ROYAL MARIONETTE THEATRE", Cambridge Chronicle and Journal [England] (3 January 1852), 3 (PAYWALL)

. . . A troupe of Italian artistes have arrived to work the dolls . . .

"ROYAL MARIONETTE THEATRE", Morning Advertiser [London, England] (10 January 1852), 6 (PAYWALL)

The proprietor of new, and certainly an original dramatic establishment, called the Royal Marionette Theatre, entertained a number of his friends last evening, by a private view of the theatre itself, and the entertainments prepared for the public, on its opening on Monday next. Nothing could be fitted up with more taste and elegance than the interior of the building. It was formerly known the Adelaide Gallery, and for years enjoyed a considerable amount of popularity among sightseers and lovers of novelty. It is now, however, much changed, and for dramatic performances like those intended to be represented there no expense has been spared to make it as complete as possible. The galleries have been allowed to remain as they formerly stood, and immediately in front of the stage, as in other places of the kind, is the pit, lower stalls, and on a considerable elevation behind, what are called the balcony stalls, which are fitted up with every regard to convenience and comfort. Two rows of private boxes still further back, and immediately facing the stage, fitted up in a superior style, complete the accommodations for those who shall patronise this really charming little place, while no expense has been spared in lighting up and decorating it in the most superior and effective manner. The name which the theatre has received, that of "The Marionette Theatre," indicates the character of the entertainments, and their novelty in this country; but the perfection to which the illusory art is brought in the performance of the various portions of them is really astonishing, and does great credit to the ingenious actors behind the scenes. An initiatory address, written with considerable smartness and point, was delivered by one of those "speaking figures" designated in the bills as Mr. Albany Brown, the manager, and Mr. Hugo Vamp, "an original author of foreign translations" - from which we cannot help quoting an extract or two that are really good. After the announcement that:
"A manager, no matter what his size is.
Claims few words before the curtain rises;"
It goes on: -
To-night, a new experiment is tried.
On which we humbly ask that you'll decide
A Lilliputian army marches down,
To take that kind old Gulliver, the Town
And, if we can but bind him in alliance,
We'll set all bigger rivals at defiance.
But what can figures do? Do! I ask our Necker,
The smiling Chancellor of the Exchequer.
He vows (and, like ourselves, he's Wood, you know)
There's nothing figures can't be made to show.
Some may object that actors, made of wood,
Can’t copy feelings owned by flesh and blood.
We hope that this objection won’t be yours,
Seeing how many sticks the town endures.
Shall we cite precedents from former days?
Ben Jonson wrote for puppets - see his plays.
Prince Hamlet wishes, in his liveliest sally,
Ophelia's self could see the puppets dally."
Then commenced what is termed "a new and original" scene of apropos, entitled The Manager's Room, in which the wonders of this novel species of entertainment are exhibited. It is, perhaps, not an easy task to describe them accurately. The figures on the stage, and which move and act before the audience, are no doubt mechanical; but by the admirable combination of the seen and the unseen - the wonderful adjustment of the voice of the speaker to the movements of the puppet - each word is suited to the action, and by an ingenious exercise of ventriloquism the figures the stage are, to all appearances, the only persons taking active part in the drama. Thus, then, these Marionettes, or diminutive substitutes for humanity, are made with the necessary adjuncts of mechanical skill and contrivance - by appropriate distances and scenery, aided by the accompaniment of voice and music, to represent all kinds of dramatic, operatic, and ballet entertainment, with a precision and skill, that do credit to the talent and ingenuity of all concerned. If it were not that the introduction and removal of the figures on and off the stage, are evidently the work of an unseen hand, the illusion would be complete. After The Manager's Room came the celebrated burlesque musical burletta of Bombastes Furioso, and the entertainments concluded with a new and original grand ballet of action, entitled Pauline, or the pupil of nature. The scenery designed and painted by M. Palette and Mr. Pigment, is uncommonly beautiful and effective, and the costumes, which certainly required some tact, are of the richest and most gorgeous description.

"THE 'MARIONETTES'", Morning Post (10 January 1852), 5 (PAYWALL)

. . . As is usual on opening nights, the manager - one Mr. Albany Brown, a neat little gentleman, dressed in the first style of a Bunn or a Jullien - addressed the audience, bespeaking the good will of the public for his company. The address, which is very smartly written, was delivered with good emphasis by the gentleman behind, above, or below the scenes, wherever he might be, whilst the gentleman before the scenes well suited the action to the word, and was repeatedly applauded . . .

"The Royal Marionette Theatre . . .", The Era (11 January 1852), 15" (PAYWALL)

. . . gave a rehearsal of its tiny troupe on Friday evening, at the Adelaide Gallery, upon which occasion there was an initiatory address, "written and delivered by Albany Brown, Esq.," and an exceedingly clever fellow he must be, for the language was passing smart and appropriate. This contrivance has shown merely what are its capabilities, and must improve with every performance. Of themselves they are but puppets, it is true - mere toys and playthings, but they may become the medium for the satire of the day, a flow of wit and caustic hlumour - and a scourge as well as an exhibitor of the follies of the age. When the figures are in perfect command, and clever dialogue is composed for them, they may go to lengths of which we little dream, and become fashionable as well as amusing attractions. Here the actor is superseded by dolls, and you are carried back to the days whe the text was everything . . .

[Advertisement], Morning Herald [London, England] (22 December 1852), 4 (PAYWALL)

THE MARIONETTES at the ST. JAMES'S THEATRE. - Success of the Opera Company. -
Last Two Nights before the Holidays. - THIS EVENING (Wednesdays, Dec. 22.) -
A New Address, by Mr. Albany Brown, introducing a piece de circonstance, entitled AN APPEAL TO THE AUDIENCE.
After which the Burlesque Operetta BOMBASTES FURIOSO. To be followed by a Vocal and Instrumental Ethiopian Entertainment by the EBONY MARIONETTES.
To conclude with the Third Act of LA SONNAMBULA. - Every Evening at Eight. - A Morning performance This Day (Wednesday,) at Three.
Bombastes Furioso, the Ebony Marionettes, and the Third Act of the Sonnambula. - Doors open half an hour before each performance.

NOTE: This is the last advertised appearance of the marionette company in Britain until 1854; during 1853, however, the London venue of the same name, the Royal Marionette Theatre, continued to advertise other performances, as did the Royal Marionette Theatre Quadrille Band

Sydney and regional NSW (April to July 1853):

[Advertisement], Empire [Sydney, NSW] (1 April 1853), 1 

MR. ALBANY BROWNE and his Company having arrived in this colony, intend giving the first of their performances on MONDAY, the 4th April.
The Circus has been nearly rebuilt for their reception, and the interior decorations are of the most costly and elegant description.
The Company will have the honour of making their debut in the Burlesque of BOMBASTES FURIOSO, the piece performed by Marionettes before her Most Gracious Majesty, on the evening of the 2nd June.
The Programme will shortly be published.
"We have seen Bombastes many times repre sented, but never wish to see it again, except by Marionettes, for they are burlesques in themselves." - CHARLES DICKENS.
N.B. - Wanted, one or two persons acquainted with stage business, salary no object to competent persons; also, a good Comic Singer.
Apply at the Theatre, between the hours of 10 and 2 this morning.

ASSOCIATIONS: Olympic Circus (Sydney venue)

[Advertisement], Empire (11 April 1853), 1 

THE public are respectfully informed, that the above Theatre will open THIS EVENING Monday, 11th April.
It is necessary to state that the Theatre has undergone the most complete repair and no expense has been spared regarding the interior decorations, while every attention has been paid to the comfort of the audience.
The Evening's Entertainments will commence with the MANAGER'S ROOM, from which Mr. ALBANY BROWN will have the honour of delivering his opening speech.
To be followed by the Burlesque of BOMBASTES FURIOSO, with new introductions and songs.
An interval of ten minutes.
Song, "The Shells of the Ocean," Mr. Grant.
Favourite Song - Madame Gautrot.
Negro Melody - Mr. Howson.
Song - Mr. Upson.
The evening's entertainments will conclude with several grand PANORAMIC SCENES,
embracing a View in the East Indies; the Arctic Regions, and Search for Sir John Franklin;
Constantinople, from the Golden Horn; a Village Scene on the English Coast.
The whole enlivened with upwards of 150 panoramic figures.
Doors open at Half-past Seven; Performances to commence at Eight o'clock precisely.
The performance is so arranged as to conclude as near 11 o'clock as possible.
Admission : Boxes, 3s.; Reserved Seats, 2s.; Pit, 1s.
In preparation, and will shortly be produced, THE BOTTLE IMP.
Also a new Farce, written expressly for the Marionettes, by Horace Mayhew, entitled WHO'S WIFE IS SHE?

ASSOCIATIONS: Madame Gautrot (vocalist); Walter Howson (vocalist); Charles Upson (vocalist); Horace Mayhew (English humorous writer)

[Advertisement], Freeman's Journal (16 April 1853), 11 

MR. ALBANY BROWN and COMPANY's immense success during the week in
BOMBASTES FURIOSO induces the manager to announce to the Public that by particular desire this favourite Burlesque will be repeated for two or three more evenings,
when it must positively be withdrawn for FURTHER NOVELTY!!
Recollect the GOLDEN AGE produced the MARIONETTES.
The most amusing Company in the Southern Hemisphere, who, during this (their first week's performance) have not only delighted but astonished the audience.
The Burlesque will be preceded by
After the Burlesque a variety of entertainments.
Song, - Mr. Grant,
Song, - Mr. Upson,
Dance, - Mr. Cook,
The [REDACTED] Style of Melody will be represented by Mr. Howson.
The evening's entertainments will conclude with the
GRAND PANORAMIC VIEWS, acknowledged to be by far superior to anything similar ever produced in New South Wales, which will be exhibited every evening until further notice.
Leader of the Orchestra, Mr. Crow.
Admission, Boxes 3s.; Reserved Seats 2s.; Pitt 1s.
Doors open at 7, performance to commence at 8 o'clock precisely.
The whole arrangement is under the management of an experienced Manager.

ASSOCIATIONS: Thomas Crowe (musician)

[Advertisement], Empire (7 May 1853), 1 

Change in the Programme. WIT, MIRTH, FUN, AND MACIC! Roars of Laughter at the Wizard!!
THIS EVENING, Saturday, the Laughable Operatic Burlesque of TOM THUMB; preceded by Mr. Albany Brown's Address.
Comic Song, Mr. Bruton.
To be followed by the most extraordinary feats in Legerdemain, by the Wizard of the South. This evening several new tricks will be introduced.
Song, Mr. Pennet.
To be succeeded (for the last time) by BOMBASTES FURIOSO.
Dance, Mr. Cook. Song, Mr. Bruton.
The whole concluding with the new Panorama of the Alps, illustrated by Moving Figures. Doors open at seven, to commence at half-past. Boxes, 3s.; reserved seats, 2s.; Pit, 1s. Half price at 9 o'clock.

ASSOCIATIONS: John William Bruton (comic vocalist)

[Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (28 May 1853), 3 

ROYAL MARIONETTE THEATRE!! Wit, Mirth, Fun, and Frolic!
The inhabitants of Maitland and its vicinity are most respectfully informed that the
CELEBRATED MARIONETTE COMPANY, from the Adelaide Gallery, who for the last two years have elicited the highest encomiums from the press,
and who have had the distinguished honor of performing three several times before her most graciouss Majesty Queen Victoria,
will have the honor of making their Third and Fourth Appearance in Maitland,
THIS EVENING (SATURDAY), AND MONDAY, THE 30th OF MAY, at the Old Theatre, in the rear of the "Fitzroy Hotel."
It is perhaps necessary to state the building has been repaired and decorated, and every attention paid to ensure the comfort of the visitors.
The performance will commence with an Address to the Audience, by Mr. Albany Brown, the Manager.
After which will follow the Laughable Burlesque (performed thirty successive nights in Sydney) of BOMBASTES FURIOSO.
Comic Song. Mr. Bruton.
To be followed by the Laughable Operatta Burlesque of TOM THUMB.
Comic Song. Mr. Bruton.
The whole to conclude with THE PANORAMA OF CONSTANTINOPLE, which elicited such bursts of applause on its first representation.
On Monday the New Parorama, entitled A SCENE ON THE CORNISH COAST, Illustrated with upwards of One Hundred Mechanical Figures, will be exhibited in place of Constantinople.
Conductor of the Orchestra - Mr. Elsore.
Doors open at Seven; Curtain rises at Half past Seven precisely.
Admission - Reserved Seats, 2s.; Back, 1s.
P. HOOK, Agent.

ASSOCIATIONS: Mr. Elsore (? Elson) (musician); Queen's Theatre (Maitland venue)

[2 advertisements], The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (1 June 1853), 3 

Last Night but Two of Bombastes Furioso. THIS Evening (Wednesday), and Tomorrow,
Comic Singing by Mr. BRUTON.
Concluding with, for the first time, the PANORAMA OF TARTARY.
Admission-Reserved seats, 2s.; back, 1s.
P. HOOK, Agent.

THE public are respectfully informed that Mr. Albany Brown and his Marionette Company will have the honor of performing for the
BENEFIT of the MAITLAND HOSPITAL, on FRIDAY, 3rd of June, when a variety of Novel Entertainments will be produced.
Mr. Foster has kindly signified his intention of placing one of his CABS, Free of Charge, for persons residing at East Maitland desirous of visiting the Theatre on Friday night.
H. MURIEL, Proprietor.

ASSOCIATIONS: ? Henry Peter Hook (agent, publican); Henry Muriel (theatre proprietor)

[Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (8 June 1853), 3 

SINGLETON. ROYAL MARIONETTE THEATRE, AT MR. ALCORN'S. First Night of the Marionettes in Singleton.
MR. ALBANY BROWN and his well known Company will have the honour of PERFORMING in Singleton on
THURSDAY and FRIDAY EVENINGS. Doors open at Seven o'clock, to commence at Half-past Seven precisely. ADMISSION - 2s.

[Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (22 June 1853), 3 

ROYAL MARIONETTE THEATRE. At Mr. Mayo's, Hunter River Hotel. For One Night only! . . . This EVENING, WEDNESDAY, June 22nd . . .
Morpeth, ONE NIGHT ONLY, MR. ALBANY BROWN and his Company . . . on THURSDAY (TO-MORROW), June 23rd, at Mr. Murphy's, Crown and Anchor . . .
Newcastle . . . on SATURDAY, June 25th, and MONDAY, 27th instant . . .
P. HOOK, Agent.

[2 advertisements], The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser [NSW] (2 July 1853), 3 

[Advertisement], Empire (23 August 1853), 3 

TAKE NOTICE - That if the property left in my charge be not redeemed within Fourteen Days from this date, it will be sold by public auction.
H. P. HOOK, Painters' Arms, Castlereagh-street, Sydney. August 23rd, 1853.

After Australia:

[Advertisement], Belfast Commercial Chronicle [Ireland] (15 April 1854), 2 

THEATRE ROYAL . . . The Royal and Original Troupe of MARIONETTES
Will have the honour of making their first appearance in Ireland, ON EASTER MONDAY, April 17, 1854.
THE Proprietor of the Royal Marionettes begs to announce abort series of his distinguished Drawing-room Entertainments in Belfast,
for which porpose an elegant Miniature Theatre has been erected on Stage of the Theatre Royal,
for the Representations by the Marionette Company, which includes, in addition opwards of 100 Figures,
the ORIGINAL EBONY MARIONETTES As they appeared on two occasions before the Royal Family, by command of her Majesty,
considered to the most extraordinary specimens of mechanical art exhibited in England during the last century -
their extraordinary performances and proximity to life creating the unbounded wonder and admiration of all . . .
Mr ALBANY BROWN will deliver an Introductory Address, written for the occasion, introducing his auditors to the Manager's Room . . .

"ROYAL CREMORNE GARDENS", Morning Chronicle [London, England] (4 June 1857), 3 

. . . Another novel feature introduced this week is the Marionette Theatre . . . The performances of the Marionettes are very amusing, and the ingenuity displayed in their manipulation is wonderful. The scenery is beautifully painted and on a reduced scale, to suit the Lilliputian dimensions of the performers. There was dancing, singing, and comedy - all very well rendered, especially the duet of "What are the wild waves saying?" by Mme. Chocolato and Mdlle. Laurietti, who, we believe, would be better knowen, if seen, as Mrs. Bartleman and Miss Mayne. The manager, Mr. Albany Brown (in whose voice the veteran Glindon could be easily recognised), delivered a capital opening address, containing some smart allusions . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Robert Glindon (comic actor, vocalist, writer)

"ROYAL CREMORNE GARDENS", Morning Chronicle [London, England] (27 September 1858), 3 

This highly popular property closes its gates on the 4th proximo, so that one week and one day more still remain for the lovers of open air amusements to enjoy their favourite resort. Each at evening includes a concert, an early and a late ballet, a marionette performance, and, of course, the ball, which the fineness of the nights enables the visitors to enjoy in in the usual al fresco mode. The new arrangement of the Marionette manager's room appears to be much appreciated, Mr. Albany Brown's polite address securing for him now, as on all former occasions, very considerable applause.

Bibliography and resources:

George Speaight, The history of the English puppet theatre (New York: John De Graff, [c. 1955]), 240-44 (DIGITISED)

[242]. . . After their season at the Adelaide Gallery the Royal Marionettes undertook a provincial tour, playing for three months at Manchester and two at Liverpool; they were back in London at the St James's Theatre for Christmas, made a limited reappearance at the Adelaide Gallery, and were eventually established at Cremorne Gardens in 1857 in a magnificent Marionette Theatre, with an imposing Italianate facade, capable of seating a thousand people, which had been specially built for them. Here, with Mr. Albany Brown, their manager, and Hugo Vamp, their author, they played nightly at nine o'clock for several years, charging from 6d. to 2s., [243] in a further selection of pantomimical extravaganzas . . . We should like to know more of the men behind the Royal Marionette Theatre . . .

"Royal Marionette Theatre", The JUBA project 

Royal Polytechnic (Sydney)

Sydney, NSW, 1854-60 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: James Smith Norrie (proprietor)

Royal Prince of Wales Theatre (Bathurst)

Bathurst, NSW, by 1855 

Royal Victoria Theatre, Adelaide

Opened 23 November 1850 

Royal Victoria Theatre, Bathurst (NSW)

Bathurst, NSW, by 1853-54 

Royal Victoria Theatre, Hobart Town ("new theatre", Theatre Royal)

Opened March 1837, as the "new theatre", and "Theatre Royal"; as "Royal Victoria Theatre" by mid 1838 


"THE NEW THEATRE", The Tasmanian (3 March 1837), 7 

We are happy to hear that this house will be opened under the auspices of a Committee, who will have power to name or object to the pieces, and to settle disputes between the actors and the managers. The names of the gentlemen on the Committee, viz. A. F. Kemp, Esq., Thomas Hewitt, Esq., and George Cartwrigbt, Esq. seem to warrant the assumption that the new Theatre, under such controul, will be conducted upon a respectable footing by Mr. Sampson Cameron, acting manager; Mr. John Taylor, stage manager; and Mr. James Belmore, machinist.

[Advertisement], Colonial Times (14 March 1837), 3 

Royal Victoria Theatre, Melbourne (Bourke-street, adjoining the Eagle Tavern; "Royal Pavilion")

Opened Melbourne, NSW (VIC), by February-March 1841; active to April 1845 


"THEATRICALS", Port Phillip Patriot and Melbourne Advertiser (4 February 1841), 2 

Monsieur Gautrot, we understand, is engaged as leader of the Orchestra at the projected Theatre in Bourke-street, and Madame as Cantatrice. Overtures have also been made to several of the Sydney stars and, though the result is not yet known, there is every reason to expect that in a short time Melbourne will possess a very effective corps dramatique.

[Advertisement], Port Phillip Gazette (13 February 1841), 2 

ROYAL VICTORIA THEATRE, Adjoining the Eagle Tavern, Great Bourke-street, Melbourne.
THE above place of public entertainment being in the course of erection, and the proprietor calculating on it completion by the latter end of March, respectfully intimates to the Gentry and Inhabitants of Melbourne, that at the solicitation of numerous friends, he purpose issuing tickets for the season, on the following terms:
Box Tickets, admitting a Lady and Gentkman £7 10s, Pit ditto £5 5s, not transferrable.
Tickets may be obtained on and after Tuesday, next, 16th February, by application to Monsieur and Madame Gautrot, or to Mr. Jamieson, Eagle Tavern, as above.
THOMAS HODGE, Proprietor. February 13, 1841.

Royal Victoria Theatre, Sydney

Opened 26 March 1838 

Company & orchestra lists:

[News], The Australian (6 March 1838), 4 

Mrs. Cousins, the late Miss Grant, made her debut during the management of Capt. Polhill, at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, and was a pupil of Signior Lanza and Alexander Lee. We understand that she is engaged to appear at the opening of the "Royal Victoria Theatre," Sydney.

[Advertisement], Commercial Journal and Advertiser (24 March 1838), 1 

Royal Victoria Theatre, PITT-STREET.
THE- Public is most respectfully informed that this Theatre being ready for the reception of the Public,
the Season will commence on MONDAY EVENING NEXT . . . March 26, 1838 . . .
Orchestra Leader, Mr. Deane. Principal Flute, Mr. Wallace.
4 Violins, 2 Tenors, Violoncello, 1 Double Bass, 2 Clarionets, 2 Flutes, 2 French Horns, 1 Trumpet, 1 Bassoon, 1 Serpent, 1 Drum . . .
Mr. Falchon, from the Hobart Town Theatre, will sing the admired and popular Song of Paddy's Wedding . . .
J. WYATT, Proprietor.

"Theatricals", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (17 September 1842), 2

. . . The following are the members of the Corps Dramatique, for the season:- Messrs. Nesbitt, Knowles, Fenton, Jones, Peat, Lee, Chambers, Collins, Simes, Dibden, and Grove; Mesdames. O'Flaherty, Thomson, Knowles, Larra, and Wallace; two Misses Jones, Miss Thompson, and 6 from England. The Orchestra: Mr. [S.] W. Wallace; Mr. Wallace, sen. Mr. Leggatt; Mr. Deane; Messrs. Deane, Portbury [sic], Walton, O'Flaherty, Pappin, Downes, and Weston; also Mr. Gibbs, from England, who is expected daily by the Trial.

David Burn, journal, Sydney, 15 August 1844, State Library of New South Wales, MS B 190/2 (DIGITISED) (TRANSCRIPT)

Thursday 15th [August 1844] . . . In the evening I looked into the Theatre for half an hour. It is named the Victoria and is situated about the middle of Pitt Street. Its exterior is devoid of any architectural feature, the interior, however, is light and ever elegant, a very deep horse shoe in form, the pit and centre boxes retiring far backwards from the stage - the proscenium and ceiling are divided by gold and mouldings and painted panels emblematical of naught which my imagination co'd decipher. There is a pit, dress and upper circle of boxes, with a gallery. The house is lit by 8 gas burners covered with ground glass shades, disposed around the two circles of boxes, and two chandeliers of 4 burners each over either stage door. There is accommodation for from 12 to 1600 spectators - the prices of admission are 2/6., 2/., 1/. & 6d. Half prices extending to the boxes alone. The demeanour of the auditory is quite as good as that of any British Theatre and there is by no means the ragged vagabondism visible. Like similar establishments in other countries the upper circle is the place of resort for unfortunate women, as they are conventionally styled in dress and bearing their conduct [indecipherable] a better spirit than that which pervades the same grade in the British Metropolis. There is neither the same gross wantoness so offensive to every well regulated mind, nor is the spectator who wishes quietly to regard the business of the stage, harassed by importunate elicitations, a modesty of demeanour whatever else exercising a wholesome decorum. The house was but thinly attended a large concourse having been there the preceding evening. With regard to the performances or rather the performer, as it would be idle waste of time to break a butterfly upon the wheel, I shall content myself with remarking that they are more contemptible than the most paltry troop of English strollers I ever beheld. The men low, vulgar, looking fellows, the ladies neither pleasing nor pretty, and utterly unconversant with the commonest principles of their art. In this respect the Hobart Town Thespians are a long way before them, many being genuine artists.

ASSOCIATIONS: David Burn (journalist, playwright); for the program of performances that night, see [Advertisement], The Australian (15 August 1844), 3 

[Advertisement], Empire (25 August 1854), 1

"ROYAL VICTORIA THEATRE", Empire [Sydney, NSW] (29 August 1854), 4 

After an interval of about two months, this popular place of entertainment was last night opened to the public . . . On the occasion of reporting the first performance under the new management, it may be proper to notice the alterations and improvements which the theatre has recently undergone. It will be remembered, that Mr. Wyatt's lease of the building having expired, the property was purchased by Mr. J. F. Josephson, of whom Mr. Torning has taken a lease. As Mr. Wyatt required for the new theatre, now partly erected in Castlereagh-street, all the stage scenery, curtains, and other histrionic appliances, these have been taken away, and the present lessee has therefore been obliged to provide afresh these necessary adjuncts . . . After the Anthem, an appropriate opening address was delivered by a Mr. Crosby, (lately connected with the Strand Theatre.) Though not possessing any high degree of merit, this Address was sufficiently allegorical and novel to please the audience, and was, consequently, favourably received . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Joseph Wyatt (past proprietor); Joshua Frey Josephson (new proprietor); Andrew Torning (lessee); James Crosby (actor); Prince of Wales Theatre ("new theatre")

[Advertisement], Bell's Life in Sydney (26 August 1854), 3

"PROFESSOR ANDERSON IN SYDNEY. TO THE EDITOR OF THE ERA", The Era [London, England] (17 April 1859), 6 (PAYWALL)

Prince of Wales Theatre, Sydney, New South Wales, Feb. 4th, 1859.
Dear Sir, - Of Melbourne theatres and Melbourne theatricals I told you in a letter some months ago. I now propose giving you some account of the profession, its standing, and its prospects in the capital of New South Wales. But as theatrical news is rather copious just now throughout the colonies, I shall not restrict myself to Sydney for matter to write about, but give you the chit-chat of the Australian Stage as I hear it every day.

I came here from Hobart-town, after a most successful season there, and after playing in one of the prettiest theatres I have seen to nightly overflowing houses. On arriving in Sydney I found that I had to contend with many difficulties, the nature of which I will presently explain. First, however, let me tell you how the Stage stands at present in New South Wales.

Sydney has three theatres, the first as well as the largest and most fashionable is the Prince of Wales, in Castlereagh-street; the second is the Victoria in Pitt-street; and the third the Lyceum in York-street. The relative position of each will be pretty well understood, if in the first instance you picture George-street, the chief thoroughfare in the city, as being a large and perfectly straight thoroughfare of about three miles in length, extending from the quays at its lower end to Newtown, at its upper termination. On your right hand as you go up George-street you have York-street running parallel, and in the rear of the houses to your left is Pitt-street, and beyond that again Castlereagh-street, both parallel also to the main artery of the metropolis. York-street, however, is on the un-fashionable, and Pitt and Castlereagh-streets, with their respective theatres, on the fashionable side of the city. The Prince of Wales theatre is at present leased by Mr. Charles Poole, the Victoria and Lyceum by Mr. James Simmonds. Sydney has no concert hall nor any other large building adapted for the purpose of public amusement. It had an Assembly Room once annexed to the Royal Hotel, but lately it has heen transformed into a drapery store; concerts have given way to calicoes; music has moved out to let muslin in; and the only terpsichorean efforts of the tenants is to "dance attendance" upon their customers.

Externally, the Prince of Wales Theatre is a large and imposing structure . . .

The next theatre in point of importance is the Victoria in Pitt-street. A nice, well-constructed, comfortably arranged house, but presenting outside many of the characteristics of its name-sake in the New Cut. Indeed, on a Saturday night the street in which the theatre is situated would probably remind a Cockney of the Lower Marsh, Lambeth, or of the neighbourhood of Shoreditch Church. There are the same ginger-beer fountains, the same stale-apples, the same suspicious-looking hot pies, the same throng, the same un-musical sounds, and the same unpleasant smells. The "Vic," as it is familiarly termed, is at present the theatre of the mobocracy. You will see rows of equipages and dozens of livened lackeys outside the door of the Prince of Wales; but a carriage and a pair of greys in front of the Victoria would be as strange a sight as they would be if seen in front of a penny show in Whitechapel. Yet there was a time when the Victoria ranked as the chief theatre of Sydney. On its boards Madame Bishop and Miss Catherine Hayes have sung, Lola Montez danced, and Mrs. Charles Young acted. The present manager, Mr. James Simmonds, has pursued a policy, which he admits has not resulted profitably to himself, and certainly has not helped to maintain the character of his house. A sixpenny pit and threepenny gallery, with the Brigand of the Abruzzi one night, and Uncle Tom's Cabin or Jack Shepherd the next, have produced their usual results in bringing about empty boxes and a full, but unprofitable gallery. An effort is now being made to resuscitate the house and retrieve its fallen fortunes by the introduction of a ballet company, but not with that success which I believe was anticipated . . . I am, dear sir, yours, very truly,
Wizard of the North.


Sable Brothers (minstrel serenader troupe, VIC, 1854)

Active Melbourne and Geelong, VIC, March- April 1854


"A RUN-AWAY", The Argus [Melbourne, VIC] (5 April 1854), 5 

About two weeks since, a company of negro melodists, known as the Sable Brothers, performed at Rowe's Circus once. Their agent was a person, known as J. A. North, or Manchester. From Melbourne, the sable brethren proceeded to Geelong, where arrangements were made for their appearance on Monday, 27th March. J. L. Smith's name also appeared in the bills, and, from one reason or another, the house was on that night, as it is called in theatrical parlance "full of money." All went on well until the closing of the performances when Ninth, alias Manchester, as agent for the sable brothers, contrived, somehow or the other, to get hold of the box containing all the money, and the box containing all the cheques. He succeeded in depositing with Mr. Noble the chequebox and its contents, and took away the money-box and its contents, with which he made off. The following morning, on opening the box which was in Mr. Noble's possession, the deficiency was discovered. As the sable brothers, the proprietor, and the performers were likely to suffer by this loss, Westcott, one of the equestrians, started off on horseback on Tuesday forenoon in pursuit of the fugitive. A few-miles distant from Geelong, he came to a public-house, where North had slept, but from which he had started about two hours previously. As it is said there are obligations of various kinds in existence between North and certain persons in Melbourne, in the shape of borrowed money unpaid, gold watches lent but not returned, &c., it is supposed that he did not pass through this city on his road.

Sable Brethren (minstrel serenader troupe, NSW, 1855-65)

ASSOCIATIONS: Felix Garmone (member); J. W. Brenni (member); Frederick Harrington (member)


[Advertisement], The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser [NSW] (24 November 1855), 3 

the SABLE BROTHERS, the only true representatives of Negro Life and Character,
at Mr. Hammond's, SATURDAY; at Singleton, MONDAY and TUESDAY;
at Muswell Brook, WEDNESDAY and THURSDAY. See small bills.

[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (4 February 1856), 1 

Immense Attraction. - Engagement of the renowned
SABLE BRETHREN, Messrs. D. Brenni, F. Harrington, and Felix Germone.
MONDAY EVENING. February 4, 1856.
Proframme I. Winchester Quick Step, Band; Glee - "The Wild Racoon track," Company;
Burlesque - "Away she went," D. Brenni; Refrain - "Oh, Boys, carry me along," F. Germone;
Ballad - "Nancy Till," F. Harrington; Song - "The Blue-dress'd Gal," D. Brenni;
Song, "I seed her at de Winder," F. Germone; Medley and chorus - "I wish I was in ole Virginny," F. Harrington.
Medley dance, by Miss Melville.
Programme II. Banjo solo - "Bells with new variations," D. Brenni; Chorus "Jump into my Canoe," Company;
Song - "Camptown Races," D. Brenni; Ballad - "Mary May," F. Germone;
Extravaganza "Get up in de Morning," F. Harrington.
To wind up with the original burlesque of THE HAUNTED HOUSE; or, Half an Hour with the Invisible Spirits.
Dress circle, 3s; side boxes, 2s.; pit, 1s. To commence at 8 o'clock.

Sacramento Minstrels

Active Sydney, NSW, 1860-66 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Sacred Heart Choral Society (Darlinghurst, NSW) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

St. Andrew's cathedral, Sydney [Episcopalian / Anglican] (Sydney NSW)'s+Cathedral+Sydney (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

St. Benedict's church, Sydney [Catholic]'s+Sydney (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

St. David's cathedral, Hobart [Episcopalian/Anglican]'s+Cathedral+Hobart (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Old St, David's church, interior; Tasmanian Archives

Old St, David's church, interior; Tasmanian Archives$init=NS1013-1-1742 (DIGITISED)

St. Francis's cathedral, Adelaide (SA) [Catholic]'s+cathedral+Adelaide (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

St. Francis's church, Melbourne (VIC) [Catholic]'s+Melbourne (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Bibliography and resources:

H. Morin Humphreys (comp.), Men of the time in Australia, Victorian series, second edition (Melbourne: McCarron, Bird & Co. 1882), [xxxv]-[xxxvi] (DIGITISED)

Cosgrave, John, treasurer the City Corporation of Melbourne. Mr. Cosgrave was born 6th April, 1826, in the village of Saleen, County Cork, Ireland. His father was a carpenter by trade, and carried on the combined callings of builder and timber merchant. Early in 1837 he left England with his father, mother and five brothers, bound for Tasmania, then known as Van Diemen's Land . . . Arrived in Hobart Town, he commenced the study of music under Professor Reichenberg, and showed signs of a musical taste that earned for him the esteem of his master. Soon after arrival in Tasmania he was taken in hand as a pupil by Dr. John Pearson Rowe, of Hobart Town, for the purpose of studying medicine, and came with that gentleman to Port Phillip, in the ship Britomart, in 1839 . . . Mr. Cosgrave prides himself upon being the first bandmaster that led a regular orchestra in Victoria, and was for about seven years in charge of, and instructor to, the choir of St. Francis'Church . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: John Cosgrave (chorister and bandsman); Joseph Reichenberg (teacher)


A well-informed correspondent, writing from Geelong, has favored me with the following curious facts on this subject: -
"The first choir at St. Francis', Melbourne, consisted of Dr. C. J. Sandford, with Mr. J. P. Smith, a solicitor, and Mr. William Clarke, a music seller and music teacher, who kept a shop in Collins street east. Clarke was supposed to act as president, and took a prominent part in the singing. There was a fourth (F. L. Clay, another attorney ? ), whose name has passed out of my recollection. Though none of them belonged to the faith of which St. Francis was supposed to be one of the great expounders, they were not the less all "jolly good fellows," but most decidedly better adapted to "trolling a catch" than chanting High Mass. The next attempt at choir-making was essayed by the Misses O'Farrell, assisted by the Rev. Father Watkins, one of the young ladies very efficiently doing the instrumental part. But such praiseworthy efforts were intended to serve only temporary purposes, and consequently only performed on special occasions and at Benedictions, Vespers not being sung in those remote days. It happened that three or four young fellows who met at a wedding talked over forming a choir as Father Geoghegan had been speaking to some of them about it. These were Tom Kennedy, Michael Lyons, Davy Hurley, plasterers; John Cosgrove, late city treasurer, John Mansfield and James Reilly. They determined to form a class, and take lessons from Wm. Clarke, already mentioned. One of the party was so eager in the matter that he sold his watch to pay his share of the preliminary expenses. Their first attempt in the church was on the occasion of Archbishop Polding's first visit to Melbourne. After having acquitted themselves to their own entire satisfaction, they were complimented by the Rev. Father McEvey as they were leaving the little square box that did duty for a vestry on having made "a precious mess of it." They persevered, however, and, with the assistance of a few ladies, got on very well. John Dowling, with his violin, and Robert Newstead with flute, helped at the practices to keep them together. After a little while Micky Mac picked up an old harmonium in some sale-room and made it a present to the choir. A Miss Lyons - now Mrs. Dutfoy (now of Rokewood), sister to the late Mrs. Quirk, and a daughter of Peter Whelan (who once kept the Daniel O'Connell in Bourke street, near the Post Office) - with a few other ladies, joined. J. Cosgrave, as well as singing, learned the harmonium from Mr. Clarke; beside; which he had McDonald on the cornopian, P. Phelan, clarionet.

ASSOCIATIONS: John Mansfield (correspondent); James Watkins (cleric)

The chronicles of early Melbourne, 1835 to 1851, by Garryowen [ = Edmund Finn] (Melbourne: Fergusson and Mitchell, 1888), 534-35, 967 (DIGITISED)

THE FATHER MATTHEW SOCIETY . . . In 1844 the [535] movement acquired considerable numerical importance, and the meetings were held in a schoolroom erected rearward of the St. Francis' Presbytery in Lonsdale Street. Probably in consonance with the light-hearted elasticity of the Irish temperament, the Father Matthewites went in strongly for outside spectacular display - such as processions, picnics, and excursions. A band was formed, which acquired more celebrity than that of the Society before referred to. The functions of this musical combination were somewhat mixed, being partly lay and partly ecclesiastical, for on special occasions it used to assist at the church services.

The first bandsmen were Mr. John Cosgrave, (late City Treasurer), then (in 1844) a smartly-made well-shaped, good-looking juvenile, who performed on the clarionet; Mr. John Mansfield, now a seriousfaced, white-haired "Geelongoose," proprietor of one of the best-established bakeries in "The Pivot," who worked a trombone; four strapping youngsters known as Phelan, Egan, Connor, and Conlon, (a compositor), operating on various instruments, the whole concluding with Mr. J. P. ("Jerry") Dalton, who thundered away on a big drum. The Society's first street demonstration was on the 22nd January, 1845, when 150 of them marched forth with band and banners, wended their way to the then grassy and well-wooded Richmond Paddock (now the cut up and disfigured Yarra Bank), where they bivouaced on the fragrant bank of the river, drank "billied" tea brewed in big pots, and crammed themselves with sandwiches, cakes, and ginger beer, returning in the evening, blowing and half-bursting specimens of total abstinence. On Easter Monday (24th March) there was a grand "Father Matthew" procession through the principal highways of Melbourne, and after "doing the town" the members adjourned for refreshments to the St. Francis' school-room, finishing with a dance in a tent pitched on the Church reserve; and amongst a number of admiring outsiders were the then Resident Judge, the Honorable Roger Therry, and his better half. The Society has now so far succeeded as to number 600 members, and the funds looked so promising that there was some notion of building a "Father Matthew" Hall.

[967] . . . A well-informed correspondent writing from Geelong, has favoured me with the following: -
"The first choir at St. Francis', Melbourne, consisted of Dr. C. J. Sandford, with Mr. J. P. Smiths, Solicitor; Mr. William Clarke, a music seller and music teacher, who kept a shop in Collins Street East; and a fourth (F. L. Clay, another Attorney ?) whose name has passed from my recollection. They were all "jolly good fellows," but better adapted to "trolling a catch" than chanting High Mass. Vespers were not sung in those remote days. Three or four young fellows - Tom Kennedy, Michael Lyons, Davy Hurley, John Cosgrave (late City Treasurer), John Mansfield, and James Reilly, determined to form a class. One of the party was so eager in the matter that he sold his watch to pay his share of the expenses. Their first attempt in the church was on the occasion of Archbishop Pohlding's first visit to Melbourne, when they were complimented by the Rev. Father McEvey, on having made "a precious mess of it." They persevered, however, and with the assistance of a few ladies, got on very well. After a little while "Micky Mac" picked up an old harmonium in some sale-room, and made it a present to the choir. A Miss Lyons - now Mrs. Dutfoy (of Rokewood), sister to the late Mrs. Quirk, and a daughter of Peter Whelan (who once kept the Daniel O'Connell in Bourke Street, near the Post Office), with a few other ladies, joined. J. Cosgrave, as well as singing, learned the harmonium from Mr. Clarke; besides which, he had McDonald on the cornopean, and P. Phelan, clarionet."

ASSOCIATIONS: Charles John Sandford (vocalist); John Pridham Smith (vocalist, solicitor); William Clarke (musician); Frederick Lord Clay (vocalist); Alexander McDonald (cornopean);
see also "Memories and Musings", Advocate (15 January 1848), 12 

St. George's church, Battery Point (Hobart, VDL/TAS) [Anglican]

St. George's cathedral, Perth (WA) [Anglican]'s+Cathedral+Perth (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

St. George's Hall, Melbourne

Completed 1862's+Hall+Melbourne (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"TOWN TALK", The Herald (27 September 1862), 5 

"ST. GEORGE'S HALL", Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle (11 October 1862), 2 

St. James's church, Melbourne (St. James's cathedral) (VIC) [Anglican] (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

St. James's church, Sydney (NSW) [Anglican] (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"CHANTS TO SUIT THE CLIMATE. To the Editor", The Sydney Morning Herald (8 April 1854), 3 

Sir,- Will your correspondent, the reforming parishioner of St. James's, be so condescending as to enlighten me, as one of the "many of your readers," upon the composition of his "climate chants," as, although I have studied melody as well as harmony a little, and have also heard of "music for the million," up to the present time I have not been fortunate enough to learn anything about "music for the climate." I should also feel greatly obliged if your correspondent would at the same time inform me where I can obtain a copy of his "uniform Gregorian chants." I have puzzled my brains a good deal in I endeavouring to ascertain what Gregory could have been so audacious as to compose chants on a model quite at the antipodes of that of the great Gregory, namely, on the "uniform system." From all I have been able to learn of the system of chanting introduced by Pope Gregory, his chants (commonly called " The Gregorian Chants" are irregular in their measure, and, therefore, not uniform; and I believe all these chants are quite within "the reach of ordinary voices." Perhaps, however, I am very ill-informed on the subject, and need the illumination of your musical parishioner. Your obedient Servant, ANOTHER PARISHIONER.

Bibliography and resources:

Graeme D. Rushworth, Historic organs of New South Wales: the instruments, their makers and players 1791-1940 (Sydney: Hale and Iremonger, 1988), 25-28

St. John's church, Launceston (VDL [TAS]) [Anglican]


"REMINISCENCES. [BY. B]", Launceston Examiner (12 November 1892), 2

A few months ago you published some reminiscences of old Launceston furnished by various correspondents. I wish now to add a few to those already presented, and shall deal principally with matters musical. Here is something of a curiosity in that line. About 59 years since (1833) my father arrived here from England, and on the first Sunday after his arrival attended worship in St. John's Church. The singing, such as it was, was chiefly noticeable from the absence of instrumental aid, though an organ, resplendent in its polished oak case with gilt pipes, stood in the gallery. As he was leaving the church, my father enquired from the verger the reason of the organ's silence, and received for answer, "The organist in serving a sentence in the chain gang, so we can't have any music." Some years later than this Mrs. Nairn became organist; at one time the post was occupied by Mr. Beckford, who, being unfortunate in farming pursuits, removed to town and entered into business. Whilst he was organist a severe epidemic of influenza prevailed all over the colony, and Mr. Beckford did not escape. Although suffering severely he would not neglect his duties, and was at his post on Sunday. Whilst in the midst of a psalm a violent fit of coughing came on which brought that chant to an abrupt conclusion. I believe Miss Henry, now Mrs. H. B. Nicholls, was at one time organist at St. John's, then Mr. William Snelling, afterwards Mr. Tom Sharp, who held the post for many years. He added as octave of pedals to the organ, which, though an iustrument of exceptional sweetness and mellowness of tone, was without thcse neeessary aids to modern playing. After some years, through Mr. Sharp's exertions, the present organ was procured, the old one being sold . . .

St. John's church, Parramatta (NSW) [Anglican]'s+Parramatta (shareable link to this entry)'s_Cathedral,_Parramatta (Wikipedia)

St. John Parramatta pulpit, 1846

Three-decker pulpit, organ and organ gallery, St. John's, Parramatta, picturing the organ and the late Samuel Marsden (top), Henry Bobart (centre), and John Foreman Staff (bottom); needlework by Eliza Staff, painted faces by William Griffiths, 1846

ASSOCIATIONS: Samuel Marsden (clergyman); Henry Hodgkinson Bobart (clergymen); John and Eliza Staff (parish clerk, needleworker); William Griffiths (artist, painter)

Bibliography and resources:

Graeme D. Rushworth, Historic organs of New South Wales: the instruments, their makers and players 1791-1940 (Sydney: Hale and Iremonger, 1988), 22-25

St. Joseph's Band (Hobart, TAS)

Formed Hobart, VDL (TAS), 1840s's+Band+Hobart (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

St. Joseph's Band (Launceston, TAS)

Formed Launceston, VDL (TAS), July 1845's+Band (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)'s+Band+Launceston (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


John AGNEW (first master)


"ST. JOSEPH'S BAND. FIFTY YEARS' HISTORY", Launceston Examiner (6 July 1895), 3

On Monday, 22nd inst., the members of St. Joseph's Band will celebrate the jubilee of the organisation with a fancy dress ball in the Albert Hall . . . St. Joseph's Band was formed in July, 1845, in connection with St. Joseph's Total Abstinence Society, and may therefore be said to be the oldest association of its character in the colonies. The original members met for the sake of a pleasure able diversion as well as for the purpose of becoming useful as a band of musicians. So thorough has been the spirit of earnest ness that the band is, after an existence of half a century, regarded - and justly regarded - as a musical organisation of which the city should be proud. The members have followed the study of music under proper direction, and by their efforts have been able to do good in an effectual and extensive manner, the work of alleviating distress having formed one of the chief features in the history of the band. The first bandmaster was the late Mr. John Agnew, of the 96th Regiment, and the original members were Messrs. Charles Galvin, John McKenzie, William Mainsbridge, Andrew Skate, Arthur McIver, Francis McIver, Morgan O'Meara, William O'Meara, David O'Keefe, Thomas Keogh, Thomas Leary, John Murphy, and Bernard Lynch. Ten of these early players are dead, the only surviving members of the original band being Messrs. Morgan O'Meara, who is now in New Zealand; David O'Keefe, at present in Victoria; and Thomas Leary, who is carrying on business as a chemist in Victoria. Mr. Joseph Galvin, one of the early members, is still an officer in the band. When Mr. Agnew left with his regiment for India he was succeeded by Mr. Michael Dillan, solo clarionet player of the 96th Regiment band, and after him Mr. Drum-Major Allen, who had retired from the 96th Regiment and remained at Launceston. Mr. Allen was the father of Mr. C. W. Allen, a member of the present Westbury Council. He was succeeded by the late Mr. Charles Galvin, one of the founders of the institution, who always took a warm interest in its progress until the date of his death a short time ago. Mr. Galvin was band master until Mr. John McGuire was appointed, and the latter, who was a good clarionet player, continued for some time to lead the members to a higher state of musical excellence.

"A MUSICAL JUBILEE", The Tasmanian (3 August 1895), 25-27 

"The World's Oldest Band Celebrates Its Centenary", Examiner (25 August 1945), 11

THE FORMATION OF ST. JOSEPH'S BAND was the outcome of a temperance campaign conducted at Launceston by the Irish apostle of temperance, Theobold Mathew, at St. Joseph's Church, then on a site near that of the existing Church of the Apostles. Mathew, who was known as the Rev. Father Mathew, formed the St. John's Total Abstinence Society in 1845, and to further the work of the society St. Joseph's Band was formed the same year. The meeting at which the band was formed took place in St. Joseph's Hall, Margaret St., Launceston. "The Same Old Joes" as they are affectionately called, is the oldest band in the world, and is known throughout the Commonwealth. The original members met for the sake of a pleasurable diversion as well as for the purpose of becoming useful as a band of musicians. The first bandmaster was the late Mr. John Agnew, of the 96th Regiment, and the original members were: Messrs. Charles Galvin, John McKenzie, William Mainsbridge, William Robins, Andrew Skafe, Arthur McIver, Francis Mclver, Morgan O'Meara, William O'Meara, David O'Keefe, Thomas Keogh, Thomas Leary, John Leary, John Murphy, and Bernard Lynch. The first president was the late Rev. Dean Thomas Butler. Subsequently Mr. Joseph Galvin, John Galvin, Thomas J. Doolan, John L. Doolan, James Doolan, and Michael Doolan became members of the band. When Mr. John Agnew left with his regiment for India he was succeeded by Mr. Michael Dillon, solo clarionet player of the 11th Regiment Band, and after him Drum-Major C. W. Allen, who had retired from the 96th Regiment, and remained in Launceston. Mr. Allen was the father of the late Mr. C. W. Allen, who was for many years a member of the Westbury Council, and for a term a member of the House of Assembly. He was succeeded by Mr. Charles Galvin, one of the founders of the institution, who always took a warm interest in. its progress until the date of his death. He was the father of Mr. Bart J. Galvin, who is still the band's patron. Mr. Charles Galvin was bandmaster until Mr. John McGuire was appointed.

St. Joseph's church, Hobart (TAS) [Catholic]

St. Kilda Glee and Madrigal Society (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

St. Lawrence Choral Society (Christ Church St. Lawrence [sic], Sydney, NSW) [Episcopalian/Anglican] (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (Wikipedia)

ASSOCIATIONS: Historical spelling used above; note the current spelling is Christ Church St. Laurence

David Burn, journal, Sydney, 20 August 1844, State Library of New South Wales, MS B 190/2 (DIGITISED) (TRANSCRIPT)

. . . Close by the Asylum there is a very beautiful Edifice dedicated to the worship of the Church of England nearly completed - The officiating clergyman - is to be Mr. Walsh - The Hay Market and Carters Barracks are likewise in this vicinity . . .

St. Mark's church, Fitzroy (VIC) [Episcopalian/Anglican]


E. N. Matthews, Colonial organs and organbuilders (Carlton: Melbourne University Press, 1969), 134

[134] ST. MARK'S FITZROY: Schoolroom opened May 1849. Church: stone set 1 July 1853; opened 21 January 1855; architect James Blackburn . . . 6 January 1854, James Blackburn offered the church use, or purchase at £100, of his small pipe organ of 8 stops; erected by H. Nicholas for £20. March 1855, second organ, of 14 stops with mahogany case, built by Forster & Andrews, Hull, erected by H. J. Izard for £14 . . . tuning and maintenance by Izard, the church sexton until 1857 when Jesse Biggs took over. 1858 organist [Thomas Oates] reported organ "was in a disgraceful state, both as regards pipes and action. Some notes will not speak at all; others say a good deal too much". Repairs done 1858, 1861 . . . Organists: 1854: H. J. King; 1855, J. R. Vincent; 1856: S. Kaye; H. R. Ruxton; 1858: Thomas Oates; 1859: Thomas Curtis; Thomas Oates; 1860: Miss Rawley; 1861: J. Braim; 1865: David Lee; Herr Schott; Miss James . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: James Blackburn (Blackburn died in Fitzroy on 3 March 1854); Jesse Biggs (organ builder); Henry John King (organist); John Rimmer Vincent (organist); Samuel Kaye (organist); Henri Ruxton (organist); Thomas Oates (organist); John Braim (organist); David Lee (organist); James Schott (organist)

St. Mary's cathedral (Sydney)'s+Cathedral+Sydney (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

St. Mary's Choral Society (Sydney)

Active Sydney, NSW, from 1851's+Choral+Society (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


David Burn, journal, Sydney, 25 August 1844, State Library of New South Wales, MS B 190/2 (DIGITISED) (TRANSCRIPT)

Sunday 25: Mr. Klein, mon tres bon camarade, accompanied me to High Mass at St. Mary's, at which Dr. Wilson the Romish Bishop of Tasmania officiated, and whereat His Grace Count Polding, the Archbishop of this territory, was present. The ceremony was solemn and imposing. The music of the highest character, and the audience most devout . . .

"SINGING FOR THE MILLIONS. To the Editors", The Sydney Morning Herald (17 April 1851), 4s

. . . Since females have been excluded from the choir at St. Mary's Cathedral, the singing there has somewhat degenerated. Formerly it was beautifully soft and rich, devoid of all vociferation, and yet loud enough to fill the Cathedral . . .

St. Patrick's Church [Catholic] (Sydney, NSW)
St. Patrick's Band (Band of St. Patrick's Total Abstinence Society; Sydney, NSW)

Band active Sydney, NSW, by c. August 1842's+Band (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)-

Church Hill, Sydney, c. 1853; F. C. Terry; State Library of New South Wales

Church Hill, Sydney, with St. Patrick's on the right, St. Philip' on the left, c. 1853, by F. C. Terry; State Library of New South Wales (DIGITISED)

ASSOCIATIONS: Frederick Charles Terry (artist)


"ST. PATRICK'S DAY. - ST. PATRICK'S TOTAL ABSTINENCE SOCIETY", Australasian Chronicle (21 March 1843), 2 

. . . Your committee also contemplates the introduction into the society of the German method of teaching music, known as "Maenzer's Music for the Million." The Apostle of Temperance had introduced this system into the societies in Ireland with the happiest results. Your committee think it quite practicable to introduce the same system here, and hope ere long to hear some of the sublime pieces of Handel and Mozart sung at the tea parties of St. Patrick's Total Abstinence Society . . .

St. Paul's church (Melbourne)

School opened, 11 April 1849; church opened, 5 December 1852

PERSONNEL: Mrs. James (1852); John Russell (organist, to 1855; reappointed 1856); George Leavis Allan (organist and choirmaster, 1855-58); Henri Ruxton (acting organist under Allan, 1855); William Clarke (acting organist under Allan, 1855)

St. Paul's pro-Cathedral, Swanston Street, Melbourne, demolished 1885 (State Library of Victoria)

Exterior and interior views of St. Paul's church, Swanston Street, Melbourne (State Library of Victoria); demolished in October 1885 to make way for the building of the new cathedral

Bibliography and resources:

"A Musical Pioneer! George Leavis Allan. By J. ALEX. ALLAN", The Argus (25 June 1932), 6 

. . . He gave weekly instruction in devotional psalmody to the congregation of St. Paul's, Melbourne, then under the incumbency of the Rev. S. L. Chase. These classes were held weekly, beginning on Thursday, November 24, 1853, and they were without charge. Hear the words of the instructor as he issued his invitation: -
"The hymn requires to be studied, as well as the tune, so that every line may be given in a style accordant with its meaning, while the soft breathing of some of the verses contrasted with the bold swell of others will make the singing at once intelligent and impressive, and such psalmody will prove, under God's blessing, a means of edification and delight to all engaged in it."
This class was successful from the outset, upward of 100 singers attending the first night . . .

On August 20, 1855, St. Paul's Church committee appointed Allan choirmaster and organist at the same salary as Russell, the retiring official. At this time Allan could not play the organ, but at the age of 27 he set out to learn. Let his diary tell its own story: -
"I was allowed to engage an organist until I could play, and accordingly engaged first Mr. Ruxton, then Mr. Richardson, then Mr. Clarke; and on his leaving I resigned (as organist only) in favour of Mr. Russell on February 2, 1856. I returned £9 of the salary for the church debt fund, and paid rather more than the rest of the salary, during my appointment, in salaries to organist and singers, besides a contribution of £5 to the church debt fund, and £5 for the minister's stipend. Mr. Clarke refused to receive any salary for the time he had played, and as I would not keep the amount myself I devoted it to the pay of choir singers to the end of 1856. The sum was about £20."
Allan held the dual post of choirmaster and Sunday school superintendent at St. Pauls till his resignation late in 1858. Concerning his relinquishment of these offices, St. Paul's parish report for the year states:
"He has done much; his services to the choir are more and more felt. To him we tender most hearty thanks, and would be exceedingly glad to see others equally self-denying and ready" . . .

St. Peter's church, Eastern Hill (Melbourne, VIC)'s+Eastern+Hill+Melbourne (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

St. Philip's church and school (Sydney, NSW)


"To the Editor of . . .", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (5 June 1830), 3 

SIR, Having observed in yesterday's Gazette, a slight notice of the examination of the St. Philip's Sunday School, which took place on Monday, I beg leave to trouble you with an account of that scene of juvenile festivity: . . .
Grace having been sung, they fell to work, and as soon as they had been served once round, the singers again enlivened the scene by singing a piece of sacred music, accompanied by a clarionet, bassoon, and two flutes, all played by children of the school. After the " feast, the Rev. Sir. Cowper commenced distributing the various rewards, which consisted solely of books of various descriptions, among which were the following: . . . Olney Hymns, and many other equally valuable and useful books, the names of which have escaped my recollection. In fact, every child received a book of some description, money value for a half-penny. The number present, was 122 boys, and 86 girls. Total 208 . . .

B. C. Peck, Recollections of Sydney, the capital of New South Wales (London: John Mortimer, 1850), 41-45 (DIGITISED)

[In 1848] . . . The gallery at the eastern end of the church (where, contrary to all ecclesiastical precedents, is the grand tower entrance) is occupied by the scholars of the Sunday School, whose voices in the chants and hymns are accompanied by the notes of a neat little organ . . .

Bibliography and resources:

Graeme D. Rushworth, Historic organs of New South Wales: the instruments, their makers and players 1791-1940 (Sydney: Hale and Iremonger, 1988), 19-22

San Francisco Minstrels (1857-61)

American minstrel serenader troupe

Formed Sydney, NSW, November 1857
Departed Melbourne, VIC, 25 July 1861

PERSONNEL (on arrival, 1857): George Washington Demerest; Otto N. Burbank; Dorrel Fair Boley; Dave Carson; J. M. Foans

PERSONNEL (Melbourne, June 1861): T. P. Brower; Dave Carson; J. O. Pierce; G. W. Demerest; Billy White; W. Robson; A. Martin; J. Lockyer (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Salle de Valentino (Melbourne, VIC)

Active Melbourne, VIC, by 1850 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Sandhurst Choral Society (Bendigo, VIC)

Active Bendigo, VIC, by February 1860

Sandhurst Harmonic Society (Bendigo, VIC)
Sandhurst German Choral Society (Bendigo, VIC)
Sandhurst Philharmonic Society (Bendigo, VIC)

All active Bendigo, VIC, by 1857

Sandhurst Glee Club (Bendigo, VIC)

Active by 1861

Saturday concerts (series, Melbourne, VIC)

Scottish music (Scottish traditional music in colonial Australia) (general)

Sebastopol Welsh Choir (Ballarat, VIC)

Active Ballarat, VIC, by c. 1857 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Serpent (serpents in colonial Australia) (musical instrument) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Shamrock Theatre (Shamrock Concert Hall; Shamrock Hotel, Bendigo, VIC; Theatre Royal, Shamrock Hotel; also branch at Epsom (via Bendigo), VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony),_Bendigo (Wikipedia)

Usually called the Shamrock Concert Hall, from its opening in 1855 until late 1858 or early 1859, after which usually Shamrock Theatre

ASSOCIATIONS: William Heffernan (proprietor)

There was also a suburban branch Shamrock Hall at Epsom (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

The so-called Theatre Royal, attached to the "new" Shamrock Hotel, opened for the first time on 28 July 1860, and was in use until c. 1862

Shamrock Hotel, and Theatre Royal, Bendigo, c. 1860

Shamrock Hotel, and Theatre Royal, Bendigo, c. 1860


"THE SHAMROCK HOTEL", Bendigo Advertiser (20 October 1855), 3 

We understand that Mr. Heffernan has in contemplation the erection of a splendid concert room, superior to any on the Bendigo . . . Beyond question, the Shamrock Hotel has one of the best musical companies in the district, and the large support it receives is well deserved. The engagement of Miss Urie still continues, and her excellent singing meets with the same popularity as ever. Under most disadvantageous circumstances this lady acquits herself remarkably well. Mr. Gibson, the favorite Irish singer, is also engaged at the Shamrock, and his humorous and pleasant style of singing is no small attraction. Mr. Dixon, the tenor, and Mr. Leman, bass singer, are well deserving of notice. The latter gentleman has a very fine powerful voice, which enables him to sing certain songs with striking effect. The place of Mr. White, who ably presided at the pianoforte, and whose accompaniments in no small degree contributed to the success of the evening concerts, is at present filled by Mr. Salaman, the former gentleman being on a visit to town . . .

"THE THEATRE ROYAL", Bendigo Advertiser (30 July 1860), 2 

"DEATH OF MR. WILLIAM HEFFERNAN", Bendigo Advertiser (23 March 1891), 3 

Shilling concerts (subject)

Shoalhaven Harmonic Society (Shoalhaven, NSW)

Kiama, Nowra, NSW, 1860s (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Sims and Elliott (Adelaide, SA)

Music printers, publishers (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: Joseph Elliott (partner); Walter Cousins Sims (partner)

Singleton Amateur Band (Singleton NSW) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Smith, Brown, and Collins Original Christy's Minstrels

Toured Australia, February to December 1865

Arrived Sydney, NSW, 14 February 1865 (per Northam, from Galle, 22 January, via Adelaide and Melbourne, 11 February)'s+Minstrels+Smith+Brown+Collins+1865-66 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

PERSONNEL: John Washington Smith (manager); Joe Brown (dancer); W. P. COLLINS ("The Original Bones and Prima Donna"); Henri HERBERTE (tenor vocalist); W. HARVEY (second tenor vocalist); W. H. CASTER (baritone); Charles William Rayner (basso); E. BYRON (solo instrumentalist); Nicholas La Feuillade (instrumental director); Rafaelle Abecco (vocalist)


Having sailed from Southampton on 27 September 1863, the Smith, Brown, and Collins "original" Christy's minstrel troupe, in which Rayner was "an eminent basso and first class musician" arrived in Sydney in February 1865 "after a most successful tour through India, China, Java, Batavia, &c." With a mixed program including black-face minstrel numbers and operatic burlesque, they toured to Melbourne in March, Bendigo in April, Adelaide in May, and Tasmania in July. The minstrels gave their farewell season for the reopening of the Victoria Theatre in Sydney in December.


[Advertisement], Bombay Gazette [India] (5 November 1863), 1 

Patronised by Her most Graciore Majesty Queen Victoria, the Nobility of England and the Emperor and Empress of the French.
Overture (Fra Diavolo) - Christy's Minstrels.
Operatic Chorus (from Lurline by request) - Christy's Minstrels.
I long for my home in Kentuckey - W. H. Caster.
The Gal in Blue - W. P. Collins.
Annie Lisle - W. H. Herberte.
Anna Maria Jones - Joe Browne.
Sunny days will come again New (Henry Russell) - C. W. Rayner.
I'm going home to Dixie Land) - W. P. Collins.
come where my love lies Dreaming (by request) - Christy's Minstrel.
As performed only by the Chriaty's Minstrels, illustrative of a musical description of a Fashionable Sleight Ride in the Northern States. With the Departure. The Race on the Road. The arrival at the Hotel, the Ball. Preparing to return. All aboard. The Chorus, and arrival home at Daybreak.
Burlesque Fling - W. P. Collins.
Rock'd in the Cradle of the Deep (Description) - C. W. Rayner.
Prize Silver Belt Jig - Joe Brown.
Violin Solo - A. La Feuillade.
A Somnambilie, Trovatorean Traviatian Sketch, produced under the most unfavourable auspices, by Two Opeartic Connoisseurs. Entitled
Signora Donna Palliasso de Mattrasso - W. P. Collins.
signora Bruchabentypiego - Joe Brown.
Duet, on to the Field of Glory (Belisario) - Messrs. Rayner and Herberte.
To conclude with a Laughable, Quizzical, and Ludicrous Sketch, Entitled
PHOTOGRAPHICO PAR EXCELLENCIO; OR THE ARTIST'S STUDIO, with Lights end Shaded of the Profession.
Mr. Under-the sun, A Photographuc Artist of easy manners, particularly pleasing and attentive to his customers - A. La Feuillade.
James Francis Adolphus, An Apprentice in the First branch of the profession - Joe Brown.
Mr. Jeems Bluffum, a Coloured Lecturer on Astronomy and the Terrestrial Globe. Just arrived from Poona by the Train - W. P. Collins.
VISITORS, HEGROS, &c. &c. &c.
Plantation Festival - Johnny Rooke . . .
Books of the words to be had at the door.

"De Christy's Minstrels", Java bode (13 April 1864), 3-4 

na een verblijf van zes jaren te Londen, reizen de Minstrels thans door het Oosten; aan hen is men verschuldigd de vele aandoenlijke balladen, die in iedere salon in het grootste gedeelte van Europa en op het vasteland van Amerika zoo algemeen bekend zijn. Daar dit beroemde gezelschap binnen kort Singa-[4]-pore zal bezoeken, zullen eenige woorden over den oorsprong van dit gezelschap en vau de minnezaugers onzen lezers niet onaangenaam zijn.

De neger-minnezangers belmoren geheel lot den nieuweren tijd, en hebben zich spoedig eene ongewone populariteit verworven. De melodien waren eenvoudig, vloeijend, eu overeenkomstig den smaak van het volk; de boertige woorden stemden overeen met het karakter der Negers; de harmoniën waren zeer eenvoudig, zich bepalende tot twee akkoorden, den grondtoon en dominant. De bijval dien zij inoogstten, was niet bloot toevallig en voorbijgaande, onder alle klassen heersebt eene levendige waardering van humor, eu deze aard der neger-minnezangers en de scherts, bet lokale, bet geestige, de vrolijke lach en het blijmoedige lied strookten met die liefde tot kortswijl, en boden tevens een uitspanning aan, waar die zeldzaam was.

Men kan moeijelijk naauwkeurig het tijdstip aangeven van het onstaan dezer minnezangers; maar wij mogen aannemen, dat voor omstreeks dertig jaren de neger-minnezangers in Amerika de aandacht tot zich trokken. In 1832 maakte T. D. Rice, onder de zijnen meer bekend onder den naam van "Daddy Rice", veel opgang door zijn lied, door het wel bekende "Jim Crow", en men mag zeggen dat de negerzangen van dien tijd dagteekenen; nimmer heersehte er grooter opgewondenheid in de muziekale of dramatische wereld. In 1837 vond Rice een grooten mededinger in John Smith, de nieuwe direkteur der Christy's minnezangers, die met, zijn "Jim along Joesy", "Ginger Blue", "Do far you well Ladies" en andere gezangen optrad, en met zijn liederen bijval vond.

In 1842 begon E. P. Christy in Buffalo met zijne Serenades onder den naam van "Virgiuia Minstrels;" later veranderde hij den naam in dien van "Christy's Minstrels." Na mei gelukkig gevolg een reis door de Vereenigde Staten gedaan te hebben, vestigden zij zich in 1846 te Nieuw-York, waar Christy spoedig fortuin maakte eu het gezelschap onder de leiding van de beroemden Georg Christy stelde. - Toen werden bekend "Lucy Neal," "Stop that knocking," "Old Dan Tucker," "Rosa Lee," "Dearest May," etc. De eenvoud en waarheid dezer eomposilien vestigden hunne populariteit.

De Serenade-gevers maakten goede zaken, de fatsoenlijke wereld viel ben bij eu op iedere piano in het land vond men negermuziek.

Vervolgens kwam eene trapsgewijze verbetering in deze muziek; men verwierp het plantaadje dialckt, men begon het gevoel in meer dichterlijke vormen terug te geven ("Old Folks at Home," "Hazel Del!," "My old Kentucky Home," "Nelly Bly" etc). Om kort te gaan, wat onbeduidend eu smakeloos was werd niet langer aangenomen; de menigte, op het gebied der muziek nog in de kindsehheid, zong eu floot de eenvoudigs liederen die men hoorde, tot dat men begon te verlangen naar iets, dat waardig muziek genaamd te worden. - In overeenstemming met die verandering in de algemeene opinie, begon Christy voorstellingen te geven, bestaande uit goede muziek met drama!iesoh toneeleffekt, in het Italiaanseh, Duitsch, Engelsch en Amerikaansch, en ofschoon de zangers zich zwart verwden, veranderde dit hun karakter niet.

Thans bestaan er verscheidene gezelschappen van neger- minnezangen in Engeland en Amerika; de minnezangerij mag zich als voor goed gevestigd beschouwen. Het meest beroemde is het gezelschap dat binnen kort te Singapore verwacht wordt, waartoe behooren W. P. Collins, Joe Brown, C. W. Rayner, Henry Herbert, W. H. Caster, E. Bryon, N. la Feuillade en John Smith, direkteur.

Zij verlieten Southampton in September [1863], en oogstten den meesten bijval in te Bombay, Madras en Calcutta. Er zijn ouder hen zeer goede stemmen; hun zingen mag werkelijk bekoorlijk genoemd worden. Hunne stukken zijn vol bevallige harmonie, en de uitvoering is meesterlijk; een goeden smaak eu muziekale kennis mag men de minstrels niet ontzeggen; - zij begrijpen ten volle de eischen van den tijd en van het volk dat zij bezoeken. "Beautiful star", "Let me kiss him for his molher," "Do they think of me at Home" en "Come where my Love lies Dreaming," zijn de meest, geliefkoosde liederen geworden, men hoort ze in de prachtigste salons, eu de naam van Christy in van algemeene bekendheid geworden.

"THE ORIGINAL CHRISTIES' MINSTRELS", Bell's Life in Sydney (4 February 1865), 2

[Advertisement], Empire (13 February 1865), 1

[Advertisement], Empire (18 February 1865), 1

"THE ORIGINAL CHRISTY'S", The Sydney Morning Herald (25 February 1865), 7

"RE-OPENING OF THE VICTORIA THEATRE", The Sydney Morning Herald (4 December 1865), 4

The Christy's Minstrels have been engaged to perform a limited number of nights, prior to their departure for Europe . . . This kind of entertainment has always been acceptable to a Sydney audience, and in the hands of such clever performers as Brown, Collins, Abecco, and Rayner, is likely to continue so . . .

[Advertisement], The Era [London] (31 December 1865), 1 (PAYWALL)

NOTICE. JOE BROWN, the Champion Dancer of the World, after his successful Tour of India, Java, China, and the Australian Colonies, with SMITH, BROWN, and COLLINS Veritable and Originsl CHRISTY'S MINSTRELS, will return to England by the January Mail, and will be Open for Engagement in London, for a short time previous to leaving for the United States.
Address, 128, Lorrimore-road, Walworth.

Bibliography and resources:

Col. T. Allston Brown, "Early history of negro minstrelsy, its rise and progress in the United States", The New York clipper (8 June 1912), 1 (DIGITISED)

Joe Brown's Christy's. This company consisted of W. P. Collins, Joe Brown, C. W. Rayner, Harry Herbert, W. H. Castor, Ted Saunders and N. La Fenillade [Feuillade]. They sailed from Southampton, England, September 27, 1863, under the management of J. W. Smith, on their way to India to oppose the Nish party, then in Australia. They visited Gibraltar, Malta, Alexandria, Cairo, Suez and Aden, reaching Bombay on October 29 and giving their first concert on November 2 in the Grand Road Theatre to a house doubly rammed and jammed, with prices as follows: reserved seats, six rupees (about three dollars); parquet, five rs.; gallery, three rs.; pit, two rs. They remained one month and gave sixteen concerts, the last two in the Town Hall and one private entertainment for Sir Jamsetiee Jeejeebahoy. They left many kind friends who assembled to see them off about the 7th of November, for Madras, via Point de Jalle [sic]. There they gave two concerts in the Military Theatre while awaiting the arrival of the English mail steamer to take the company to Madras. Every favor was shown them in this hospitable city. The use of the banqueting hall in the government house and the patronage of His Excellency the Governor was obtained. A perfect furor awaited the company here, and ten concerts were given to crowded and delighted audiences. The boys, having time and wishing to see the interior, went to Bangalore in the mountains some two hundred and fifty miles, proceeding two hundred by rail and fifty by Dawk. Here they gave two concerts and paid expenses, returning to Madras and, four days after, arrived in Calcutta. And here, in five weeks, they gave twenty concerts to good business. The first night was 3,900 rs. Prices - reserved, 5 rs.; second class, 3 rs. The remaining concerts were very good, notwithstanding the city and India generally was in mourning for Lord Elgin, the late Governor-General. The arrival of Sir John Lawrence (the present viceroy) acted bad for them, in consequence of the numerous balls and parties that took place. However, on the whole, they did in four months what would be considered at home comfortable returns for a year. The boys left Calcutta on the steamer Persia, February 15, for Rangoon, in the Burmese Empire, proceeding thence to Ava to play for His Majesty, the King; his wives and children. The Nish party reached Sydney December 9, 1863, and opened Boxing Night (in December), where they made a lengthy stay . . . Mr. Castor committed suicide at Sydney, N.S.W., in March, 1865, by swallowing poison. He was connected with Joe Brown's party . . . Joe Brown left the Christy party March 15, 1866, for England, and opened at the St. James Hall, London, June 11 . . .

South Australian Institute, originally Mechanics' Institute (Adelaide, SA)

Active Adelaide, SA, from 1857 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

South Australian Quartett Society (Adelaide, SA)

Active Adelaide, SA, c. 1854 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

PERSONNEL: Josiah Wyke Daniel (member); George Williams Chinner (member); William Henville Burford (member); Charles Wylde (member)

Star Concert Hall / Star Theatre (Ballarat, VIC)

Star Concert Room / Star Hotel

Active Ballarat, VIC, by 1855 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Star Theatre (Beechworth, VIC)

Active Beechworth, VIC, 1850s (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Star Theatre (Chiltern, VIC)

Active Chiltern, VIC, by c. 1860 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Stork Concert Hall (Stork Hotel, Elizabeth-street, Melbourne, VIC)

Active 1857-60

ASSOCIATIONS: William Stocker Southwood (proprietor)

String band (String bands, generic) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


Following its slightly earlier appearance in Britain, the description "string band" became common in Australia by the early 1850s after so-called "brass bands" became prevalent, usually to indicate an ensemble of softer as opposed to louder instruments (in a similar manner to bas and haut bands of earlier ages), but not necessarily or even usually consisting solely of bowed strings, rather indicating the same type of small mixed ensemble that were earlier described as quadrille bands. An early documented example of a colonial string band consisted of violin, cello, flute, and cornet.


[Advertisement], The Argus [Melbourne, VIC] (10 June 1852), 6 

. . . J. Hore . . . would also remind the public of his forming a strong string band, consisting of a violin, violoncello, flute, and cornet; and hopes, by strict attention to the newest and most popular music, for a share of their kind support . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Joseph Hore (musician)

Bibliography and resources:

H. R. Haweis, Music and morals (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1874), 464 (DIGITISED)

. . . The highest form of the string band is too seldom seen. It consists of from six to twelve performers - two violins, tenor, violoncello or double bass, flute, clarionet, or the above doubled, or in such other various proportions as time and circumstances may allow of. We have met with them at sea-side places in fine weather, and occasionally in the more retired parts of the city in the afternoon. But as stringed instruments in any perfection are delicate things, the expense of keeping them together in any number and efficiency is great; and the German bands, both louder and hardier in organization, drive them out of the field. For some reason, these large string bands are generally English; they play excellent music, but are not so popular or so well paid as their German rivals. Another form of the string band, however, is the most popular and the best paid of any street music; but, from its very delicacy and excellence, its sphere of operation is restricted as to time and place, and few itinerant musicians seem to combine the necessary qualifications for success. Visitors to Brighton have all noticed the great rival to the excellent German band on the beach in the shape of four Italian musicians. The leader, Signor Beneventano, is a fine violin-player out of doors . . . He is accompanied by a harp, a second violin, and a flute. Each man is capital in his department, and each man knows his place . . .

Swan River Mechanics' Institute (Perth, WA)

Founded 1851'_Institute (Wikipedia)

Sydney Amateur Concerts

Sydney, NSW, 1826-27 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

See mainpage: 

Sydney Band

See Town Band, Sydney (before 1842)

See City Band, Sydney (after 1842)

Sydney Catch Club

Active Sydney, NSW, 1843

Catch Clubs for the convivial singing of catches (rounds, or canons), glees, and other often ribald songs, proliferated in British cities and towns during the 18th century. A good account of the phenomenon is Brian Robin's Catch and glee culture in eighteenth-century England. Printed collections like The Catch Club or Merry Companions (c.1700), and The muses delight: catches, glees, canzonets, and canons (1786) supplied their core repertory. London's famous Catch Club became and remained the model for most of these bodies, and was undoubtedly still the model for the Sydney Catch Club in the 1840s.

In October 1843, toward the end of his first Australian season at the Royal Victoria Theatre, the actor and singer George Coppin began transferring his entrepreneurial activities to his newly acquired hotel across the street. He named the new establishment the Clown Hotel, and, in an advertisement first run in the press on 30 October, offered  its large saloon as suitable for "Dinner Parties, Balls, Clubs, Societies or Public Meetings", adding as footnote: NB: A Catch Club will be established, and held every Tuesday evening. Coppin gave a little further information about the new Sydney club in an advertisement first run on 9 November: ACATCH CLUB will be held every Tuesday evening, at which every encouragement will be given to professional singers, and gentlemen amateurs desirous of perfecting themselves in the delightful science of music. A meeting of members was called in January 1844 to discuss important business. This was probably the appointment of a music director, for, as Coppin advertised on 23 January:

Mr. C. is instructed by the Committee of the SYDNEY CATCH CLUB to inform young gentlemen desirous of perfecting themselves in the delightful science of Music, that a professional gentlemen is engaged to arrange and instruct them in Glee and Catch Singing, free of expense, to attend the Club every Tuesday evening.

In April, a special meeting was called for the evening of Wednesday 24th, ostensibly to "make arrangements for the ensuing winter season". Coppin, however, may simply have been trying to drum up an audience for his regular entertainers, for the members were promised: "Messrs. Flachon, Fillmore, Coppin, and Jones, will contribute to the evening's entertainment." Whether the Sydney Catch Club continued after this point is unclear, though after George Skinner took over the Clown's license from Coppin in October, a rare advertisement in song (to be sung to the tune Derry Down) continued to offer catch singing as one of the attractions of the venue:

If you wish to partake in a glee or a catch,
 Why you've only to hint your desire to Joe Hatch,
And the sons of Apollo, with voices in tune,
 Can enjoy a long pull there, in Skinner's Saloon!

At least one later attempt at forming a catch and glee in Sydney is on record, but this press advertisement of 10 August 1855 is its sole mention.

More on catches in colonial Australia: English catches and glees were the staples of secular convivial part-singing in early colonial Australia. Unlike simpler songs and ballads, which relied on the singer's vocal qualities and memory, part singing required a level of what colonists would have called "scientific" musical skill. As a result, part singing most often relied on a professional musician (or a professionally-taught amateur) to direct it. Glees (harmonised part songs) and catches (rounds and canons) were usually in three, or occasionally four voice parts. They made perfect after dinner music. In Hobart in 1826 at a dinner given to Major Abbot, prior to his moving to Launceston, the singers included John Philip Deane, Hobart's leading non-military musical professional. According to the report in the Colonial Times: "Several excellent songs were given by different Gentlemen, particularly by Mr. Roberts and Mr. Deane, who with some other amateurs, sung favourite catches and glees." Deane was also a music-seller, and on a list of music-for-sale in 1828, he advertised under the heading FAVOURITE CATCHES one called Look, neighbours look. Some glees and catches were also considered suitable for formal concerts. For his concert in Sydney in November 1829, according to The Australian, the publican and entrepreneur Barnett Levey promised that he himself would: "introduce one or two of his favourite catches, and those who had the luck to be present at the last Olio will acknowledge the fun they enjoyed on that occasion." In Adelaide, South Australia, at New Year 1844, local "professor of music", George Bennett (1817-1854) gave a concert at which, the Southern Australian reported: The little catch, "Ah! how, Sophia," was successfully performed by Messrs Ewens, Harward, and Bennett. It is Celebrated for its puns, having been expressly composed for cockney singers. "Ah! how, Sophia" ("a house o'fire"), cries one; "Go fetch the indian's" (engines), rejoins another; and the third quaintly remarks, "I'm but a lodger." The company were much amused, and heartily encored the piece. The following are the words:

Ah! how Sophia, can you leave
Your lover, and of hope bereave?
Go fetch the Indian's borrowed plume -
Yet, richer far than that you bloom.
I'm but a lodger in your heart.
And more than me, I fear, have part.

Altogether, this, we should say was one of the best concerts we have had in Adelaide. Here is the opening (and a link to the complete music) of Calcott's setting from The Musical Times (1854). Catches and glees were also reportedly among the music sung by the convicts on Norfolk Island during and even after the controversial tenure of the reforming commandant Alexander Maconochie. To the amusement of the press and consternation of his critics, in 1840 Maconochie bought up the complete stock of manuscript music and manuscript paper of the Sydney music-seller, Andrew Ellard, intending "to employ in copying Music such old, lame, sick or other infirm Prisoners under my care as can be instructed in it." From Sydney in early 1840, Maconochie also hired the recent and somewhat shadowy é migré musician and physician, Dr. James A. Reid, to be one of his medical officers on Norfolk Island. And among the new prisoners who arrived from England that year was the composer and convicted forger Charles Packer. By 1845 Maconochie, Reid, and Packer had all left the island, but their influence perhaps lingered on. As The Australian noted as late as 1846, reporting on an escape attempt: "Amongst the prisoners . . . are some really good singers, and these kept up a concert of catches and glees, while others were employed in filing away their irons . . . "

Sydney Choral Society

Sydney, NSW, c.1844-57 (TROVE public tag)


[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (22 April 1845), 1

PATRON The Lord Bishop of Australia.
COMMITTEE: Rev. Dr. Cowper; Mr. Nathan, M.R.C.S.;
Rev. R. Allwood; Mr. H. Tingcombe;
Rev. R. K. Sconce; Mr. W. McDonell;
Rev. J. C. Grylls; Mr. J. Deane;
Rev. W. H. Walsh; Mr. C. D. Logan.
Chairman - ; Mr. H. J. Hatch, Secretary; Mr. J. Johnson, Conductor;
Mr. J. R. Hurst. Treasurer. Mr. W. Johnson, Leader.
THE above Society has been formed by Members of the Church of England, in the hope that by encouraging a taste for choral singing generally, much improvement may be effected in the Chaunting and Psalmody of Divine Worship.
In furtherance of so important an object, it is requested that all persons who are possessed of musical talent, and are desirous of rendering their assistance as singing members, will give in their names to one or other of the Committee on or before Wednesday next.
Churchmen generally, whether they join the Quires or not, may be admitted as members. The meetings of the Society will be held, by permission of the Reverend the Incumbent, in the St. James's Infant School, Castlereagh-street, every Wednesday evening, at half-past seven o'clock.
The entrance fee is ten shillings; and the subscription one pound a year, or two shillings a month, to be paid in advance.
Further information may be obtained by application to the Secretary, at Napoleon Cottage, Sheriff's Gardens, from whom may be obtained the separate parts of the pieces ordered for practice on Wednesday evening next.
H. J. HATCH, Secretary.

ASSOCIATIONS: William Grant Broughton (bishop, patron); William Macquarie Cowper (committee); Robert Alwood (committee); Henry John Hatch (secretary); Charles Nathan (committee); Henry Tingcombe (committee); Charles David Logan (committee); James Johnson (conductor); William Johnson (leader)

Sydney concerts 1829 (series in the new Royal Hotel Assembly Room) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Sydney Harmonicon

Musical publication, periodical; Sydney: W. J. Johnson, 1855 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


W. J. JOHNSON (publisher)

Sydney Liedertafel

Active Sydney, NSW, by c. 1855-59

Also referred to as the German Glee Club and German Liederkranz (TROVE tagged by Australharmony) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Sydney Mechanics' School of Arts

Founded Sydney, NSW, 1833

Sydney Philharmonic Society

Founded Sydney, NSW, March 1854
Reformed Sydney, NSW, April-May 1860 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], Empire (8 March 1854), 1 

THIS Society has been established by a number of musical gentlemen, for the cultivation and performance of the most approved vocal and instrumental music.
The proceeds after paying the necessary expenses to go towards a fund for the encouragement of musical talent in this colony.
The Society to be supported by annual subscriptions, and by voluntary contributions, and to consist of members, subscribers, and associates.
Members to take an active part in the Society, and subscribers to be admitted to the concerts; the former to pay and annual subscription of £2, and the latter, £1 1s.
Associates are elected by the Committee, and admitted gratuitously.
Parties desirous of joining the Society, will please send their names and the amount of their subscriptions, either to the
Treasurer, Mr. B. Mountcastle, George-street, the gentlemen of the Committee -
Mr. Gilbert Wright, King-street
Mr. Frederick Kellerman, Church-hill
Mr. Charles Younger, Pitt-street
Mr. Francis Clarke, Woolloomooloo
Mr. William MacDonnell, George-street,
Or to MONS. EUGENE PARIS, Hon. Sectretary, 231, Elizabeth-street.

ASSOCIATIONS: Benjamin Such Mountcastle (amateur); Gilbert Wright (amateur); Frederick Kellerman (amateur); Francis Clarke (amateur); Charles Younger (amateur); William Macdonnell (amateur); Eugene Paris (secretary)

[Advertisement], Empire (12 April 1854), 3 

[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (7 September 1859), 1 

[news], Empire (24 May 1860), 8 

Sydney Sacred Harmonic Society

Sydney, NSW, from 1849 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Sydney Tonic Sol Fa Association

Formed Sydney, NSW, 1864 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Sydney Vocal Harmonic Society

Formed Sydney, NSW, December 1858 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (20 December 1858), 8 

as adopted by the Provisional Committee, appointed at a general Meeting of the Society, held on Thursday the 11th November.
I. The Society shall be called ."The Sydney Vocal Harmonic Society."
II. The objects of the Society shall be the cultivation and practice of Vocal Music, and the establishment of a School for instruction in part singing.
III. The Society shall consist of Members, Subscribers, Honorary Members, and Associates; but Members only shall be entitled to take part in the management of the Society.
IV. The general management shall be vested in a Committee, consisting of a President, Treasurer, Secretary and twenty other members of the Society, all of which shall be elected annually; five of the committee shall form a quorum. In the absence of the President, the committee shall elect a chairman.
V. The Committee hall have the power to make by-laws not being repugnant to the general rules of the Society, and also to fill up any vacancy that may occur in their number.
VI. A general meeting of the Society shall be held in the month of January in each year, on a day to be appointed by the committee.
VII. At the request of any five members, a special meeting of the Society shall be convened by the secretary.
VIII. Every meeting of the Society shall be convened by the Secretary by advertisement in the daily papers, to be inserted seven clear days previous to such meeting. And in the case of a special meeting, the object for which the meeting is called shall be distinctly stated in the advertisement, and no other than such business shall be then transacted.
IX. The committee shall appoint the paid officers of the Society, and define their duties.
X. There shall be a weekly practice at such time and place as the committee may appoint.
XI. There shall be six public concerts in each year, and the members of her committee shall act as stewards.
XII. Any person desiring to join the Society shall be proposed by a member of the Society to the committee, and the committee will decide as to his admission.
XIII. The annual subscription byeach member shall be Two Guineas, which shall entitle such member to all the privileges of the Society, and also to tickets for the admission of Two Ladies to each concert. The annual payment by each subscriber shall be One Guinea, which shall entitle such subscriber to admission to the concerts. The annual subscriptions are payable on the 1st January, but after the third concert person may be admitted as members or subscriber for the remainder of the year on payment of one-half the annual subscription.
XIV. Any member paying ten pounds shall become a life member.
XV. The Committee shall have power to elect as honorary members persons distinguished for musical ability, or for services rendered to the Society, who shall have all the privileges of membership, except the right of taking part in the management of the Society.
XVI. Members of the Vocal School, who are competent, and other persons capable of affording assistance to the Society, may be admitted by the Committee as Associates without payment, on condition of their rendering every assistance in their power when requested by the Conductor.
XVII. Members and Subscribers may purchase Extra Tickets for the concerts at Five Shillings each ticket. The name of the person introduced under this Rule must be legibly written on the card above the name of the Member or Subscriber introducing, or admittance shall be refused.
XVIII. All Subscriptions shall be paid in advance, and all Tickets on delivery. For any breach of this rule the Treasurer shall be held personally liable to the Committee.
XIX. On payment of Subscription, each Member of Subscriber shall receive a card which must be produced at the door, or admittance shall be refused to the Concerts. The cards shall not be transferable.
XX. The salaries of the Paid Officers of the Society, and the Terms of Admission to the Vocal School, shall be regulated by the Committee.
XXI. The Committee shall meet for the transaction of business at least once in every month.
XXII. The President or three of the Committee may at any time, by a inquisition in writing, signed with their names and addressed to the Secretary, call a Special Meeting of the Committee - the requisition stating the occasion and object of the meeting. Notice of such Special Meeting to be given in writing at least one clear day previous to the meeting.
XXIII. The Committee shall cause Books to be kept in which shall be entered the Minutes of their transactions, and a full Statement of all Receipts and Payments on account of the Society.
XXIV. Two Auditors shall be appointed at each Annual General Meeting, who shall audit the accounts for the current year, and present their Report thereon at the Annual Meeting in the ensuing year.
XXV. The Committee shall have power to expel any member, subscriber, honorary member, or associate, who shall misconduct himself; but that person so expelled shall have a right of appeal to the next general meeting of the Society.
XXXVI. The members of the Conmittee shall alone be responsible for any expenditure incurred by them in excess of the available funds of the Society.
XXVII. The foregoing rules shall be binding upon all the members of the Society, and shall not be altered except by a majority of the members present at a duly summoned General Meeting.
Cuthbertson, Rev. W | Macdonnell W.
Dickson, D | McDonell, W.
Dyer J. | Martin, J.
Fitzpatrick, M. | Merewether, F. L. S.
Hose, Rev. H. J. | Nathan, C.
Hurford, H. R | Sloper, F. E.
Hurford, L. W. | Stanley Rev. G. H.
Johnson, J | Stokes, F. M.
Johnson, Richard | Waller, J.
Johnson, W. J. | Walsh, Rev. W. H.v Lavers, J. W. | Wilkins, W.
Woolcott, C. H.
F. M. STOKES, sec. pro. tem.

"SYDNEY VOCAL HARMONIC SOCIETY", The Sydney Morning Herald (23 December 1858), 5 

A MEETING was held, at the Castlereagh-street Schoolroom, on Tuesday evening, formally to inaugurate the above society . . . The chair was taken by Mr. Charles Nathan, F.R.C.S., at a few minutes past 8 o'clock, when, after a few remarks as to the labours of the sub-committee in revising the rules, which had been compared with those of the Sacred Harmonic Society of London and the Philharmonic Society of Sydney, he called on Mr. Dyer to read the rules for the approval of the meeting . . . Mr. SLOPER seconded the appointment of Mr. Nathan as President, and the motion was carried with applause. Mr. Hurford was elected treasurer, Mr. Dyer secretary of the society, and the following gentlemen as committee-men for the year 1859: Rev. W. Cuthbertson, Messrs. D. Dickson, J. Dyer, M. Fitzpatrick, Rev. H. J. Hose, Messrs. H. R. Hurford, J. Johnson, R. Johnson, W. J. Johnson, J. V. Lavers, W. Macdonnell, W. McDonnell, J. Martin, F. L. S. Merewether, (Nathan, F. E. Sloper, Rev. G. H. Stanley, Messrs. F. M. Stokes, J. Waller, Rev. W. H. Walsh, Messrs. W. Wilkins, C. H. Woolcott . . . and the meeting, which was numerously attended by many professional as well as amateur musicians, was concluded.

ASSOCIATIONS: Charles Nathan (president)

"SYDNEY VOCAL HARMONIC SOCIETY", The Sydney Morning Herald (15 January 1859), 4 

Sydney University Musical Festival

Sydney, NSW, July 1859 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


Lewis Henry LAVENU (conductor)


[Advertisements], Empire (4 July 1859), 6 

SYDNEY UNIVERSITY MUSICAL FESTIVAL. On TUESDAY, July 19th, and THREE FOLLOWING DAYS, a series of GRAND MUSICAL PERFORMANCES Will be held to celebrate the opening of the HALL of the Sydney University in which the performances will take place.

The following gentlemen form the General Committee of direction: - Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., Provost; The Hon. Francis L. S. Merewether, B.A., Vice-Provost; His Grace Archbishop Polding, Fellow of the Senate; The Hon. E. Deas Thomson, C.B., ditto; The Hon. H. G. Douglass ditto; The Hon. J. H. Plunkett, B.A., ditto; The Rev. Robert Allwood, B.A , ditto; Alfred Denison, Esq., M.A., ditto; Professor Woolley, D.C.L.; Professor Pell, B.A.; Professor Smith, M.D.; The Rev. Henry J. Hose, M.A., Warden of St. Paul's; E. T. Blacket, Esq., University Architect; Charles Nathan, Esq., President of the Vocal Harmonic Society; The Honorable Robert Johnson, Esq., Committee of the Vocal Harmonic Society; The Rev. W. H. Walsh, M.A., ditto; W. J. Johnson, Esq., ditto; The Rev. W. Cuthbertson, B.A., ditto; C. H. Woolcott, Esq , ditto; J. Waller, Esq., ditto; D. Dickson, Esq., ditto; J. G. Waller, Esq., Committee of the Philharmonic Society; L. Rawack, Esq., ditto; W. McDonnell, Esq., ditto; W. H. Aldis, Esq., ditto; J. Dyer, Esq., ditto; John Deane, Esq., Conductor of the Philharmonic Society; W. J. Cordner, Esq., Conductor of the Vocal Harmonic Society.

The Committee have already made engagements with tho following artists:- CONDUCTOR - Mr. L. H. LAVENU; Principal Soprani - Madame CARANDINI; Mrs. TESTAR, of Melbourne; Mrs. ST. JOHN ADCOCK; and also Lady amateur - Miss BRADY; Miss NINA SPAGNOLETTI; Miss ADCOCK; Principal Contralto - Madame SARA FLOWER; Principal Tenori - Mr. WALTER SHERWIN; Mr. F. ELLARD; SIGNOR SPAGNOLETTI; Mr. JOHN HOWSON; Herr B. SUSSMILCH; Principal Bassi, Mr. JOHN GREGG; Mr. FRANK HOWSON and also, An AMATEUR - Mr. WALLER.

PRINCIPAL INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMERS. PIANOFORTE, LADY AMATEUR. Mr. CHAPMAN (of Melbourne), Violoncello and Double Bass; Mr. KOHLER (of Melbourne), Cornet; Mr. WINTERBOTTOM, Bassoon; Mr. W. J. CORDNER, Choir-master.

The ORCHESTRA will, be more numerous and efficient than any that has over before been heard in these Colonies. By the kind permission of the Colonel and Officers of the 12th Foot part of the band of that Regiment will assist in the orchestra. The following Instrumental Performers have already been engaged: -

FIRST VIOLINS, Mr. John Deane, Conductor of the Philharmonic Society; Mr. Eigenschenk, leader of Orchestra of the Prince of Wales Theatre; Mr. Alfred Usher, leader of Orchestra of the Victoria Theatre; Mr. Charles Smith; Mr. Richard Herz; Mr. J. Davis; With the gentlemen amateurs of the Philharmonic Society; SECOND VIOLINS. - Mr. George Peck; Mr. Adolphe Grebet; Mr. John Thomas Hall; With the gentlemen Amateurs of the Philharmonic Society; VIOLE. - Mr. Walter Rice; Mr. William Friedander; Martin Josephson; With the gentlemen amateurs of the Philharmonic Society; VIOLONCELLI. - Mr. E. S. Deane; Mr. T. L. Williamson; Mr. F. Howson, jun.; And the gentleman amateurs of the Philharmonic Society; CONTBABASSI. - Mr. Chapman, from Melbourne; Mr. J. Brown; Mr. A. H. Chate; And a gentleman amateur, member of the Philharmonic Society.

1st CLARINETTE - Mr. A. Fowle, 12th Regiment; 2nd DITTO - Mr. E. Kim, 12th Regiment; 1st OBOE - 2nd OBOE} Gentlemen Amateurs; SOLO BASSOON, Mr. J. WINTERBOTTOM; 1st BASSOON - Mr. E. Fahey, 12th Regiment; 2nd BASSOON - Mr. G. Wright, 12th Regiment; FLUTES - 1st FLUTE - Mr. Robert Vaughan; 2nd DITTO - Mr. Gottfried Smith; With Gentlemen Amateurs. 1st FRENCH HORN - Mr. M. McCarthy, 12th Regiment; 2nd Ditto ditto - Mr. H. Sullivan, 12th Regiment; TENOR TROMBONE- Mr. William Northcote, 12th Regt.; BASS TROMBONE - Mr. William Woolbridge, 12th Regt.; TENOR SAXE HORN - Gentleman amateur; CORNETS-A-PISTON - Mr. Kohler, from Melbourne; Mr. C. Fredericks; Band-Sergeant Prince; And a gentlemen amateur; TRUMPETS - Mr. - - ; BARITONE SAXE HORN - Mr. DONAHOE; OPHICLEIDE - Mr. Readett, Band Master of the Royal Artillery; Ditto - Mr. WHITE; KETTLE DRUMS - Mr. F. Sharp; SIDE DRUMS - Mr. W. Sullivan.

The Chorus will number 250 voices, among whom are some professional leaders. The chorus is composed chiefly of the members of the Sydney Vocal Harmonic Society, the members of Mr. Chizlett's advanced music class, the members of the German Choral Society, and individual associates of various choirs in this city. This body of vocalists has been engaged in the practice of the works now to be performed for the past six months, and have had several rehearsals with the full orchestra, under the direction of Mr. Lavenu.

The Festival will commence on TUESDAY, July 19th, at one o'clock p.m., on which occasion will be performed Handel's Sacred Oratorio, "THE MESSIAH."

On WEDNESDAY, at one o'clock p.m., will be performed Haydn's Oratorio, "THE CREATION."

On WEDNESDAY EVENING, at eight o'clock, there will be a GRAND MISCELLANEOUS CONCERT of secular music.

On THURSDAY EVENING, at eight o'clock, there will be a GRAND MISCELLANEOUS CONCERT. The first part will comprise a selection of Sacred Music, and the second part a selection of Secular Music.

On FRIDAY, at 1 o'clock p.m., Handel's Sacred Oratorio of "THE MESSIAH" will be repeated.

The price of admission to each performance will be ten shillings, and each seat will be numbered and reserved. Plans of the Hall may be seen of Mr. W. J. JOHNSON'S Pianoforte Warehouse, Pitt-street, where seats may now be secured. Tickets of admission may be purchased on MONDAY, the 4th July, at Mr. W. J. Johnson's Pianoforte Warehouse, Pitt-street; Messrs. Sands and Kenny, George- street; J. R. Clarke, George-street ; Sherriff, George-street; D, Buist, George-street; J, W. Waugh, George-street; Moss, Hunter-street; Hurford, Castlereagh- street; W. H. Aldis, George-street; Sandon and Co., George-street; Mr. Paling, Wynyard Square. Persons purchasing tickes, are requested to call and present them at Mr. W. J. Johnson's, Pitt-street, to select their numbered seats and point out the position that they would wish to occupy in the Hall, on the plan lying there.

W. J. JOHNSON, Honorary Treasurer.

JOSEPH DYER, Honorary Secretary.

SYDNEY VOCAL HARMONIC SOCIETY. A Practise will take place at the School-room, Castlereagh-street, THIS EVENING, at half-past eight o'clock. JOSEPH DYER, Honorary Secretary.

SYDNEY PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY. Those gentlemen who have offered their services at the Sydney University Festival are requested to meet THIS EVENING, at Seven o'clock, at the Exchange Room, to practice the music to be performed on that occasion. JOSEPH DYER, Honorary Secretary.

Sydney volunteer bands

Sydney Volunteer Rifles Band (Band of the First Batallion of Volunteer Rifles, Sydney)

Formed Sydney, NSW, December 1860


George Douglas CALLEN (first master)

William STANLEY (South Sydney company)


Mr. Dennis, cornet

Mr. Arthur Stacey, cornet

Mr. Benjamin Waters, violin

Mr. P. M. Moore, flute

Mr. J. Beaumont, flute

Mr. J. Hasker, cornet

Mr. Davison, piccolo or flute

Mr. D. Shaw, cornet

Mr. G. Eginton, baritone sax horn

Mr. E. Conroy, flute

Mr. E. Turner, concertina

Mr. P. Williams, violin

Mr. Horan, cornet

Mr. G. McKinnon, flagelet

Mr. Henry Webb, triangle

Mr. Ham, cornet

Mr. Ham, sax-tuba

Mr. H. Jones, French horn

Mr. Brodie, drum

Mr. Edmonstore, French flute

Mr. McKenzie, hautboy

Mr. Nicholas Nelson, flute

Mr. Devlin, basso.


Mr. Leahy, bass trombone

Mr. G. Wright, bassoon

Mr. Thomas Quinn, side drum

Mr. James Wilson, clarionet

Mr. T. Gill, bombardon

Mr. M. McMahon, clarionet

Mr. Morgan, trombone

Mr. Metcalfe, clarionet

Mr. Lombe, French horn

2 Messrs. Taylor, cornets

Mr. Crew, sax horn

Mr. Pearson, piccolo

Mr. J. Palmer, flute.


[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (17 December 1860), 1

BAND FOR THE ARTILLERY AND RIFLE VOLUNTEERS.- Those persons who have forwarded their names for a Band are requested to meet Mr. DOUGLAS CALLEN, the Provisional Director, at the Volunteer Office, Hyde Park, on TUESDAY next, the:i8tb instant, at 7 o'clock p.m. By order, WILLIAM FORDE, honorary secretary. 14th December.

"WEEKLY REGISTER", Empire (22 December 1860), 5

Mr. Douglas Callen, bandmaster of the 12th Regiment, has been appointed temporary director of the band now in process of formation by the Volunteer Rifles.

"THE VOLUNTEER BAND", Empire (28 December 1860), 5

A meeting of persons favourable to joining the Volunteer Rifles Band was held at the offices Hyde Park, yesterday evening. The band master of the 12th Regiment, Mr. Douglas Callan, was in attendance to test the qualifications of the different candidates. The names of the following amateurs were taken down:

Mr. Dennis, cornet; Mr. Arthur Stacey, cornet: Mr. Benjamin Walters, violin; Mr. P. M. Moore, flute; Mr. J. Beaumont, flute; Mr. J. Hasker, cornet; Mr. Davison, piccolo or flute; Mr. D. Shaw, cornet; Mr. G. Eginton, baritone sax horn . Mr. E. Conroy, flute; Mr. E. Turner, concertina; Mr. P. Williams, violin; Mr. Horan, cornet; Mr. G. McKinnon, flagelet; Mr. Henry Webb, triangle; Mr. Ham, cornet; Mr. Ham, sax-tuba; Mr. H. Jones, French horn; Mr. Brodie, drum; Mr. Edmonstore, French flute; Mr. McKenzie, hautboy; Mr. Nicholas Nelson, flute; and Mr. Devlin, basso.

The following names have been taken down as paid members:

Mr. Leahy, bass trombone; Mr. G. Wright, bassoon; Mr. Thomas Quinn, side drum; Mr. James Wilson, clarionet; Mr. T. Gill, bombardon; Mr. M. McMahon, clarionet; Mr. Morgan, trombone; Mr. Metcalfe, clarionet; Mr. Lambe, French horn; two Messrs. Taylor, cornets; Mr. Crow, sax horn; Mr. Pearson, piccolo; Mr. J. Palmer, flute.

The paid members, who are to be 16 in number, must have a knowledge of music; the amateurs either have a knowledge of music or will receive instruction. The collection of names as above would appear a preliminary stop, as Mr. Callan will have to report to the band committee before anything definite can be done.

"THE VOLUNTEER MOVEMENT", The Sydney Morning Herald (21 March 1861), 9

. . . on this occasion, too, the band of the Rifles made its debut. It was intended from the first to make this band superior in numbers and musical talent to any other in the colony, and as this would involve a heavy expense, subscriptions were invited towards that object. Just at the time, however, there was the intercolonial cricket match to provide for, and the Anniversary regatta, which must have affected the subscription list considerably; but the Government promised to place the sum of £300 on the Estimates towards supplementing private donations, and on the faith of this the committee proceeded to engage the services of a director (who was also instructed to engage sixteen professionals, who would receive pay for their services). Mr. Callen was the gentleman chosen as director, and he set to work in organising the paid nucleus. A number of amateurs at once volunteered to join the professionals, several of whom were excellent players on suitable instruments, while others who had a knowledge of music yet performed on those altogether unsuited for a military band. These latter were advised by Mr. Callen to form themselves into a class for the purpose of acquiring proficiency on the instruments which could be made available; and having done so, the members of the band will shortly be augmented to the number of about thirty-five or forty. They have been practising piivately for some time past, and on Saturday last the Volunteers who proceeded to the Balmain presentation of colours had the satisfaction of being headed by their own band, wearing the uniform of the corps, towards the support of this band the various companies have consented to subscribe in proportion to their strength.

"THE VOLUNTEERS OF NEW SOUTH WALES", The Sydney Morning Herald (21 August 1861), 6

"VOLUNTEER BANDS. To the Editor", The Sydney Morning Herald (13 November 1861), 8

"BOTANIC GARDENS", Empire (20 Decemeber 1862), 8


"BOTANIC GARDENS", The Sydney Morning Herald (21 April 1863), 13

"THE BAND . . .", The Sydney Morning Herald (31 October 1863), 5 


Douglas Callen: Manly Beach galop (as performed by the band of the 1st Battalion Sydney Volunteer Rifles) (Sydney: Messrs Wilkie Elvy & Co., [1863])

William Stanley: The N.S.W. Volunteer Rifles quick march (dedicated to the Volunteer Rifles, South Sydney Company) (Sydney: J. R. Clarke, 1863)

Synagogue music (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


Tanunda Band and Liedertafel

Tasmanian Band (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Tattersall's (Melbourne venue)'s+Melbourne (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Tattersall's Horse Bazaar, Melbourne, S.T.G. 1853

Tattersall's Horse Bazaar, Melbourne, John Black, proprietor, S.T.G. (Melbourne: J. S. Campbell & Co. litho., [1853]) (DIGITISED)



Among the large, important, and useful public buildings which indicate the rapid progress of Melbourne, and to which we deem it out duty from time to time to call the attention of the readers of the Argus, we know of none which better deserves a notice, either for size, cost or utility, than the premises were are about to describe, - the premises to be known hereafter as the Melbourne Tattersall's, or John Black's Horse and Cattle Bazaar. They are situate in Lonsdale-street, east, nearly opposite the Hospital; run through, like the Arcade, to Little Bourke-street, and cover an acre of ground. They are used as an hotel, livery stables, auction mart, cattle-yeads, coach-house, warehouse for vehicles, &c. . . .

"ELLIS'S MONSTER CONCERT", The Argus (29 November 1853), 5 

A very numerous assembly collected at Tattersall's on Saturday evening on the occasion of Mr. Ellis's first concert, in the great ball-room . . .It must be observed, that for singing so large a building is ill adapted, as the sound so widely diffused, becomes lost to all except those near the orchestra, especially when the singer's voice is not powerful. But for energetic orchestral pieces, which indeed form usually the chief attraction to the visitors to promenade concerts, the place is a capital one. The Exhibition Quadrilles have never been so well produced on this side of the line; the rich volume given to the La Marseillaise, Partant pour la Syria, and Mourir pour la Patrie, carried the hearer back to the epochs of French history, which gave birth to these soul stirring airs. The clarionet duet by Mr Johnson and Mr. Berrey [sic], and the cornet solo by Signor Maffei, were capital . . .

"TATTERSALL'S", The Banner (30 December 1853), 10 

The first, of the concerts to be given at the above building took place last night. Madame Carrandini was the only vocalist: but she alone, with her clear, powerful, and beautiful voice, well repaid our visit. Mr. Johnston, as conductor, showed much taste in the selection of his programme, and being well supported by his military band, produced a selection during the evening from "Sarbat Mater' [sic, Stabat mater, Rossini] with greater correctness than we have yet heard any similar production in this colony. We cordially wish the projector of these concerts every success.

GRAND CONCERT. - The second grand concert comes off at Black's Room this evening, and the series will terminate to-morrow. Madame Carandini, the prima donna of Australasia, and the Jenny Lind of Melbourne, is engaged on each occasion.

"PROFESSOR ANDERSON IN AUSTRALIA. TO THE EDITOR OF THE ERA", The Era [London, England] (12 September 1858), 10 (PAYWALL)

Theatre Royal, Melbourne, July 10th, 1858.
Sir, - A letter from your old friend, the Wizard, sent from the other end of the world, may not be unacceptable . . .
Continuing your course down Lonsdale-street, you come to what was originally Tattersall's Horse Bazaar, built by Mr. Black, more recently the Victorian Market, and at present the American Hippodrome of Messrs. Rowe and Marshall. It has been converted to the latter use within the last fortnight. Mr. Rowe made a large fortune in Melbourne some few years ago, but has arrived from California and New Zealand with his fortune to make over again. Unfortunately at the present moment he is on a sick bed with fever and delirium, the whole conduct of the business devolving on his partner, Mr. Marshall. The star rider is "Young Raffaelle," and the Clowns are Messrs. Henry Addams, De Vere, and Yeamans. They crossed the Pacific in a ship of their own, and brought James Hernandez with them, who is looking as well as when I last saw him in London. Ha has seceded, however, from their company, through some misunderstanding, and rumour states that he is about to open with Mr. Black at the Princess's, after Miss Stanley's engagement.

Taungurung (Indigenous people, also Daung Wurrung) (Goulburn and Broken River area, VIC) (Wikipedia)

ASSOCIATIONS: Betsy Benalla Banfield (Taungurung woman, amateur musician)

Teetotal bands (also Temperance bands) (generic)

Temperance Hall (Russell-street, Melbourne, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Temperance Hall (Pitt-street, Sydney, NSW) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Opened 19 April 1859

ASSOCIATIONS: Benjamin Such Mountcastle (founder)

Temperance Hall, Pitt-street, November 1870; State Library of New South Wales

Temperance Hall, Pitt-street, November 1870; State Library of New South Wales (DIGITISED)


"THE TEMPERANCE HALL", Empire (15 July 1858), 2 

. . . The spot upon which the building is to be erected is in Pitt-street, opposite the Independent Chapel. The Hall will be 100 feet long, by 31 feet wide and 30 high, and will be constructed for the most part of iron and glass: the side walls will be of brick; the front will be an imitation on a small scale of the transept of the Crrystal Palace; the roof will be arched, and constructed of corrugated iron and glass . . .

"OPENING OF THE TEMPERANCE HALL", The Sydney Morning Herald (20 April 1859), 4 

"TEMPERANCE HALL, PITT-STREET", The Sydney Morning Herald (13 December 1884), 15 

Terpsichorean Hall (Melbourne, VIC)

Opened 1853 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"TERPSICHOREAN HALL", The Argus (12 August 1853), 9 

Crowther's Assembly rooms, under this classical designation, were opened with a public ball on Wednesday night. The hall is of considerable size, and very tastefully decorated and lighted. Nearly a hundred persons were present at the opening ball, which passed off with great spirit and propriety, the company being decorous and respectable. Mr. Chapman's excellent quadrille-band kept Terpsichore alive till daylight did almost appear, when the party broke up highly delighted with their evening's amusement.

ASSOCIATIONS: Frederick Crowther (proprietor); George Chapman (musician)

[Advertisement], The Argus [Melbourne, VIC] (19 August 1853), 8 

DANCING, Department and Drilling - Mr. Crowther has great pleasure in making known to his patrons and friends that he has at considerable expense made arrangements with the celebrated Mr. Henry Seconde, lately arrived from England and Paris, and many years at her Majesty's Theatre and instructor to the principal nobility in London, &c.
Mr. Seconde brings with him every novelty, and will attend daily at the Terpsichorean Rooms to give instruction to adults of both sexes.
Mr. Seconde will hold weekly a Juvenile academy for the higher classes.
Private families and schools attended at their own houses, if required, at any hour.
Terms and all particulars known at the Terpsichorean Rooms, Collins-street, east, between Russell and Stephen-streets.
Stage pupils will find every advantage from Mr. Seconde's long experience at her Majesty's Theatre . . .
TERPSICHOREAN HALL. -The respectable community or Melbourne wishing to spend a pleasant evening, can do so by patronising their old friend and caterer for their amusement, at his unequalled Saloon, Great Collins-street, east. FRED. CROWTHER.

ASSOCIATIONS: Henry Seconde (dancing master)

Theatre Freemasons Tavern (Hobart) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Theatre Royal (Adelaide, SA)

Opened Adelaide Tavern, Franklin-street, 1838 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Theatre Royal (Ballarat, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Theatre Royal (Bendigo, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Theatre Royal (Castlemaine, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Theatre Royal (Geelong, VIC) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Theatre Royal (Hobart)

Opened Hobart, TAS, 1856 (rebuilding of Royal Victoria Theatre) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Theatre Royal (Launceston)

Opened Launceston, TAS, 1857 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Theatre Royal, Launceston

Theatre Royal, Launceston


"NEW LAUNCESTON THEATRE", Launceston Examiner (21 August 1856), 2 

A meeting of the shareholders in the new theatre was held at the Cornwall Hotel last night . . . The plan assimilated in several respects to that of the Haymarket Theatre, in London . . . In the new plan the theatre was made to hold 700 . . . Mr. William Henry Clayton explained the new plans . . . In reply to Mr. Sharp sen., Mr. Clayton said there were six private boxes provided for. In reply to Mr. Sharp, jun., Mr. Clayton said the orchestra was the same size as the Haymarket . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: William Henry Clayton (architect); William and Thomas Sharp (musicians)

Theatre Royal (Bourke-street east, Melbourne, VIC)

First partially opened Melbourne, VIC, by December 1854; fully opened July 1855 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony),_Melbourne (Wikipedia)

ASSOCIATIONS: John Melton Black (investor, proprietor); Frederic Bayne (investor, proprietor)


[Advertisement], The Argus (16 October 1854), 7 

"BOXING DAY. PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS", The Argus (27 December 1854), 5

PROMENADE CONCERT AT THE THEATRE ROYAL. - The second of the series of Promenade Concerts at the new theatre, Bourke-street east, was very well attended, and all present manifested their approval of the entertainment. Mr. Peck is the manager, and M. Bial the conductor. The former performed a violin solo by Mayseder, and the latter a fantasia on the pianoforte, by Thalberg. Both were much admired. Mons. Coulon, Miss Hamilton, and Miss Stewart, were the vocalists of the evening.

[Advertisement], The Argus (9 July 1855), 8

Grand Opening of THE THEATRE ROYAL, Bourke-street.
ON MONDAY NEXT, JULY 10th. Under the Sole Manangement of MR. JOHN BLACK.
Orchestra, Mr. B. Thom - Conductor;
Herr Strebinger - Leader; Messrs. King and Radford - 1st violins;
Messrs. Moore and King - 2nd do.; Messrs, Thomas and Pring - Tenors;
Mr. Gover - Double bass; Herr Berry [sic] - Bass tubo [sic];
Mr. Creed Royal - Flute; Herr Lundberg - Clarionet;
Mr. Johnson - Oboe; Herrs Kohler and Schultz - Horns;
Messrs. Prinz and Stewart - Cornets;
Mr. Elsey - Timpani; Mr. Murphy - Side Drum . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Bream Thom (conductor, violin); Frederick Strebinger (violin, leader); Edward King and one of his brothers (violins); one of the Radford brothers (violin); Andrew Moore (violin); Herbert Thomas (viola); Henry Barman Gover (double bass); Charles Berg (tuba); Creed Royal (flute); John William Lundborg (clarinet); Henry Johnson (oboe); Franz Kohler (horn); Henry Prince (cornet); Edward Stewart (cornet); Robert Ilsey (timpani); John Melton Black (manager); Theatre Royal (MeLbourne venue)

"OPENING OF THE THEATRE ROYAL", The Argus (16 July 1855), 5 

This splendid Theatre will be opened to the public this evening for the first time . . . The National Anthem will precede the other performances, and, in order to give every effect to it, Mrs. Testar has been engaged for the solos, and the chorus will include the whole of the company, upwards of a hundred persons. The band will be on a very efficient scale, both as to numbers and individual ability, - the names of Thom, Strebinger, Creed Royal, Berg, Lundberg, Johnson, &c., being powerful evidence of the latter . . .

"THEATRE ROYAL", The Argus (19 July 1855), 5

The occupation of our columns yesterday by the European intelligence which arrived by the White Star, necessitated the holding over of an account we had prepared of the inauguration on Monday evening of the Theatre Royal . . . The orchestra has been well organised by Mr. Thom, and its members consist of the 'pick' of our colonial instrumentalists. The overture to "Der Freischutz" was splendidly rendered, and the selection from the "Lucia di Lammermoor" was also very finely played, the performance in the latter of the fine melody of "Fra Poco," by Messrs. Berg and Prince, the former on the tuba basso, and the latter on the cornet-a-piston, being especially worthy of remark. The noble march in the "Prophete" was also splendidly given, and even better when repeated the next evening. It is very certain that the orchestral performances at this establishment will form a most attractive item in the programme . . .

[Advertisement], The Argus (21 December 1855), 8 

MRS. THOM to the undersigned Ladies and Gentlemen of the Theatrical and Musical Profession in Melbourne. Ladies and Gentlemen, - I cannot leave this city without offering you my very sincere thanks for the handsome testimonials of your esteem and regard with which you have presented me . . .
[orchestra members ] J. Lavenu, F. Strebinger, F. Coppin, H. Berg, Sundborg [Lundborg], Prinz, E. D. King, A. Moore, H. Johnson, H. Kohler, H. B. Gover, P. Thomas, Hurierbein [Huenerbein], Kohler, A. Plock, J. Murrell, G. Naughton, R. Ilsay . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Eliza Thom (actor, wife of Bream); Frederick Coppin (violin); August Christian Huenerbein (musician); Adam Plock (musician); John Murrell (musician); George Naughton (musician)

"PROFESSOR ANDERSON IN AUSTRALIA. TO THE EDITOR OF THE ERA", The Era [London, England] (12 September 1858), 10 (PAYWALL)

Theatre Royal, Melbourne, July 10th, 1858.
Sir, - A letter from your old friend, the Wizard, sent from the other end of the world, may not be unacceptable . . .

And now a word about the Theatre Royal, and what it is like. It stands near the angle made by the junction of Bourke-street and Swanston-street, in the best part of the town - Bourke-street leading up to the Parliament Houses and Swanston-street down to Princess-bridge, by which you cross the Yarra-Yarra river to go to St. Kilda, the fashionable suburb of Melbourne. The Theatre Royal was built by Mr. John Black, and is now in the possession of Mr. George Coppin, who bought the lease about two years ago. The facade in Bourke-street is bold, without pretending to much elegance. There is no portico, but half a dozen Tuscan columns run up from the basement to the architrave. Entering by a large gateway in the Centre you find yourself in a vast hall, covered with an iron roof; on each aide of it are large American bars, at which, if you are going to the pit or stalls, you may "nobblerize" if you please. Before you are three doors, leading respectively to the upper circle, pit, and stalls. Round the hall, between these doors, leading to the drinking bars, are large advertising boards, painted in oil, very much like those you see on the Crystal Palace Railway at Sydenham, and for the exposition of which in this hall the advertisers have to pay pretty handsomely, each board bringing in £100 per annum, so that advertising, it will be seen, is by no means behindhand as a profitable art in this "great country."

Above the bars, and over the gateway by which you enter, is the Cafe de Paris, containing a salon for dining far superior in decoration and appointments to any I know of among the restaurants of London, and a coffee and smoking-room fitted up with as much taste and elegance as you will meet with in Paris. The Cafe de Paris is a new enterprise of two very speculative and go-a-head gentlemen, Messrs. Spiers and Pond, the latter not by any means unknown as a good fellow in London. You may dine here in as much style as anywhere "at home," and he served with a cut from a hot joint, wheeled to you on a table with castors, just as at Simpson's in the Strand. From the coffee-room, with its marble tables, its velvet-covered lounges, and its French waiters, you may if you like pass into the dress circle of the theatre; but, instead of doing so, let us pass down stairs into the street, and go round to the stage door. We shall find it in Little Bourke-street - the China of this southern world; knowing that the stage-door is in it, and looking up it, you might on a first impression fancy that all the "properties" of the theatre have been turned out to decorate the street. Gaudily-painted signs in green and gold, with pieces of scarlet drapery dangling beside them, decorate the narrow and ill-paved street on each side. They seem at first sight to be the disjecta membra of some gorgeous eastern spectacle which they have just "been doing" at the Royal. They are, however, the business notifications of John Chinaman, who stands at his door in his Chinese costume, smokes his long pipe, and looks at you with a stolid look as you pass up the street to the theatre.

Pushing open a door in a wall you find yourself in a yard at the rear of "The Royal." To your left is a large circular tank, very deep, and partially filled with black, poisonous-looking water, in which a hundred or two empty beer-bottles are floating. This is what was intended to hold the gasometer for the supply of gas to the theatre. Now, pass through the low dark, dark door in the corner to your right, mount a few steps to your left, and you are on the stage of the largest and finest theatre in Australia. And a gloriously fine stage it is, looking quite as large as that of Drury-lane. Walk down to the footlights and take a look, of the house. It is slightly dingy, I grant, but the decorations in white and gold, which Mr. Pitt is preparing for it, will soon make it as gay and beautiful as "The Royal" at Liverpool. In size it can be compared with Drury-lane and Covent-garden only. It will accommodate easily from 3,500 to 4,000 people, and it is by no means uncommon to see it thoroughly filled. The present usual prices of admission are: - Dress circle, 5s.; upper circle and stalls, 4s.; pit, 2s. 6d.; and gallery, 1s. Its form is very like that of the City Theatre which I erected on Glasgow-green. Indeed, it was built on the same model and by the same carpenter. On the stage I meet all old faces. There are Mrs. Vickery and Mr. R. Younge; and attending the rehearsal are Mr. and Mrs. F. Younge; Messrs. Hoskins, of Sadler's Wells; Mr. Lambert, once of the Haymarket and Adelphi; and one or two others. Mr. Brogden, whilome of Drury-lane, is property man; while the gas-man not long since received salary from Mr. Backstone at the Haymarket. Some of the ladies of the ballet, too, were in my corps at Covent-garden, and everybody and everything appears familiar. I can hardly believe that I have been three months on the sea, that England is nearly half the globe's circuit from me, and that this is a new world. From all I see it might be as old as anything that I have left. Only when I see boys who would with difficulty have found threepence for the gallery of the Victoria at home, pay their half-crown carelessly to the pit here, and when I see a man in a cabbage-tree hat, whom in England I should have thought a day labourer at 3s. 6d. a day, pay his eight shillings for himself and wife to enter the stalls, I find that I am not in the old country; nor in England, but in a place the like of which the world does not contain, and that place, Melbourne . . .

George Coppin (in tall hat) in the Marble Bar in the Theatre Royal, Melbourne, 1861 [picture] / Talma

[Advertisement], The Argus (21 May 1862), 8 

THEATRE ROYAL. - Notice - The MEMBERS of the grand ORCHESTRA will MEET on the stage at 12 o'clock THIS DAY (Wednesday.)
Wanted, some first-class Musicians.

Sunday services, old Theatre Royal, Melbourne [picture] 

Theatre Royal (Sydney)

Operational Sydney, NSW, by c. July 1832; active to 1838; destroyed by fire, 1840 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"THEATRICALS", The Australian (13 July 1832), 3 

[Playbill], Theatre Royal, Sydney, 26 December 1832; State Library of New South Wales

[Playbill], Theatre Royal, Sydney, 26 December 1832; State Library of New South Wales (DIGITISED)

[Advertisement], The Sydney Herald (4 May 1835), 3

. . . The Company engaged for the ensuing Season consist of Messrs. Simmons, Knowles, Mackay, Buckingham, Winters, Peat, Dyball, Simes, Lane, Fitzgerald, Oxberry, and Master S. Jones; Mesdames Taylor, Jones, Mackay, Larra, and Misses Douglass and Winstanley . . . The Lessees have succeeded in engaging all the first-rate Musical Talent in Sydney to form their Orchestra, which consists of the following gentlemen: Leader of the Band, Mr, Clarke; Violins, Messrs. Spyers, Johnson, Dyer, and Scott; principal Flute, Mr. Stubbs; Violoncello and Grand Piano Forte, Mr. Cavendish; Clarionets, Messrs. Turner and Sharp; Bassoons, Messrs. Hoare and Ball; Bugle, Mr. Pappin; Drums, Mr. Vaughan . . . The Musical Department will be considerably improved, and under the direction of Mr. CAVENDISH . . .

Thursday Concerts (Mechanics' Insitution, Melbourne)

Long-running weekly concert series, c. 1850-53 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Tilke's City Concert Hall (Tilke's City Hotel, Melbourne)'s+City+Concert+Hall+Melbourne (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: William Tilke (proprietor)

Tonic sol fa (system, in Australia)

ASSOCIATIONS: Robert Napoleon Bullen (active Perth, WA, 1861)

Toogood's Saloon (Sydney, NSW)'s+Saloon (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: Alfred Toogood (proprietor)

Totten's Harmoneons (Totten's Serenaders)

Founded Melbourne, VIC, April 1854, by Elbert Totten (non-performer, manager)
Arrived Adelaide, SA, September 1854; dissolved by end of 1854; some of the performers depart January 1855 for Mauritius as New York Serenaders's+Harmoneons (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

PERSONNEL: J. O. Pierce (member); James Edward Kitts (member); Frederick Dixon (member, ? VIC only); J. C. Lee (member); Ben F. Baker (member); John Clark (member); Mark Thayer (member)


[Advertisement], The Argus [Melbourne, VIC] (1 June 1854), 8 

CRITERION HALL, Great Collins-street.
Thursday Evening, June 1st, 1854.
Unrivalled Success of TOTTEN'S HARMONEONS.
Under the Patronage of the Mayor of Melbourne . . .
John Hodgson, Esq., M.L.C., Mayor of Melbourne, and other distinguished guests.
Grand Family Night. The Harmoneons in White Faces! Another Great Hit.
MR. BAKER, As Miss Lucy Long, has met with the approbation of the crowds who have witnessed his performances.
PART I. With White Faces.
Opening Glee - The sun's gay beams, (from Weber's Eurianthe) - Kitts, Pierce, Thayer and Dixon.
Song and Chorus - She's seen when the vapors of morn arise, (Music from The Enchantress,) - Kitts and Company.
Quartette - Napoleon's Grave - Thayer, Dixon, Pierce, and Kitts.
Fantasia - Concertina, with pianoforte accompaniment by Thayer - Pierce.
Glee - To Greece we give our shining blades - Pierce, Kitts, Thayer, and Dixon.
Comic Song - Thayer.
An Interval of Ten Minutes.
PART II. Ethiopian.
Overture - Wrecker's Daughter - Full Band.
Ever be happy (Music from the Enchantress) - Company.
Fire down below - Pierce.
Farewell to Old Tennessee - Dixon.
How do, John? - Thayer.
Uncle Tom's Cabin Home - Kitts.
Lynchburg Town - Baker.
Duet - Come to the Old Gum Tree - Pierce & Kitts.
Poor Uncle Tom - Dixon.
Oh! Lemuel - Thayer.
Finale to Part Second, Trio - The Darkey Schoolmaster - Kitts, Pierce, and Thayer.
Solo - Flutina - Pierce.
Solo - Banjo - Clark.
To conclude with the Laughable Negro Extravaganza, entitled
Mr. Ned Swizzle, proprietor of a show shop - Thayer.
Jim, a sweeper of the floor, and a philosopher on dust, water, &c. - Pierce.
Mr. Johnson, a violin player who understands catching flies - Baker.
Bones, a would be philosopher - Lee.
Pete Snooks, a bill-sticker who understands what bill-sticking is - Pierce.
Mr. Smithers, conductor of the band, and a member of No. 2 - Lee.
Lamplighter - Clark.
Mademoiselle Lucy Long - Baker.
Audience, check-takers, apple dealers, &c., by a host of auxiliaries.
Musical Director - Mr. J. O. Pierce . . .
E. TOTTEN, Manager.

"Shipping Intelligence. ARRIVED", The Perth Gazette and Independent Journal of Politics and News [WA] (22 December 1854), 2 

On the 14th instant, the barque Eleanor, Cook, master, from Adelaide bound to Mauritius, put in leaky. Pasengers - Captain and Mrs. Robinson, Messrs. Lee, Kitts, Thayer, Baker, Clark and M. Tomson.

Tourist Band (VIC)

Active Melbourne and VIC, from 1859

ASSOCIATIONS: The younger Wirth brothers circus band later (c. 1879) described themselves as the "tourist band", and it is not inconceivable that the 1859 tourist band was that of the elder Wirth brothers, who may well have been recently arrived from England at the time

Town Band (Adelaide)

Active from 1848

Town Band (Sydney)

Active, by c.1840; from 1842 became City Band (Sydney)

Toy theatres (subject) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Orchestra for a toy theatre, E. Skelt, London, c. 1840s

Orchestra for a toy theatre, original uncoloured print, E. Skelt (Edmund Skelt), London, 1860s, ? from older plates, c. 1840s (courtesy Will Kimble, Trombone History) (DIGITISED)

On the Skelt family, see here: (DIGITISED)


[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (6 November 1848), 4 

MR. GEORGE A. LLOYD Will sell by auction, at the City Mart, THIS DAY, MONDAY, At eleven o'clock.
ONE CASE TOYS - Theatres, assorted sizes, basket cradles, rattles, feather dusters, dolls, &c. . . .
Terms Cash.

[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (18 May 1850), 1 

JUST RECEIVED, an assortment of ivory, bone, and wood chessmen; chess tables and boards;
backgammon, cribbage, roulette, and fox-and-geese boards; games of the mill;
teetotum games, comprising the travellers of Europe, ditto of England and Wales, an eccentric visit to the Chinese empire, and the Funnyshire fox chase;
gold and plain back playing cards and counters; dice and cups; dominoes and puzzles;
drawing boxes; an apparatus to stereometry; knitting, netting, and crotchet needles, books, and fitted reticules;
embroidery frames; magic lanterns and toy theatres; Noah's arks; building bricks and dissected maps and puzzles;
superior French accordeons, flutes, flageolets, and violin strings.
Also, One case of good English fireworks, at
J. F. READ'S, Fancy Bazaar, 151, Elizabeth-street.

"BRITISH INTELLIGENCE", South Australian Register (29 June 1850), 4 

The metropolitan correspondent of the Chronicle describes a visit to the original inventor of theatrical prints and of toy theatres. "Some theayters I made," said the mechanic, "came to as much as £20 a-piece. I have made about four of them, I think, in my life-time. They was fitted up with very handsome fronts - generally 'liptic harch fronts, built all out of wood, with ornaments all over it - and they had machinery to move the side wings on and off; the lamps in front, to rise and fall with machinery; and side lamps to turn on and off to darken the stage, and trick sliders to work the characters on and change the pantomime tricks; and then there was machinery to make the borders rise and fall as well, and cut traps to open for the scenery to go up and down through the stage. The "Miller and his Men" has sold better than any other play I ever published. I wore out a whole set of copper plates of that there. I must have sold at least five thousand of that play, all complete. It's the last scene, with the grand explosion of the mill, as pleases the young 'uns uncommon. Some on 'em greases the last scene with butter - that gives a a werry good effect with a light behind; but warnish is best - I can't abear butter. Some of them explosions we has made in woodwork, and so arranged that the mill can fly to pieces; they comes to about 4s. 6d. a-piece. The next most taking play out of my shop has been "Blue Beard." That the boys like for the purcession over the mountains - a coming to take Fatima away - and then there's the blue chamber with the skelingtons in it - that's werry good too - and has an uncommon pretty effect with a little blue fire, though it in general sets all the haudience a sneezing."

Treemont Minstrels (troupe)

Minstrel serenader troupe

Active Sydney, NSW, March to May 1857 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Trinity church (Old Trinity church, Penitentiary church, Hobart) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Trinity church (Holy Trinity church, Hobart)
Trinity Amateur Ringing Association (Trinity Church, Hobart)

Hobart, VDL (TAS), from 1847 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Bell tower, Trinity Church, Hobart; foundation stone laid October 1841; from a stereo photograph, c. 1865; Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office (DIGITISED)


[Advertisement], Colonial Times (3 August 1847), 1 

THE Undersigned having promised to do all in his power to form a COMPANY of RINGERS for the new Bells in Trinity Church Belfrey, will feel obliged by the attendance at his house on Tuesday evening, the 10th of August, at 7 o'clock, of those who are desirous of assisting in such an object as Ringers.
W. CHAMPION. Jolly Hatters,
Melville-street, July 30, 1847.

"BELLS AND BELL-RINGING", The Courier (7 August 1847), 2 

We have before observed that the bells which have arrived for Trinity Church were cast at the manufactory of Messrs. Mears and Co., of Whitechapel, and have hinted at the celebrity they have attained in the trade . . . We now refer to the peal intended to gladden the hearts of our citizens. We believe that upwards of two hundred pounds have been subscribed to hang them, and that preparations are being made to carry out the object. Additional sums are required, and we doubt not but the liberality of our citizens will readily furnish them. Meantime, Mr. Champion, an experienced ringer, is endeavouring to raise a troupe of artists. From his abilities, we augur that the first peal will have an electrifying effect in the bosoms of the population. Happy may the bride be whose nuptials are first announced in a merry, joyous, wedding peal!

ASSOCIATIONS: William Champion (bellringer)

"THE CHURCH BELLS OF ST. TRINITY", The Courier (4 December 1847), 2 

[Advertisement], The Britannia and Trades' Advocate (24 February 1851), 3 

Amateur Bell-ringers' Society.
THE Committee of the above-named Association beg leave to inform the public that their evenings for practice are fixed for Tuesdays and Fridays.
Any person wishing to become a member can obtain every information on application to,
W. Armstrong, Secretary, 51, Campbell-street. February 21, 1851.

"AMATEUR BELL RINGING", Hobarton Guardian, or, True Friend of Tasmania (26 February 1851), 3 

In our advertising columns will be seen the announement of an Amateur Bell Ringer's Society, which has recently been established to ring the bells at Trinity Church; the Society, we understand, is willing to ring at weddings, in the evening of the wedding-day, for two guineas; and, as it comprises a sufficient number to ring the whole peal of eight bells, we may shortly expect to be treated with the full melody of the set. There are advantages, appertaining to this Society, which we think, will prove highly beneficial to the members; but for all particulars, we refer enquirers to Mr. Armstrong, the Secretary, 51, Campbell-Street.

"TASMANIAN BELL-RINGERS", The Tasmanian Colonist (25 December 1851), 2 

Last evening being Christmas Eve, and according to English custom, our city was enlivened by the sound of the Bells of Trinity Church pouring forth a merry peal to usher in the joyful season of Christmas.

"To the Editor of . . .", The Tasmanian Daily News (3 October 1855), 4 

SIR,- I consider myself to be a mild man. I am not given to violent bursts of temper. When I come down to breakfast minus my shirt buttons, I don't, as a general rule, smash the crockery, or tell Marianne I wish I'd never seen her face. And I assure you, Sir, I never use improper language under any circumstances except perhaps when I knock my shins against a chair in the dark. But notwithstanding my uniformly amiable and equal temper, there are limits to my endurance, and those limits have at length been reached. Sir, indignation is now weak and language powerless. My case is this, and horresco referens. There are some miserable and misguided - I will not at present say evil-disposed - persons who have, during the past three weeks, "at the instigation of the devil, and not having the fear of God before their eyes," thought fit nearly each day between the hours of 10 and 11 a.m. by pulling of certain ropes, and agitation of certain bells thereunto annexed, - such ropes and bells being supposed to exist and be in the belfry of Trinity Church, - to produce the most stupendously hideous noises it ever was the misfortune of any man to hear. Sir, my business compels me to sit up very late; I frequently cannot go to bed before 4 o'clock in the morning. "Phansy my feelinx," then, on being aroused each morning by this diabolical jingling. I would not say so much if these benighted bell-ringers knew the tunes they had to play, and if the bells themselves were sufficiently truly cast to produce the correct tone. Nay, I would perhaps bear it, if when once started, they would go on "right off the reel," and have done with it; but no, this they will not do. They are so confoundedly particular, that if they play a note wrong, and they invariably do so a dozen times in each tune, they must needs "hark back," and try - always ineffectually - to get it right; and then the hodge-podge of the airs, "There's na luck," and "Home sweet Home," followed up with "Warwick" and "Mount Ephraim"! Sir, one of two things must happen. Those bells must cease to play, or I and my anxious family to to exist. Life as now constituted is a burden. Tommy Plantagenet de Burgh my youngest, under the combined influence of this frantic bell-ringing and teething has had two most alarming fits, and Rose, the bull-terrier pup, has became mangy from mental agitation. My wife, poor girl, is becoming a pale and blighted thing, and I, Sir, - but enough; if you could, as Mr. Toots say, see the calves of my legs when I take off my boots at night, you might form some notion of what lacerated sensibility and outraged feelings are.
Yours, in frghtful discord.
2nd October, 1861.

"TOWN TALK", Tasmanian Morning Herald (12 September 1866), 5 

The bells of Trinity Church rang forth a merry peal yesterday afternoon in honor of the nuptials of our well-known and much esteemed fellow citizen, Mr. William Abbott (of the firm of Llewellyn, Roberts and Abbott, auctioneers.) We believe that Mr. Abbott has for many years past been one of the Bellringers Association, and his loss will be much felt by those who joined together to give him a tintinabulatory valediction.

ASSOCIATIONS: John William Abbott (bellringer); it is possible that this resport was merely a good-humoured joke, auctioneers being professionally notorious for their bell-ringers

"BELLS AND BELLRINGING", The Mercury (9 July 1887), 3 

Trinity (Garrison) Church (Sydney, NSW)

Tumut Vocal Harmonic Society

Tumut, NSW, 1860s (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Turon Minstrels

Sydney, NSW, 1851 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Tyrolese Minstrels

Active, by 1854 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


Union Hotel concert room (Bourke-street, Melbourne, VIC)


Varieties (The Varieties, music hall, Melbourne, VIC)

Opened December 1866 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


"THE VARIETIES", The Herald [Melbourne, VIC] (26 December 1866), 3 

Victoria Concert Hall (Victoria Theatre; Victoria Music Hall) (Bendigo, VIC, 1858-59) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Victorian Exhibition 1854-55 (Music at the Victoria Exhibition) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Victorian Musical Association (Melbourne, VIC, c. 1867-71; Victorian Association of Professional Musicians, 1870-71) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

The organisation was succeeded in 1876 by the newly formed Musical Association of Victoria, whose committee consisted of many of the same members; see [News], The Argus (5 July 1876), 5 

Victorian Volunteer Band (Band of the Victorian Volunteer Force, Melbourne, VIC, 1860-61) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Virginian Serenaders (troupe, VIC, 1855) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], Portland Guardian and Normanby General Advertiser (15 October 1855), 3 

[Advertisement], Portland Guardian and Normanby General Advertiser (14 December 1855), 2 supplement 

VIRGINIAN SERENADERS, Will make their appearance in Portland in a FEW DAYS,
Consisting of the following professional gentlemen:
MR. SEYMOUR, The much admired Violinist, from the Theatre Royal, Melbourne.
MR. LEE, The celebrated Banjoist, from Wood Minstrels, New York [? Wood's Minstrels].
MR. HARRINGTON, The much admired Concertinist.
MR. CARDORA [? Cardoza], The eccentric and never tired Bone Player, from New York.
MR. WEST, The celebrated Tambourinist and Juba Dancer . . .

ASSOCIATIONS: Mr. Seymour (violinist)

"VIRGINIAN SERENADERS", Portland Guardian and Normanby General Advertiser (20 December 1855), 3 

Volunteer bands (generic)


Welsh traditional music in colonial Australia
Welsh Eisteddfod (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Wesleyan churches (Music in Wesleyan churches; Methodist churches)

Wesleyan Sacred Choral Society (Wesleyan Choral Society; Sydney, NSW)

Formed 1854 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (9 June 1856), 1 

PRESIDENT - Rev. S. Rabone.
The first Public Meeting of this Society will take place
THIS EVENING, 9th June, at the Wesleyan Chapel,
York-street, at half-past 7 o'clock, when selections from Handel and other approved pieces will be sung.
Persons not being subscribers to this society can procure tickets - 2s. each; juveniles, 1s. -
on application to Mr. J. CALDWELL; or to Mr. J. G. CROUCH, toy bazaar, George-street; or Mr. BUIST, Bridge-street.
Although this infant society has been for nearly two years in almost utter obscurity, it has not failed in securing the patronage of a few friends of the Wesleyan body; but we do hope and expect friends and members of every Christian congregation will come and testify their approval of a society of this class, by a numerous attendance THIS EVENING; the sole object being the cultivation and advancement of Sacred Harmony, which is calculated to inspire the mind (if not abused) with the purest devotional feelings.

Western Australia (music in the colony of Western Australia)


"THE COLONY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA (From a Special Correspondent) PART FIRST", The Inquirer and Commercial News [Perth, WA] (26 October 1859), 3 

So many and conflicting reports about the Colony of Western Australia (at first known as the "Swan River Settlement") have been given to the public, that a correct statement of a few facts connected with it, and some remarks thereon, may not be unacceptable to our readers . . .
Although rarely visited by any of the theatrical stars that occasionally illumine the sister colonies, it possesses many means of rational amusement and recreation, suited as well for the healthy as the invalid. The inhabitants are particularly fond of music and amateur concerts are often given, especially when required to aid in furtherance of some good object . . .

West Maitland Volunteer Band (NSW)

Formed 1860 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

White's Rooms (Adelaide)

Opened June 1856's+Rooms+Adelaide (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

Wilkie, Webster, and Co. (Melbourne, VIC)
Wilkie, Webster, and Allan (Melbourne, VIC)
Wilkie, Kilner, and Co. (Melbourne, VIC)
Wilkie, Elvy, and Co. (Melbourne, VIC; Sydney, NSW)
Later Allan and Co.
Wilkie, Webster and Co., advertisement, Melbourne, VIC, 1868

Sands & McDougall's Melbourne and suburban directory for 1868 (Melbourne: Sands & McDougall, 1868), [2] (DIGITISED)

See also earlier iteration of the same engraving, from the catalogue of the 1866 Intercolonial Exhibition: (DIGITISED)

Windsor Band

Active Windsor, NSW, by 1822 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

[Letter], The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (5 April 1822), 3

To the Printer of the Sydney Gazette. SIR, You talk of the prevailing Sydney gaiety, but allow me to give you a description of our grand doings here, and at Richmond. On Monday evening, the 11th ult. WILLIAM BELL, Esq. of Bellmont, entertained a large party of Ladies and Gentlemen; the Windsor band attended; and the dance was led off to the tune of "Rivers, I am beyond your reach." On Wednesday following, WILLIAM COX, Esq., of Clarendon, invited a large party of his friends to celebrate the christening of his son, and closed the evening with a lively dance, to the tune of "The Golden Fleece" or "The Merino Breed is pure." On the Friday following, Windsor was a scene of barouches and four, crowded with Ladies, single-horse chaises, and horses with out-riders, until a late hour of the day, passing to Clifton Cottage, the residence of Captain BRABYN, where a sumptuous dinner was prepared; and in the evening a sprightly dance commenced, led off by Miss BRABYN, to the tune of "Speed the Plough" which was played by the Windsor band with animated glee. This entertainment was honored with the company of several Officers of His Majesty's ship Dauntless. The party did not break up until the splendid luminary of this lower world bade the husbandman repair to that labour which affords all the comforts of a friendly welcome and a country life. The visitors left Richmond and its neighbourhood with one general wish, that that part of the country might be blessed with continued plenty, and its inhabitants ever be rendered happy. Yours, &c, RECIFFOLAVAK.

While we cannot be sure of its membership (perhaps a mixture of army bandsmen from the Windsor Barracks and local amateurs), thanks to the correspondent we do know the names of some of the tunes it played. Rivers, I am beyond your reach, and The Golden fleece or The merino breed is pure both remain a mystery for the moment. And even though Speed the plough was almost ubiqutious, it is hard from this distance to be sure precisely what tune is referred to here. The English ballad God speed the plough was sung or played to the tune I am the Duke of Norfolk. Or, perhaps more likely, it was the Irish dance tune that took the name Speed the plough after it had been used in a stage play of that name by the Irish-born London professional musician and composer John Moorehead (d.1804), who published it in 1798 as The Favourite Dance introduced in the New Comedy called Speed the Plough . . . arranged as a Rondo for the Piano-forte. (John Field also wrote a rondo on Speed the Plough.)

The Windsor Band returns to the newspaper record 20 years later. At North Richmond on Boxing Day 1843, the Windsor Band was in attendance at the annual meeting of the St. Patrick's Total Abstinence Society. The proceeds of the day were, moreover, to be "devoted toward the establishment of a Society Band". Thereafter, the Windsor Band is noted from time to time for the rest of the 19th century, and in 1901 was being billed as the Windsor Brass Band.

Woolcott and Clarke (firm, Sydney, NSW)

Musicsellers, music publishers, general publishers, stationers, booksellers

Active Sydney, NSW, 1851-56 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)

ASSOCIATIONS: William Prout Woolcott (partner); Jacob Richard Clarke (partner)

Wurundjeri (Wurundjeri / Woiwurung peoples)

Melbourne area, VIC

See Billibellary (elder, songman); Simon Wonga (elder, songman); William Barak (elder, songman)

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© Graeme Skinner 2014 - 2023